Bengal is traditionally fixed as the typical locality for the binomial Panthera tigris, to which the British taxonomist Reginald Innes Pocock subordinated the Bengal tiger in 1929 under the trinomial Panthera tigris tigris. The Bengal tiger's coat is yellow to light orange, with stripes ranging from dark brown to black; the belly and the interior parts of the limbs are white, and the tail is orange with black rings. Male Bengal tigers have an average total length of 270 to 310 cm (110 to 120 in) including the tail, while females measure 240 to 265 cm (94 to 104 in) on average. The white tiger is a recessive mutant of the Bengal tiger, which is reported in the wild from time to time in Assam, Bengal, Bihar and especially from the former State of Rewa. Two tigers shot in Kumaon and near Oude at the end of the 19th century allegedly measured more than 12 ft (370 cm). In the beginning of the 20th century, a male Bengal tiger was shot in central India with a head and body length of 221 cm (87 in) between pegs, a chest girth of 150 cm (59 in), a shoulder height of 109 cm (43 in) and a tail length of 81 cm (32 in), which was perhaps bitten off by a rival male.
Bengal tigers are defined by three distinct mitochondrial nucleotide sites and 12 unique microsatellite alleles.
Over the past century tiger numbers have fallen dramatically, with a decreasing population trend. The challenge in the Western Ghats forest complex in western South India, an area of 14,400 square miles (37,000 km2) stretching across several protected areas is that people literally live on top of the wildlife. The most significant immediate threat to the existence of wild tiger populations is the illegal trade in poached skins and body parts between India, Nepal and China. The illicit demand for bones and body parts from wild tigers for use in Traditional Chinese medicine is the reason for the unrelenting poaching pressure on tigers on the Indian subcontinent. Between 1994 and 2009, the Wildlife Protection Society of India has documented 893 cases of tigers killed in India, which is just a fraction of the actual poaching and trade in tiger parts during those years. The Indian subcontinent has served as a stage for intense human and tiger confrontations.
In the Sundarbans, 10 out of 13 man-eaters recorded in the 1970s were males, and they accounted for 86% of the victims. Hybridisation among the big cats, including the tiger, was first conceptualised in the 19th century, when zoos were particularly interested in the pursuit of finding oddities to display for financial gain.
The liger is a cross between a male lion and a tigress. Because the lion sire passes on a growth-promoting gene, but the corresponding growth-inhibiting gene from the female tiger is absent, ligers grow far larger than either parent. Today, around the world, we are celebrating Nelson Mandela’s 94th birthday.  Mandela, known in South Africa by his beloved tribal name, “Madiba,” is one of the many heroes of a transformed South African nation and an international symbol of hope and inspiration. Teach With Africa’s 20 Teacher Training Fellows will be celebrating Mandela Day today in South Africa with learners and staff at the 7 different school sites in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo where they are volunteering their summer. Please consider making a donation in honor of Mandela’s legacy to support Teach With Africa’s education exchange program between South Africa and the USA.
Indochinese tigers live in secluded forests in hilly to mountainous terrain, the majority of which lies along the borders between countries.
According to government estimates of national tiger populations, the subspecies population numbers around a total of 350 individuals. In Vietnam, almost three-quarters of the tigers killed provide stock for Chinese pharmacies.
The tiger's numbers will be difficult to increase unless residents can view a live tiger as more valuable than a dead one.
The total population is estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals with a decreasing trend, and none of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within the Bengal tiger's range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 adult individuals.

