Your biceps femoris is one of your hamstring tendons that connects directly to the back of you knee that becomes inflamed.
Gastrocnemius tendonitis is essentially swelling of the calf muscle point where it originates at the back of the knee. Your ACL is the ligament inside your knee that crosses from your shine bone to your thigh bone. Like the ACL, your PCL crosses over from your Thigh bone to your shin bone, hence why they’re called cruciate( cross-shaped) ligaments. Claudication is essentially cramping of legs with pain, which is cause by a lack of blood flowing through as your legs become tired. Osteoarthritis is the degenerative wear and tear of the cartilage over time inside the knee. Chondromalacia is when the cartilage underneath the kneecap starts to wear away and deteriorate from over exhausting movements of this area. Your meniscus is a crescent shaped piece of cartilage that sits on top of your shin bone, between your shin bone and thigh bone.
Based of these 11 factors, the most common cause of pain behind the knee is due to overuse of the knee joint. The way to treat knee pain is to use the RICE(rest, ice compression, elevation) method and to utilize over-the-counter paine medication to reduce pain and inflammation.
November 1, 2013In the article Bone Tumors - Differential diagnosis we discussed a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of bone tumors and tumor-like lesions. The differential diagnosis mostly depends on the age of the patient and the findings on the conventional radiographs. In this article we will discuss the differential diagnosis of sclerotic bone tumors and tumor-like lesions in more detail. In the table the most common sclerotic bone tumors and tumor-like lesions in different age-groups are presented. Fibrous dysplasia and eosinophilic granuloma more commonly present as osteolytic lesions, but they can be sclerotic. Notice that many benign osteolytic lesions that are frequently seen in younger age groups may heal and appear as sclerotic lesions in the middle aged group.
Another approach to the differential diagnosis of sclerotic bone lesions is to use the mnemonic I VINDICATE, which means 'I clear myself from accusation'.
The mnemonic I VINDICATE is a commonly used mnemonic for the differential diagnostis of any radiological lesion. Typical presentation: central lesion in metaphysis or diaphysis with a well defined serpentiginous border.
Causes: corticosteroid use, sickle cell disease, trauma, Gaucher's disease, renal transplantation. If the osteonecrosis is located in the epiphysis, the term avascular osteonecrosis is used. The radiograph shows typical bone infarcts in diaphysis and metaphysis of femur and tibia.. On MR imaging bone infarcts are characterized by irregulair serpentiginous margins with low signal intensity on both T1 and T2 WI and with intermediate to high fat signal in the center part. At the periphery of the infarct a zone of relative high signal intensity on T2WI may be found. Differentiating a bone infarct from an enchondroma or low-grade chondrosarcoma on plain films can be difficult or even impossible.
Cartilaginous tumors in particular chondrosarcoma may show endosteal scalloping, while a bone infarct does not. Benign lesion consisting of well-differentiated mature bone tissue within the medullary cavity. Typical presentation: well-defined osteolytic lesion in tarsal bone, patella or epiphysis of a long bone in a 20-year old with pain and swelling in a joint. Radiological hallmark: formation of a chondroid (cartilagenous) matrix, which presents as punctuated, stippled or popcorn-like calcifications. The chondroid matrix is of a variable amount from almost absent to dens compact chondroid matrix. Disappearane of calcifications in a pre-existing enchondroma should raise the suspicion of malignant transformation. There were other features that favored the diagnosis of a low-grade chondrosarcoma like a positive bone scan and endosteal scalloping of the cortical bone on an MRI (not shown). Here a 44-year old male with a mixed lytic and sclerotic mass arising from the fifth metacarpal bone.
T2-weighted axial MR image demonstrates high signal intensity of the tumor in the metacarpal bone with extension of a lobulated soft tissue mass.
Because of the large dimensions with soft tissue extension on plain radiograph and axial T2-weighted MR image, a high grade chondrosarcoma was suspected.
