PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS – Indiana UniversityRating Errors Example Similar-To-Me Error Performance-rating error in which an appraiser inflates the evaluation of an employee because of a mutual personal connection.
FINAL APRIL 28 2011 UNIFORM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS AND …Not to performance indicators. SUNY College At New PaltzThe first 5 entry fields contain important non-technical performance categories. This entry was posted in Employee Evaluations and tagged evaluation doc, performance appraisals, performance expectation, scale category.
A free advice post about business, process, continuous improvement, leadership, culture change, product development, management, Lean, Six Sigma, quality, and generally making things better. It seems that in order to get an advice book published, one must be an accomplished CEO or exceptionally successful entrepreneur.
Describe the difference between factors contributing to employee motivation and how these differ from factors contributing to dissatisfaction. Describe the needs for achievement, power, and affiliation, and how these needs affect work behavior. Abraham Maslow is among the most prominent psychologists of the 20th century and the hierarchy of needs, accompanied by the pyramid representing how human needs are ranked, is an image familiar to most business students and managers. The most basic of Maslowa€™s needs are physiological needsphysiological needsThe need for air, food, and water.. Maslowa€™s hierarchy is a systematic way of thinking about the different needs employees may have at any given point and explains different reactions they may have to similar treatment.
ERG theorya€™s main contribution to the literature is its relaxation of Maslowa€™s assumptions. In contrast, motivatorsmotivatorsThe factors that are intrinsic to the job, such as achievement, recognition, interesting work, increased responsibilities, advancement, and growth opportunities. Herzberga€™s research, which is summarized in the figure above, has received its share of criticism.[645] One criticism relates to the classification of the factors as hygiene or motivator. Plaques and other recognition awards may motivate employees if these awards fit with the company culture and if they reflect a sincere appreciation of employee accomplishments.
Among the need-based approaches to motivation, Douglas McClellanda€™s acquired needs theory is the one that has received the greatest amount of support.
Those who have high need for achievementneed for achievementHaving a strong need to be successful. Individuals who have a high need for affiliationhigh need for affiliationThe need to be liked and accepted by others. Finally, those with high need for powerneed for powerThe desire to influence others and control their environment. McClellanda€™s theory of acquired needs has important implications for motivating employees.
Many managers assume that if an employee is not performing well, the reason must be lack of motivation. A friend of yours is competitive, requires frequent and immediate feedback, and enjoys accomplishing things. Which motivation theory have you found to be most useful in explaining why people behave in a certain way? Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives.
The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived project constraints. Under the Project Management Consultancy Services we also provide specialized services in Engineering, Procurement & Construction Management. Traditionally also, project management includes a number of elements: four to five process groups, and a control system. Project control is that element of a project that keeps it on-track, on-time and within budget. Integrated Engineers is extremely competent and well-qualified to take up project management consultancy services of any magnitude, given its wide range of experience and highly qualified team of professionals working together.
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Please read the definition of each category and then make an evaluation of the student’s performance using the rating scale at the top of the page. Specifically, early researchers thought that employees try hard and demonstrate goal-driven behavior to satisfy needs. An employee who is trying to satisfy her esteem needs may feel gratified when her supervisor praises her.
By leveraging the various facets of the planning-organizing-leading-controlling (P-O-L-C) functions. For example, ERG theory does not rank needs in any particular order and explicitly recognizes that more than one need may operate at a given time.
By asking individuals what satisfies them on the job and what dissatisfies them, Herzberg came to the conclusion that aspects of the work environment that satisfy employees are very different from aspects that dissatisfy them.[644] Herzberg labeled factors causing dissatisfaction of workers as a€?hygienea€? factors because these factors were part of the context in which the job was performed, as opposed to the job itself. According to this theory, individuals acquire three types of needs as a result of their life experiences.
While someone who has high need for achievement may respond to goals, those with high need for affiliation may be motivated to gain the approval of their peers and supervisors, whereas those who have high need for power may value gaining influence over the supervisor or acquiring a position that has decision-making authority. According to this perspective, the managera€™s job is to identify what people need and then to make sure that the work environment becomes a means of satisfying these needs. A project is a temporary endeavor, having a defined beginning and end (usually constrained by date, but can be by funding or deliverables), undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives, usually to bring about beneficial change or added value.
We at Integrated give immense importance to control that will be required in various different projects that need to be handled at any point in time. If you already use these tools and applications their cookies may be set through our website. They do not contain any personal information and for the most part are automatically deleted when you close your browser.
I guess for now i'll settle for book-marking and adding your RSS feed to my Google account. For example, an employee who is always walking around the office talking to people may have a need for companionship and his behavior may be a way of satisfying this need. However, another employee who is trying to satisfy his social needs may resent being praised by upper management in front of peers if the praise sets him apart from the rest of the group. In the long run, physiological needs may be satisfied by the persona€™s paycheck, but it is important to remember that pay may satisfy other needs such as safety and esteem as well.
