A series of web pages introduce core concepts and principles in medical ethics and the law.
John Williams produced a Medical Ethics Manual for medical students, published by the World Medical Association, 2005. Two groups (cohorts) are identified: one that received the exposure of interest, and one that did not.
A collation of all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria in order to answer a specific research question.


The 6S model (systems, summaries, synopses of synthesis, syntheses, synopses of single studies, and single studies) ranks levels of evidence according to degree of synthesis achieved, with the top levle of the pyramid corresponding to systems-level evidence forllowed by summaries (guidelines) and the bottom of the pyramid featuring the least synthesised evidence in the form of primary studies. Critical appraisal checklists provide a framework for interpreting and determining the reliability of the evidence. Not all studies retrieved in a search will be of the same quality and you will need to use to appraise your search results carefully. When searching the literature, try to find information as close to the top of this pyramid as possible.


A number of such hierarchies exist, typically these organise study designs in ascending order. As the study becomes more rigorous in nature the number of available studies becomes smaller.



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