The sclerotic lesion in the humeral head could very well be a benign enchondroma based on the imaging findings. Symptoms are usually absent, however, in adult patients with a chondroid lesion in a long bone, particularly of larger size, always consider low-grade chondrosarcoma. Plain radiograph and coronal T1-weighted contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed MR image of a mixed lytic and sclerotic lesion of the distal femoral diaphysis. The homogeneous enhancement in the upper part with edema and cortical thickening are not typical for a low-grade chondrosarcoma.
Development in centrally located osteochondromas like the pelvis, hip and shoulder is most common.
Consider peripheral chondrosaroma in growing osteochondromas with or without pain after closure of the physeal plate.
Consider progression of osteohondroma to chondrosarcoma when cartilage cap measures > 10 mm.
A juxtacortical chondrosarcoma has be considered in the differential diagnosis when a mineralized lesion adjacent to the cortical bone is seen. Here a partially calcified mass against the proximal humerus with involvement of the cortical bone on an axial CT image. A periosteal chondroma may have the same imaging characteristics, however, these are almost always much smaller.
Plain radiograph in another patient shows irreglar mineralized lesion with elevation of the periosteum and cortical involvement. Enchondroma is a fairly common benign cartilaginaous lesion which may present as an entirely lytic lesion without any calcification, as a dense calcified lesion or as a mixed leson with osteolysis and calcifications.
Enchondromas aswell as low-grade chondrosarcomas are frequently encountered as coincidental findings in patients who have a MRI or bone scan for other reasons.
In the active phase there is multilaminar periosteal reaction and bone and soft tissue edema. Eosinophilic granuloma like osteomyelitis, can be a serious mimicker of malignancy (particularly Ewing sarcoma).
Should be included in the differential diagnosis of young patient with multiple lucent lesions (Langerhans cell histiocytosis). If the patient had fever and a proper clinical setting, osteomyelitis would be in the differential diagnosis. Adamantinoma in case of a sclerotic lesion with several lucencies of the tibia in a young patient.
The signal intensity on MR depends on the amount of calcifications and ossifications and fibrous tissue (low SI) and cystic components (high SI on T2). Melorrheostosis is a dysplasia of the bone, characterized by apposition of mature bone on the outer or inner surface of cortical bone. Axial T1-weighted MR image shows homogeneous low signal intensity due to the compact bone apposition. Sclerotic osteoblastic metastases must be included in the differential diagnosis of any sclerotic bone lesion in a patient > 40 years. Most commonly originate from prostate and breast cancer and less frequently from lung cancer, lymphoma or carcinoid. In breast cancer, metastases may present as lytic lesions that may become sclerotic expressing a favourable response to chemotherapy. There is a metastasis, which presents as a subtle sclerotic lesion in the humerus metaphysis. This could be an osteoblastic metastasis or an osteolytic metastasis that responded to chemotherapy.
Here a radiograph of the pelvis with a barely visible osteoblastic metastasis in the left iliac bone (blue arrow).
Non-ossifying fibroma (NOF) can be encoutered occasionally as a partial or completely sclerotic lesion. Typically a NOF presents as an eccentric well-defined lytic lesion, usually found as a coincidental finding. Other benign lesions, like solitary bone cyst, fibrous dysplasia, chondroblastoma and other benign bone tumors may become inert and may also become sclerotic. The image on the right is of a different patient who has an old NOF that shows complete fill in.
Growth of the osteochondroma takes place in the cap, corresponding with normal enchondral growth at the growth plates. Accordingly, growth of osteochondromas is allowed until a patient reaches adulthood and the physeal plates are closed. Growth of osteochondromas at adult ages, which is characterized by a thick cartilaginous cap (high SI on T2WI) should raise the suspicion of progression to a peripheral chondrosarcoma. Here a patient with a broad-based osteochondroma with extension of the cortical bone into the stalk of the lesion.