But at the time, sportsmen had not yet adopted a correct system of measurement, some would measure between pegs while others would round the curves. This specimen could not be weighed, but it was calculated to weigh no less than 272 kg (600 lb).
However, the heaviest known tiger was a huge male killed in 1967 that weighed 388.7 kg (857 lb) and measured 322 cm (127 in) in total length between pegs, and 338 cm (133 in) over curves. The pattern of genetic variation in the Bengal tiger corresponds to the premise that they arrived in India approximately 12,000 years ago.
None of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within the Bengal tiger range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 individuals.
The Save the Tiger Fund Council estimates that 7,500 landless people live illegally inside the boundaries of the 386-square-mile (1,000 km2) Nagarhole National Park in southwestern India. The Forest Rights Act passed by the Indian government in 2006 grants some of India's most impoverished communities the right to own and live in the forests, which likely brings them into conflict with wildlife and under-resourced, under-trained, ill-equipped forest department staff. For at least a thousand years, tiger bones have been an ingredient in traditional medicines that are prescribed as a muscle strengthener and treatment for rheumatism and body pain. The region affording habitat where tigers have achieved their highest densities is also one which has housed one of the most concentrated and rapidly expanding human populations. These man-eaters have been grouped into the confirmed or dedicated ones who go hunting especially for human prey; and the opportunistic ones, who do not search for humans but will, if they encounter a man, attack, kill and devour him. They share physical and behavioural qualities of both parent species (spots and stripes on a sandy background). Male ligers are sterile, but female ligers are often fertile.
Today, Mandela Day is an international movement of good pioneered by champions across the globe. Its status is poorly known but the extent of its recent decline is serious, approaching the threshold for critically endangered.
No Indochinese tigers have been seen in China since 2007, and it is believed that the last specimen there was killed and eaten by a man now sentenced to twelve years' imprisonment for the crime.
The average male Indochinese tiger is approximately 2.74 m (9 ft) long and weighs about 181 kg (400 lb). The average female Indochinese tiger is approximately 2.44 m (8 ft) in length and weighs about 115 kg (253 lb). Entrance to these areas is frequently restricted and as of late biologists have been granted limited permits for field surveys. Some are starting to realize this and are hoping to use the tiger as a draw for ecotourism.
Its populations have been estimated at 1,706 – 1,909 in India, 440 in Bangladesh, 124–229 in Nepal and 67–81 in Bhutan.
Habitat losses and the extremely large-scale incidences of poaching are serious threats to the species' survival. A voluntary if controversial resettlement is underway with the aid of the Karnataka Tiger Conservation Project led by K.
At the beginning of the 19th century tigers were so numerous it seemed to be a question as to whether man or tiger would survive. In areas where opportunistic man-eaters were found, the killing of humans was correlated with their availability, most victims being claimed during the honey gathering season.Tigers in the Sunderbans presumably attacked humans who entered their territories in search of wood, honey or fish, thus causing them to defend their territories. Males have about a 50% chance of having a mane, but, even if they do, their manes will be only around half the size of that of a pure lion.

For this reason, comparatively little is known about the status of these big cats in the wild. In 2009 the last known wild Indochinese tiger in China was killed and eaten by nearby villagers from the village of Mengla. In 1980 and 1984, scientists captured and tagged two male tigers in Chitwan National Park that weighed more than 270 kg (600 lb). There are well-organised gangs of professional poachers, who move from place to place and set up camp in vulnerable areas. It became the official policy to encourage the killing of tigers as rapidly as possible, rewards being paid for their destruction in many localities.
The number of tiger attacks on humans may be higher outside suitable areas for tigers, where numerous humans are present but which contain little wild prey for tigers. In the following few years, 13 persons have been killed and eaten in the park and its environs. Ligers are typically between 10 to 12 feet in length, and can be between 800 and 1,000 pounds or more. Mandela’s example and inspire individuals to take action to make the world a better place, one small step at a time.
In such habitats tigers are forced to subsist on smaller prey, such as muntjac deer,porcupines, macaques and hog badgers. Skins are rough-cured in the field and handed over to dealers, who send them for further treatment to Indian tanning centres. Between 1999 and 2001, the highest concentration of tigers attacks on people occurred in the northern and western boundaries of the Bangladesh Sundarbans.
In the majority of cases, man-eating appeared to have been related to an intra-specific competition among male tigers.
Small prey by itself is barely sufficient to meet the energy requirements of a large carnivore such as the tiger, and is insufficient for tiger reproduction. Buyers choose the skins from dealers or tanneries and smuggle them through a complex interlinking network to markets outside India, mainly in China. Most people were attacked in the mornings while collecting fuel wood, timber, or other raw materials, or while fishing.
This factor, in combination with direct tiger poaching for traditional Chinese medicine, is the main contributor in the collapse of the Indochinese tiger throughout its range.
In the latter half of the 19th century, marauding tigers began to take a toll of human life. These animals were pushed into marginal habitat, where tigers had formerly not been known, or where they existed only in very low density, by an expanding population of more vigorous animals that occupied the prime habitat in the lowlands, where there was high prey density and good habitat for reproduction. The dispersers had no where else to go, since the prime habitat was bordered in the south by cultivation. They are thought to have followed back the herds of domestic livestock that wintered in the plains when they returned to the hills in the spring, and then being left without prey when the herds dispersed back to their respective villages. All suffered from some disability, mainly caused either by gunshot wounds or porcupine quills.

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