Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Conceptual Frameworks of Vulnerability Assessments for Natural Disasters ReductionRoxana L. Beyond the NegativeIt is unclear to me whether it were Henry Fox Talbot or Louis Daguerre, or possibly some other unnamed fellow who first transferred a positive image onto paper from a negative.
1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea. Yahoo , Facebook , Facebook , Twitter , Twitter , Google+ , Google+ , Myspace , Myspace , Linkedin , Linkedin , Odnoklassniki , Odnoklassniki , Vkontakte , Vkontakte , Google , Google , Yahoo , Yahoo , Rambler , Rambler , Yandex , Yandex , Gmail , Gmail , Yahoo! Designers Manufacturers , ??????? ????????? - ?????????? ???????????? , Gorgian Wikipedia - Free Encyclopedia , ????????? ?????? ????????? , Cambridje Dictionary Online , ????????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????????? , Oxford Advenced Learner's Online Dictionar? , ??????????? ?????? - moazrovne,net, ??? Philippines – annual expenditure under the National Calamity Fund (1996 – 2002) (Based on GDP at price market) [4]2. Conceptual framework for holistic approach to disaster risk assessment and management [23] in [11]Table 1.
Fragility curves ‘forced’ to unity and manually extrapolated to the next order of magnitude for volume (local roads).
Ciurean1, Dagmar Schroter2 and Thomas Glade1[1] Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna, Austria[2] IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria1. Social and environmental indicators research is common in the field of sustainable science. However, the extent of these losses is frequently underestimated especially when landslides are associated with the occurrence of floods or earthquakes (their consequences tend to be aggregated). Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. Results from the study are indicated by black dots, the corresponding mean vulnerability is indicated by red dots [53]Table 2. IntroductionThe last few decades have demonstrated an increased concern for the occurrence of natural disasters and their consequences for leaders and organizations around the world. For example, United Nations Development Program’s Human Development Index [30], proposes a composite indicator of human well-being, as well as gender disparity and poverty among nations. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre.
As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt.
The EM-DAT International Disaster Database [1] statistics show that, in the last century, the mortality risk associated with major weather-related hazards has declined globally, but there has been a rapid increase in the exposure of economic assets to natural hazards.Looking into more detail, UNISDR’s Global Assessment Report 2011 (GAR11) [2] indicates that disasters in 2011 set a new record of $366 billion for economic losses, including $210 billion as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accompanying tsunami alone, and $40 billion as a result of the floods in Thailand. Similarly, the World Bank develops indicators that stress the links between environmental conditions and human welfare, especially in developing nations, in order to monitor national progress toward a more sustainable future [31]. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight. A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene. In natural hazards risk management framework, many of the indicator based vulnerability studies are relying on measuring attributes or factors influencing vulnerability rather than understanding relationships or processes [32].The composition and selection of vulnerability indicators is complex. The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. Ideally, there are nine different phases in the development of indicators (Figure 6) [33]: first, a relevant goal must be selected and defined. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced.
Disaster databases, such as the ones referred to above, represent key resources for actors involved in policy and practice related with disaster risk reduction and response. Then, it is necessary to perform a scoping process in order to identify the target group and the associated purposes for which the indicators will be used.
However, considering their diversity and recognizing their different roles, one can identify at least one limitation in their use i.e. The third phase presumes the identification of an appropriate conceptual framework, which means structuring the potential themes and indicators. Some consider vulnerability within the landslide risk management framework, others evaluate exclusively physical vulnerability. The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. The following sub-sections give a short overview of some of the conceptual models presented in [11], such as the double structure of vulnerability, vulnerability within the context of hazard and risk, vulnerability in the context of global environmental change community, the Presure and Release Model and a holistic approach to risk and vulnerability assessment.
The fourth phase implies the definition of selection criteria for the potential indicators (see below).
Three general types of methodologies can be identified (without excluding the possibility of other classification schemes):Qualitative methods ([47], [48], [35]) - given a particular landslide type and the characteristics of the elements at risk, the appropriate vulnerability factor is assessed by expert judgment, field mapping or based on historical records. In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. Compiling and analyzing an extensive natural disaster data set for the period 1993 – 2002, Alexander [3] showed that, for example, in the Philippines in 1996 there were 31 major floods, 29 earthquakes, 10 typhoons and 7 tornadoes. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered.
Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. Due to population pressure, large areas of Luzon and other islands were denuded of their dense vegetation cover resulting in landslide prone slopes.

The double structure of vulnerabilityAccording to Bohle [18] vulnerability can be seen as having an external and internal side (Figure 2).
Finally, there is the evaluation and selection of each indicator (phase 6) taking into account the criteria developed at an earlier stage, which results in a final set of indicators. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes.
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
Twelve major episodes of slope failure causing high damages to infrastructure and build up areas were registered in the archipelago during 1996. The external side is related to the exposure to risks and shocks and is influenced by Political Economy Approaches (e.g. The outcome of previous phases must be validated against real data, which in many cases proofs to be the most challenging part of the process due to difficulties in measuring or quantifying some of the intangible elements or aspect of vulnerability (e.g. However, a major limitation of this approach is that most of the data have to be assumed and there is no direct (quantified) relation between hazard intensities and degree of damage.As an example, in [47] an empirical GIS-based geomorphological approach for landslide and risk analysis was proposed, using stereoscopic aerial photographs and field mapping in order to represent the changes in distribution and shape of landslides and assess their expected frequency of occurrence and intensity. It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. Although documentation of the Government expenditures to finance relief efforts for natural disasters during the 1996 – 2002 period is not completely contained in Figure 1 [4], one can observe that 1996 stands out as a particular year with high costs of rehabilitation.Experience has shown that considering the frequency of disasters affecting the Philippines, its socio-economic context, and risk culture, the disaster management system tends to rely on a response approach. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. However, studies indicate that efforts are being made to engage more proactive approaches, involving mitigation and preparedness strategies [4]. The internal side is called coping and relates to the capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a hazard and is influenced by the Crisis and Conflict Theory (control of assets and resources, capacities to manage crisis situations and resolve conflicts), Action Theory Approaches (how people act and react freely as a result of social, economic or governmental constrains) and Model of Access to Assets (mitigation of vulnerability through access to assets).
They are flexible and can, to a certain degree, reduce subjectivity, compared with the methods mentioned above. More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype).
Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Within this category, damage matrices, for example, are composed by classified intensities and stepwise damage levels. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide. The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. The definition of vulnerability for the purpose of scientific assessment depends on the purpose of the study – is it to get a differential picture of global change threats to human well-being in different world regions? These are mathematical combinations of sub-indicators that can be easier to interpret than trying to find a trend in many separate indicators. In [49] damage matrices were suggested based on damaging factors and the resistance of the elements at risk to the impact of landslides. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. Is it to inform particular stakeholders about adaptation options to a potential future development?
However, there are no generally accepted methods of index aggregation (index construction) and their interpretation is not unique.
Figure 8 shows a correlation, in terms of vulnerability, between exposed elements and the characteristics of the hazard. Is it to show that likelihood of harm and cost of harm have changed for a specific element of interest within the human-environment system?
The applicability of this method, requires statistical analysis of detailed records on landslides and their consequences [50].
In scientific assessment the term vulnerability can have many meanings, differentiated mostly by (a) the vulnerable entity studied, (b) the stakeholders of the study.The design of scientific assessment (as opposed to scientific research) has to respond to the scientific needs of the particular stakeholder who might use it [5]. An integral part of vulnerability assessment therefore is the collaboration with its stakeholders [6], [7]. Quantitative methods are usually employed by engineers or actors involved in technical decision making, as they allow for a more explicit objective output.
Thus, the specific definition and the method of vulnerability assessment is specific to each study and needs to be made transparent in the specific context. The results can be directly integrated in a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) also taking into account the uncertainty in vulnerability analysis. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. The procedures involved can rely on i) expert judgment (heuristic), ii) damage records (empirical) or iii) statistical analysis (probabilistic).One example of quantitative expert judgment used to evaluate physical vulnerability of roads to debris flows was used in [55]. This index is composed of four factors estimating capacity related to risk identification, risk reduction, disaster management and financial protection.
147 respondents from 17 countries were asked to use their expert knowledge to assess the probability of a certain damage state being exceeded given that a volume of debris impacts a road (Table 3). A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide.