Surrounded by a prominent zone of reactive sclerosis due to a periosteal and endosteal reaction, which may obscure the central nidus. There is reactive sclerosis with a nidus that is barely visible on the radiograph (blue arrow), but clearly visible on the CT (red arrows). CT scan is usually very helpful in detecting the nidus and differentiating osteoid osteoma from other sclerotic lesions like osteoblastoma, osteomyelitis, arthritis, stress fracture and enostosis.

In most cases of osteoid osteoma the radiographic appearance is determined by the reactive sclerosis. It is most commonly located in the outer table of the neurocranium or in a paranasal sinus.
Osteomyelitis is a mimicker of various benign and malignant bone tumors and reactive processes that may be accompanied by reactive sclerosis. Sometimes a more solid periosteal reaction is present combined with cortical thickening and broadening of the bone. Plain films typically reveal lesions with moth-eaten or permeative pattern of the transition zone with irregular cortical destruction and an interrupted periosteal reaction with soft tissue extension.
A periosteal reaction known as Codman's triangle appears as tumor elevates periosteum from underlying bone.
The sagittal T1WI and Gd-enhanced T1W-image with fatsat show a large tumor mass infiltrating a large portion of the distal femur and extending through the cortex into the soft tissues.
It grows primarily into the surrounding soft tissues, but may also infiltrate into the bone marrow.
It is nost commonly located on the posterior side of the distal meta-diaphysis of the femur.
Ossification in parosteal osteosaroma is usually more mature in the center than at the periphery. Paget disease is a chronic disorder of unknown origin with increased breakdown of bone and formation of disorganized new bone.
In this case we see the pathognomonic triad of bone expansion, cortical thickening and trabecular bone thickening in the mixed lytic and sclerotic phase of Paget's disease of right hemipelvis. Notice that the mineralization is predominantly in the periphery of the mass and that there is a lucent zone between the mass and the cortical bone. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR image demonstrates heterogeneous enhancement of the mass with extensive surrounding edema. Stress fractures occur in normal (fatigue fractures) or metabolically weakened (insufficiency fractures) bones.
Uncommonly it can be difficult to differentiate a stress fracture from a pathologic fracture, that occurs at the site of a bone tumor. Uncommonly it can be difficult to differentiate a stress fracture from a bone tumor like an osteoid osteoma or from a pathologic fracture, that occurs at the site of a bone tumor.
Notice the resemblance to a juxtacortical mass in another patient (right), which was a biopsy proven parosteal osteosarcoma. This shows that differentiating a tumor from a reactive proces scan be quite difficult in some cases.
When a reactive process is more likely based on history and imaging features, follow-up is sometimes still needed.
Subungual exostoses are bony projections which arise from the dorsal surface of the distal phalanx, most commonly of the hallux. Here two patients with a bizar parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), also called Nora's lesion. This benign reactive process is most commonly found adjacent to the cortex of phalanges of hands or feet (75%). Distinction of Long Bone Stress Fractures from Pathologic Fractures on Cross-Sectional Imaging: How Successful Are We? Another frequent issue you will may deal with at some point is lower leg swelling on your horse.
This newsletter discusses lower limb swelling and how it can affect your horse’s performance. Below the carpus (front knee) in the front limb, and the tarsus (hock) in the hindlimb, the horse’s anatomy is basically the same. The flexor tendons, suspensory ligament, and splint bones are the usual suspects when dealing with swelling behind the cannon bone.
At the junction of the cannon and P1 pastern bone we have the fetlock joint, and 2 small sesamoid bones at the back.
With the previous anatomy in mind, the first step of dealing with limb swelling is an exam of the affected area. There’s a lot of things to assess, but those are the details your veterinarian is thinking about while evaluating a case like this. External trauma like kick injuries, interference, and clipping can cause immediate swelling anywhere on the leg.
