The original concept of camera dates from Grecian times, when Aristotle referred to the principle of the camera obscura (Latin=dark chamber) known also as pinhole camera. The first diagram of a camera obscura appeared in a manuscript by Leonardo da Vinci in 1519. In 16th century brightness and clarity of camera obscuras were improved by enlarging the hole and inserting lens. In 1800 Thomas Wedgwood makes "sun pictures" by placing opaque objects on leather treated with silver nitrate; resulting images (shadows) deteriorated rapidly, however, if displayed under light stronger than from candles. In 1814 Joseph Nicephore Niepce achieved first photographic image with a camera obscura - however, the image required eight hours of light exposure and later faded. In 1837 Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre uses his daguerreotype method (called after his name) - the first image that was fixed and did not fade and needed under thirty minutes of light exposure but could not be reproduced.
In 1841 William Henry Talbot patented the Calotype process - the first negative-positive process making possible the first multiple copies, but suffered from the fact that any print would also show the imperfections of the paper. In 1851 Frederick Scott Archer invented the Collodion process - glass plates coated with collodion (guncotton dissolved in ether and alcohol) . In 1880 George Eastman (1854 - 1932) perfected a process for making gelatin dry plates (invented in 1971 by Richard Maddox) for photography that were manufactured by The Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company.
On September 4, 1888 Eastman registered the trademark Kodak, and received a patent (388850) for his hand-held box camera which used roll film containing a 100 exposure of roll of paper stripping film and the entire camera was sent back to the manufacturer for developing, printing, and reloading with a new film.
In 1900, Eastman took mass-market photography one step further with the Brownie, a simple and very inexpensive box camera that introduced the concept of the snapshot.
In 1936 was developed Kodachrome by Eastman Kodak, the first color multi-layered color film.
In 1936 was developed in Germany the Kine Exakta, a pioneering 35mm single-lens reflex (SLR) camera. Many contributed to the development of the camera and photography, during the years, in the fields of chemistry, optics and mechanics but we dedicated this page to George Eastman since we think his inventions of dry rolled film and the hand-held camera that could utilize it revolutionized photography in a manner not seen before. During the 1880s a revolution in photography took place (see above): increase in the speed of the new dry plates that shortened the required exposure times, smaller negative formats and new lenses with shorter focal lengths enabled the invention of miniaturized handheld cameras without the need of tripods and with the ability to take fast snapshots of rapidly moving objects.
A little terminology: The term “hand cameras” or “handheld cameras” denotes all types and sizes of cameras which were fitted with mechanical shutters, dry plates or film, and which could be used off the tripod enabling instantaneous photography. Strictly speaking, detective cameras were popular Victorian cameras before the turn of the 19th century that were designed to look something other than a camera. The earliest detective camera was a twin-lens reflex camera designed for police use by the British inventor Thomas Bolas who also coined the term in 1881 (GB provisional patent No.
Try to reconstruct a real Victorian detective camera according to the patents mentioned above (patent No. For more web resources, google "build spy camera" and "build hidden camera" and you'll get plenty of useful links. The following list of links is divided into three sections: basic photography projects, advanced photography projects and history of camera and photography. The glass had the effect of greatly increasing the speed of the plates enabling shorter exposure times - images required only two or three seconds of light exposure and it was also possible to reproduce quality pictures. Before that, photographers had to coat a plate with wet chemical each time they wanted to take a picture (the Collodion process) - a very discouraging process.
His former home at 900 East Avenue in Rochester, New York, was opened as the International Museum of Photography at the George Eastman House in 1947.
But other terms were used synonymously, including “pocket cameras,” “detective cameras,” and so on. Most were box cameras designed to look like parcels, disguised as watches, binoculars, books, purses, walking sticks, revolvers and rifles, alarm clocks, spyglasses, and so on. 270133, 353545, 428448), available internet resources, books, libraries, museums and old cameras. Basically, a spy cameras is a pinhole lens camera because it is very small and almost invisible to the eye.


The increased speed and sensitivity to light of the dryplates freed the camera from the tripod and paved the way for the handheld camera - instant photography at low cost - of this the most popular was the Kodak handheld camera. The roll film was also the basis for the invention of the motion picture film, used by early filmmakers Thomas Edison, the Lumiere Brothers, and Georges Melies. On the 100th anniversary of his birth in 1954, Eastman was honored with a postage stamp from the United States Post Office. Some models were designed to be worn underneath a vest with lens peaking out through a buttonhole and the shutter operated by a long cord. This camera employed a newly introduced rapid dry plate film which was fast enough that a tripod was not required in bright daylight. 428448) which was a large wood box camera that took 4 x 5 inch photographs on dry glass plates. The advantage and benefit of this option is that you are going to be introduced to the exciting world of patents and experience the path to important discovery. Building a pinhole camera is easy and does not require great investments and technical skills. 353545) which failed in the market but was a precursor of the famous Kodak handheld camera from 1888. Take in account that this challenge will require some extra mechanical skills and a lot of patience. The pinhole camera is a cheap project to build especially because it does not require expensive lens.
THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE.
The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr.
Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid. Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said.
People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines.
If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments.
Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products.
We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia.
They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories.


The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity. However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results.
One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed.
However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure.
One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem.
Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities. One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have. The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach.
Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close. Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants. Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings. While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip.
If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects.
Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime.
We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit. The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months. Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling. I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.



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