The study is based on a review of recent research findings in global change and natural hazards risk management. Physical vulnerability assessmentIf in social vulnerability assessment the focus is on determining the indicators of societies’ coping capacities to any natural hazard and identifying the vulnerable groups or individuals based on these indicators, in physical (or technical) vulnerability assessment the role of hazard and their impacts is emphasized, while the human systems in mediating the outcomes is minimized. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread. The overall aim is to identify current gaps that can guide the development of future perspectives for vulnerability analysis to hydro-meteorological hazards. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Following the introduction (section 1), the second section starts with a definition of vulnerability within the context of risk management to natural hazards (sub-section 2.1). The evaluation of vulnerability and the combination of the hazard and the vulnerability to obtain the risk differs between natural phenomena. However, the majority of models see vulnerability as being dependent both on the acting agent (physical impact of a hazard event) and the exposed element (structural or physical characteristics of the vulnerable object). In the third section, the importance of addressing uncertainty in vulnerability analysis is discussed and lastly general observations and concluding remarks are presented.2.
The most common expressions of physical vulnerability for different types of hazards (landslides, floods, earthquakes) are: vulnerability curves (stage-damage functions), fragility curves, damage matrices and vulnerability indicators [35]. In recent decades, research on flood vulnerability assessment has advanced substantially (especially with the aid of computational techniques) and different modeling approaches ranging from post-event damage observations to laboratory-based experiments and physical modeling have been developed.

Vulnerability and risk management to natural hazardsAccording to the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) Report [8], there are two essential elements in the formulation of risk (Eq.
One major applications of flood vulnerability analysis is the development of guidelines for reducing structural vulnerability for different types of properties.
Likewise, the results of these studies are used in spatial development strategies (spatial planning) and for identification of the elements or areas where damages would be expected in case of flood occurrence.
Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image. A «hazard» is “a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage”.Within the risk management framework, vulnerability pertains to consequence analysis. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. It generally defines the potential for loss to the elements at risk caused by the occurrence of a hazard, and depends on multiple aspects arising from physical, social, economic, and environmental factors, which are interacting in space and time. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. Within the last category, two general methods can be identified:Empirical methods are based on the analysis of observed consequences (collection of actual flood damage information after the event) through the use of interviews, questionnaires and field mapping. This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated. This type of approaches are resource demanding (time and money) but allow for a better understanding of the relation between flood intensity and degree of damage for an exposed structure with definite characteristics. Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. Directly linked with these forces are the characteristics of the damaging agent (water) which are reflected in a number of actions on the exposed structure: hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, erosion, buoyancy, etc. Vulnerability modelsThere are multiple definitions, concepts and methods to systematize vulnerability denoting the plurality of views and meanings attached to this term. Birkmann [11] noted that ‘we are still dealing with a paradox: we aim to measure vulnerability, yet we cannot define it precisely’. However, there are generally two perspectives in which vulnerability can be viewed and which are closely linked with the evolution of the concept [12]: (1) the amount of damage caused to a system by a particular hazard (technical or engineering sciences oriented perspective – dominating the disaster risk perception in the 1970s), and (2) a state that exists within a system before it encounters a hazard (social sciences oriented perspective – an alternative paradigm which uses vulnerability as a starting point for risk reduction since the 1980s). The former emphasizes ‘assessments of hazards and their impacts, in which the role of human systems in mediating the outcomes of hazard events is downplayed or neglected’. The latter puts the human system on the central stage and focuses on determining the coping capacity of the society, the ability to resist, respond and recover from the impact of a natural hazard [13]. In [40] the importance of further influencing factors like ‘duration of inundation, sediment concentration, availability and information content of flood warning and the quality of external response in a flood situation’ are emphasized. While the technical sciences perspective of vulnerability focuses primarily on physical aspects [14], the social sciences perspective takes into account various factors and parameters that influence vulnerability, such as physical, economic, social, environmental, and institutional characteristics [8]. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary.
Other approaches emphasize the need to account for additional global factors, such as globalization and climate change. Thus, the broader vulnerability assessment is in scope, the more interdisciplinary it becomes.
A threshold for collapse corresponding to 100% damage is set, while below this threshold the damage is estimated based on the inundation level only. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras.
The model also takes into account the effect of warning which is assessed based on a ‘day-curve’.
If a public response rate of 100% is assumed, a maximum of 35% of damage reduction can be achieved depending on the time of warning [26]. Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around. Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning.
Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters.
It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907.
If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image.
Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory.
The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor.
Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.

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