Overloading the normal functional ability of the soft tissues can produces the same effect as external trauma. This can be from trauma mentioned above, but more often just happens because of irritated soft tissue in the limb. Penetrating wounds, lacerations, or sometimes just partial thickness abrasions can allow bacterial contamination of leg structures. The first thought when your horse has a swollen leg is “What can I do to get rid of it ?” That’s understandable. We do our physical exam and lameness exam, then combine that with a great history from the owner or trainer. Some months ago I was diagnosed with a meniscus tare, after seeing the specialist and getting an injection which only temporarily took away the pain. Before I started the treatment it was painful and difficult to walk, now I am walking an average of 14,000 steps a day without pain or discomfort. The 3 long leg muscles that run up the back of your upper leg, the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus, are know as the hamstring group of muscles. The lateral hamstring is the biceps femoris (made up of 2 parts - a short head and long head) and the medial hamstrings are the semitendinosus (joins the sartorius muscle and gracilis muscle at the pes anserinus on the tibia) and the semimembranosus (the largest hamstring muscle).
The hamstrings are not regularly used in common everyday motions like walking and standing, therefore, individuals who are not very active may not notice if they have weak hamstring muscles. However, well conditioned and flexible hamstring muscles are very important to athletes to stabilize the knees and prevent hamstring pain and hamstring injury. My Inferno Wrap is absolutely perfectly designed, and absolutely perfectly works as advertised. My first-20 minute treatment tells it all: My Inferno Wrap, from the get-go, provided complete relief, and unquestionable will keep doing the same on the other parts of my injured body. The posterior upper leg muscles provide your knees with mobility (extension, flexion and rotation) and strength.
Your hamstring muscles control movement of your torso, hips and knees, help turn your legs in and out, and are involved with power activities that include a lot of propulsion, thrust and control (such as jumping, climbing, and running). The biceps femoris hamstring muscle is the most frequently injured, as it suffers the largest stretch during sprinting, followed by the semitendinosus muscle. Hamstring injuries are frustrating to live with and healing can take a long time because it's difficult to give your upper leg the rest it needs. Treating your hamstring injury correctly is essential to getting rid of your pain and restoring function to your upper thigh.
To restore strength and range of motion in your hamstrings, treatment should focus on preventing scar tissue formation and muscle atrophy (shrinkage and weakening of the muscle).
When a hamstring pull or tear occurs we think the damage is done at the time of the injury. Aside from preventing tissue damage, cold compression therapy reduces pain by gently numbing nerves in the injured area and providing comforting support to your hamstring muscles. Once the initial swelling and severe inflammation of your hamstring injury is under control, you can begin the healing process.
Once inflammation and swelling have been reduced in your hamstring muscles, nourishing and strengthening the tissue in your upper leg is the goal.
When you rest and stop moving your leg because it hurts, the natural blood flow is reduced. Keeping your legs as healthy and strong as possible throughout the healing process will allow you to get back to your regular activities faster. You will notice significantly reduced pain and an incredible improvement in your hamstring range of motion. Please be aware that this information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Well after about 9 days of (2) treatments per day my severe case of Lateral Epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is almost pain free.
My elbow pain was so bad I couldn't sleep at night and just knew I was going to have to see a doctor. I was very impressed with the quality of your wraps, very thick and made form high quality materials. Thank you for helping heal my tennis elbow and I've already told many of my friends about your web site. Bruised buttocks are also called as buttock contusion, butt bruise, bruised butt and buttock bruise.
Bruising of buttock region occurs either by falling down on the buttock or due to direct blow. The patient must be shifted to the emergency room after sustaining a buttock injury that exhibits possible signs of pelvic fracture like bleeding under the skin, inability to stand or bear weight, severe pain as well as signs of internal bleeding like feeling cold, rapid heart rate, confusion, drop in blood pressure, signs of infection and disorientation.
Although many cases of bruised buttock get resolved within a couple of weeks, severe cases may take a month or even more.
Stiffness is experienced while moving the thigh in forward direction that is due to stretching of the gluteus muscles.