Existence need corresponds to Maslowa€™s physiological and safety needs, relatedness corresponds to social needs, and growth need refers to Maslowa€™s esteem and self actualization. Moreover, the theory has a a€?frustration-regressiona€? hypothesis, suggesting that individuals who are frustrated in their attempts to satisfy one need may regress to another one. Hygiene factorshygiene factorsThe factors that include company policies, supervision, working conditions, salary, safety, and security on the job. According to Herzberga€™s research, motivators are the conditions that truly encourage employees to try harder. However, pay is not necessarily a contextual factor and may have symbolic value by showing employees that they are being recognized for their contributions as well as communicating to them that they are advancing within the company. A worker who derives great satisfaction from meeting deadlines, coming up with brilliant ideas, and planning his or her next career move may be high in need for achievement. When given a choice, they prefer to interact with others and be with friends.[649] Their emphasis on harmonious interpersonal relationships may be an advantage in jobs and occupations requiring frequent interpersonal interaction, such as social worker or teacher. Need for power may be destructive of onea€™s relationships if it takes the form of seeking and using power for onea€™s own good and prestige.
And, when it comes to succeeding in managerial positions, individuals who are aware of the drawbacks of their need orientation can take steps to overcome these drawbacks.
Maslowa€™s hierarchy categorizes human needs into physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. The secondary and more ambitious challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. Project control begins early in the project with planning and ends late in the project with post-implementation review, having a thorough involvement of each step in the process. We also place functional cookies on your device to allow certain parts of the site to work.
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There are four major theories in the need-based category: Maslowa€™s hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Herzberga€™s dual factor theory, and McClellanda€™s acquired needs theory.


Providing generous benefits, including health insurance and company-sponsored retirement plans, as well as offering a measure of job security, will help satisfy safety needs. For example, someone who is frustrated by the lack of growth opportunities in his job and slow progress toward career goals may regress to relatedness needs and start spending more time socializing with onea€™s coworkers.
Similarly, quality of supervision or relationships employees form with their supervisors may determine whether they are assigned interesting work, whether they are recognized for their potential, and whether they take on more responsibilities. In managerial positions, a high need for affiliation may again serve as a disadvantage because these individuals tend to be overly concerned about how they are perceived by others. However, when it manifests itself in more altruistic forms, such as changing the way things are done so that the work environment is more positive or negotiating more resources for onea€™s department, it tends to lead to positive outcomes. ERG theory is a modification of Maslowa€™s hierarchy, where the five needs are collapsed into three categories (existence, relatedness, and growth).
Each project should be assessed for the appropriate level of control needed: too much control is too time consuming, too little control is very risky. If you choose to disallow cookies we will not place or use, any more cookies on your device during your visit. Once you eat, though, the search for food ceases and the promise of food no longer serves as a motivator.
Social needs may be satisfied by having a friendly environment, providing a workplace conducive to collaboration and communication with others. The implication of this theory is that we need to recognize the multiple needs that may be driving an individual at a given point to understand his behavior and to motivate him.
Despite its limitations, the two-factor theory can be a valuable aid to managers because it points out that improving the environment in which the job is performed goes only so far in motivating employees.
Thus, they may find it difficult to perform some aspects of a managera€™s job such as giving employees critical feedback or disciplining poor performers. The two-factor theory differentiates between factors that make people dissatisfied on the job (hygiene factors) and factors that truly motivate employees. The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.
Once physiological needs are satisfied, people tend to become concerned about safetysafety needsThe need to be safe from danger, pain, or an uncertain future..
Company picnics and other social get-togethers may also be helpful if the majority of employees are motivated primarily by social needs (but may cause resentment if they are not and if they have to sacrifice a Sunday afternoon for a company picnic). When a salesperson is promoted to be a sales manager, the job description changes from actively selling to recruiting, motivating, and training salespeople. Finally, acquired-needs theory argues that individuals possess stable and dominant motives to achieve, acquire power, or affiliate with others. Providing promotion opportunities at work, recognizing a persona€™s accomplishments verbally or through more formal reward systems, job titles that communicate to the employee that one has achieved high status within the organization are among the ways of satisfying esteem needs. Those who are high in need for achievement may view managerial activities such as coaching, communicating, and meeting with subordinates as a waste of time.
Each of these theories explains characteristics of a work environment that motivate employees. One level up, social needssocial needsThe need to bond with other human beings, to be loved, and to form lasting attachments with them.
Finally, self-actualization needs may be satisfied by providing development and growth opportunities on or off the job, as well as by assigning interesting and challenging work. Moreover, they enjoy doing things themselves and may find it difficult to delegate authority. By making the effort to satisfy the different needs each employee may have at a given time, organizations may ensure a more highly motivated workforce. However, if these problems were solved (your office temperature is just right and you are not harassed at all), would you be motivated? In fact, having no attachments can negatively affect health and well-being.[642] The satisfaction of social needs makes esteem needsesteem needsThe desire to be respected by onea€™s peers, feeling important, and being appreciated. Herzberga€™s dual-factor theory of job satisfaction and motivation: A review of the evidence and a criticism. In fact, many factors in our work environment are things that we miss when they are absent, but take for granted if they are present.
Esteem needs refer to the desire to be respected by onea€™s peers, feeling important, and being appreciated.



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