A hard lump beneath the skin along with discoloration that change from red to blue and black then green and yellow, which could be a hematoma.
A medical history and thorough subjective and physical evaluation is performed to diagnose bruised buttocks.
It is essentially a build up of fluids in the back of the knee due to excessive stress and pressure on the popliteal fossa, or the knee pit, located at the knee joint. This normally occurs after acl surgery or other common knee surgeries due to the knee being immobolized for a long period of time.
An ACL tear normally occurs from landing, twisting, rotating your knee when playing sports.

A PCL tear normally happens from impact, such as landing on your knee when it’s bent or from a hit to your knee in a car accident. This injury is common in basketball players as it requires plenty of jumping, which is why you may see a lot of athletes with jumper’s knee straps that are small straps that wrap over the patellar tendon. Cortical soft tissue extension may produce radiating spicules of bone called sunray appearance. This is opposed to myositis ossificans which may present very close to the cortical bone, but maturation develops from the center to the periphery. There has been lots of opportunity for getting out riding the trails, working the arena, and traveling the show circuits. The SDF (superficial) and DDF (deep) flexor tendons are easily seen and felt as the tight bands underneath the skin on the back of the leg.
At the back of the cannon just above the fetlock there is a small out-pouching of the joint capsule with fluid in it. There are the pastern and coffin joints, tendons from above, sheaths for the tendons to move through, and ligaments holding everything together. Knowing the characteristics of the problem will help you make some decisions about what to do.
Whether barefoot or shod, normally these will have some evidence of abrasions or hair loss. Hyperflexion or hyperextension of joints, and overstretching of tendons and ligaments will create swellings from acute hemorrhage with the tissues.
Inflammation is the first thing to occur when soft tissues become stressed and it is the body’s natural defense to protect itself.
Facing the possibility of having to have surgery I looked in the internet for an alternative treatment-when I came across Mend Me Shop. These muscles start at the bottom of your pelvis extending down the back of your thigh and along either side of your knee, to your lower leg bones. The tendons for these muscles begin at your ischial tuberosity, or ischium (the bony bump under each buttock), and attach on the outer edges of your shinbones (tibia and fibula) just below the back of your knee. They work closely with your quadriceps muscles at the front of your thigh, your gluteal muscles, and your calf muscles to ensure proper movement of your leg and hip. They allow your knee to bend (flex the leg at the knee) and pull your leg backward while propelling your body forward when you move (your thigh straightens and extends the leg back at the hip). If you have a multi-muscle injury, it normally occurs at the point where your hamstring muscles and tendons meet (musculotendinous junction) at the top of the hamstring muscles.
This is especially true for runners and other athletes that return to their sport too early.
Proper treatment will get you back to regular activities sooner, stop your pain, and reduce the risk of future re-injury. Treating an injury with cold compression therapy as soon as you can is important because it decreases swelling and inflammation.
Blocked blood vessels can no longer carry blood to your cells and the cells begin to break-down further damaging your injured hamstring.
Initially, you may use pain killers or anti-inflammatory medications but these can affect your organs and should never be used for a long period of time.
The therapy behind the Freezie Wrap® has been doctor recommended for centuries but the Freezie Wrap® itself is a new, safer way to get it! This allows the pack to be supercharged in the fridge, not in the freezer like ice or other freezer packs. The wrap is so versatile you can use it on your arm, foot, calf, and almost everywhere on your body.
Blood Flow Stimulation Therapy™ will drastically improve blood flow to kick start the healing process.
Without proper blood flow, musclar atrophy (shinkage or deterioration of a muscle) can occur as your body's ability to heal itself becomes limited.
Even when your upper thigh muscles have healed, your activities can put them at risk of an overuse injury, tightness, or another strain. The more dedicated you are with your treatment and rehabilitation, the faster you will see successful results!
However, getting hit in the buttock area by a hard blunt object like a hard ball could also result in bruising of buttocks. Rest, massage, ice with heat and medication for swelling and pain are usually required to treat bruised buttocks.
In some cases, the lump may even turn to scar which may take several months to soften leaving a permanent dimple or lump.
Application of ice to the affected area for about 10 to 15 minutes helps in easing pain, swelling and bleeding. It is important that massage should not be performed within the first 72 hours of injury as this may lead to increased blood flow. Stretching and strengthening exercises can be performed to improve and regain full function of the glute muscles.
Signs and symptoms of a baker’s cyst can be seen as a bubble of fluid behind the knee where there is pain and tightness.
Continuing physical activity with a torn PCL can lead to osteoarthritis and of course, swelling. According to the Arthritis Foundation, more than 27 million in America have osteoarthritis, with the knee being the most common area. Tearing your meniscus can occur when doing sudden twisting or rotating of your knee while your foot is planted.
Managing the heat and staying cool seems to have been the most common issue this season, so that’s not a bad summer.
This type of swelling is non-painful, tends to be diffusely spread out, and resolves with some walking or riding.
The problem is determining what YOUR horse has (ie not what your friend’s horse had) and why it occured. We have the advantage of diagnostic anesthesia (nerve blocks), ultrasound examination, and digital radiographs (xrays) to provide or confirm our diagnosis. They are involved with eccentric movements, which increase the length of the muscle while it is under tension - instead of starting an action, the muscles act as a brake to stop an action. However, hamstring pulls can also occur at any place along the hamstring muscle bellies or in the tendons that attach the muscles to the bones. Re-injury is common but it prolongs recovery and may also lead to permanent damage and other conditions.
Almost all types of hamstring pulls and tears (except a complete hamstring rupture) can be properly treated with trusted therapies that are available for use at home. This limits the amount of tissue damage that occurs within the first 72 hours of an acute strain. By applying cold compression therapy to a fresh injury or re-injury you reduce tissue damage and reduce the amount of healing that will be required to get your hamstring muscles and tendons back to normal. This gives you deep cold compression therapy without the risk of 'cold burns' or cryoburn to the layers of your skin.
BFST® speeds up the body's natural repair process for faster healing and stronger tissue. An Inferno Wrap® treatment before activity is an easy way to warm up the muscles and prepare them for use. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider before starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Breaking of the small blood vessels that are present in the substance of the buttocks often results in bleeding beneath the skin of the buttock region.
If the tear is untreated when continuing to play sports, inflammation can occur which builds up pressure and pain normally at the center or sides of your knee, but can always bring about posterior knee pain. It is most easily seen and palpated as that tight vertical band just above the fetlock joint.
Swellings of damaged structures will be painful early on, with heat and possible discharge at an abrasion site.
Chronic internal stresses to structures like the suspensory ligament in a horse with poor conformation, or overworked horse, will result in small micro-tears that gradually increase swelling tendency in a limb.
Sometimes the inflammation is triggered from elsewhere in the body far from the swollen leg itself.
Scar tissue, adhesions, and chronic swelling can greatly reduce performance potential, and is life threatening in some cases. You can feel this when walking or running downhill, landing from jumps or performing squats, and when trying to stop quickly after sprinting.
But after the injury, swelling and inflammation set in and block blood vessels causing further damage.
This unique technology, inside a soft and completely adjustable neoprene wrap, gives you comfortable, convenient, and effective cold compression therapy. Bruised buttocks is very common in sports like sliding in baseball, high jumping, ice skating, hockey, gymnastics, football, pole vaulting. In this article, you’ll find a list of different posterior knee pain symptoms and causes. On either backside of the cannon there are the splint bones with the tip or “button” being the bottom landmark.
However, using these home therapies after surgery can help speed recovery, improve function, and increase range of motion in your hamstrings. Elderly people and individuals who are on anticoagulation drugs like Coumadin are more prone to such bruises.

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