Although I’ve enjoyed writing about higher education for many years, a press release I received this morning has persuaded me to make a career change. Eric Hoover is a senior writer who covers admissions, student affairs, and the issues affecting adult students. Beckie Supiano is a staff reporter who covers financial aid, admissions, and the role of religion in the college experience. What’s brought lol into prominence recently is its appearance in Dzhokhar Tsarnaev’s e-communications, in situations where the supposed meaning of the term renders the accused bomber eerily heartless: Lol those people are cooked and the like.
Still, no one is laughing, out loud or silently, and few have laughed alongside lol for years. It strikes me, though, that what my students call irony or sarcasm (and what another student named “the crutch of the verbally retarded”) has the same provenance as most of the lol uses listed in Buzzfeed.
Anne Curzan is a professor of English at the University of Michigan, where she also holds appointments in linguistics and the School of Education.
Lucy Ferriss is writer in residence at Trinity College in Connecticut and the author of literary criticism, a memoir, and seven books of fiction.
William Germano is dean of humanities and social sciences and a professor of English literature at Cooper Union. Rose Jacobs is an American freelance journalist and English teacher at the Technical University of Munich. Ben Yagoda is a professor of English and journalism at the University of Delaware and the author of, among other books, How to Not Write Bad: The Most Common Writing Problems and the Best Ways to Avoid Them. Five times a year the Center for Educational Resources publishes an e-newsletter that is distributed to Johns Hopkins University faculty in the schools of Arts & Sciences and Engineering. Alison Papadakis received an AB in Psychology from Princeton University, and an MA and PhD in Clinical Psychology from Duke University.
At JHU Papadakis is teaching three undergraduate courses: Abnormal Psychology (enrollment 200), Child and Adolescent Psychopathology (enrollment 40), Child and Adolescent Psychopathology (enrollment 19), and Research Seminar in Clinical Psychology (enrollment 19). Land’s second recommendation is to “display the framework” meaning that helping students to organize the content they are about to engage in improves their understanding and learning.
Third, Lang exhorts instructors to “create wonder.” He uses an example of an astronomy professor who before the start of each class puts up an image from the cosmos and asks two questions: “What do you notice?
Not only will you want to review what you have taught, but you should “reactivate what [students] have learned in previous courses.” By asking students what they already know, you can help them make connections to the material in your course, and you can fill in gaps and correct misunderstandings. Lang states that all of these activities will benefit from having students write down their individual responses before sharing with the class. It’s been some time since The Innovative Instructor looked at issues of academic integrity [see Discouraging Cheating in the Classroom, November 13, 2012], but a recent article in The Chronicle of Higher Education, In a Fake Online Class With Students Paid to Cheat, Could Professors Catch the Culprits?, December 22, 2015, stimulated discussion among my colleagues. In smaller classes, where the instructor can to get to know the students as individuals, and course work is centered on in-class discussion, there may be fewer opportunities for violations of academic integrity. For mid-size classes, pedagogical interventions, such as flipping a class (see previous posts here, here, here, and here) can be productive if in-class problem solving, group work, and experiential activities are emphasized. Large classes can present greater challenges, particularly if testing is the focus for student assessment.
In all cases, the best results come when colleges and universities establish a strong institutional culture of academic integrity.  This was the subject of the 2012 post.
What do we mean when we talk about classroom climate?  Classroom climate can be defined as “…the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical environments in which our students learn. The Center for Teaching and Learning (CTE) at Cornell University provides an overview of the factors that teachers should consider in thinking about classroom climate. Last, but certainly not least, I recommend watching a video produced for the 2014 MOOC  An Introduction to Evidence-Based Undergraduate STEM Teaching. It’s the beginning of the semester (or quarter) and already you are experiencing the problem. The answer is yes, but how you choose to handle the situation may depend on the size of your class, the culture at your institution, and your teaching philosophy. Duquesne University Center for Teaching Excellence has a page of advice on reducing late arrivals, including arriving early yourself so that you can interact with students as they come into class. The Eberly Center for Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation at Carnegie Mellon University has a section on their website called Solve a Teaching Problems, which is a great resource for a range of issues instructors are likely to encounter. The key take-away from all the advice offered is that to solve the problem of student tardiness, you must first understand the reasons that students are arriving late. I am excited to report on a project here at Johns Hopkins that will provide resources (available to all) for supporting inclusive practices in the classroom. Funded by a Diversity Innovation Grant (DIG) of the Diversity Leadership Council (DLC), TILE will be a repository of examples and best practices that instructors use in order to spark conversations in the classroom that foster diversity and inclusion. Funding would be used to begin a conversation with faculty who are currently implementing inclusive practices in the classroom. Project collaborators are Demere Woolway, Director of LGBTQ Life; Shannon Simpson, Student Engagement and Information Fluency Librarian, and myself, with support from the Sheridan Libraries and Museums Diversity Committee. The National Education Association (NEA) offers strategies for developing cultural competence for educators. The Center for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (CIRTL) has some excellent diversity resources on its website, including a literature review, case studies, and a resource book for new instructors. Research studies have not shown mandatory attendance to insure a higher success rates for students. Inside Higher Ed featured an article, Attendance Not Required (December 17, 2012) by Michael Bugeja, director of the Greenlee School of Journalism and Communication at Iowa State University. On the other side of the discussion, in 2013, Midland University in Fremont, Nebraska adopted an extremely tough “three strikes” attendance policy.
A recent post (July 14, 2014) in the Advice section of The Chronicle of Higher Education, presents the views of Michelle LaFrance and Steven J.
Humanities courses are often taught using a model of assigning readings outside of class and engaging students in discussions in class. Schuman concludes that her experiment was an incentive for students to improve their reading habits outside of class for the subsequent book studied – they didn’t like the flipped class experience. Recently a faculty member was overhead making the comment that syllabi are just chapter headings arranged by week.
Richard Shingles, a lecturer in Johns Hopkins Department of Biology who also directs the Center for Educational Resources TA Training Institute, offers graduate students in his workshops a number of suggestions for preparing a syllabus.
There have been several attempts to build a database of university and college level syllabi, including one by Dan Cohen, the director of the Digital Public Library of America, which unfortunately is no longer functioning. A new online, peer-reviewed journal, called Syllabus is devoted entirely to the display of examples from a wide range of disciplines. For the instructor use of the syllabus doesn’t end with distributing it to your students on the first day of class. Flipsnack allows you to publish material online in an application that simulates page-turning. Barbara Goss Davis reminds us: “…a well prepared course syllabus shows students that you take your teaching seriously.
You have pulled together your syllabus, lined up the readings on course reserves, planned your class presentations, and mapped out the assignments. This week, 161 years ago, on an icy day in much of the Northeast, Harper & Brothers released the American edition of Moby-Dick. It has just been reported that Lynne Ramsay, who made the film We Need to Talk About Kevin, will bring the story of Moby, Ahab, Ishmael, and company to film, with them somehow situated in outer space. Why, then, this immense interest in a novel and its characters, in a book that was composed in a fury in the mid-19th century by Herman Melville? Nathaniel Philbrick suggested in a lovely, slim volume, Why Read Moby-Dick?, published a year ago, that Moby-Dick is our literary “genetic code,” presumably meaning that we return to the novel because we encounter ourselves and our national history through it.
It is a mistake, however, to presume that such attention bestowed on Moby-Dick is something new.
Popular culture joined with intellectuals of the 1920s toward the uptick of the present moment, to represent Moby-Dick.
George Cotkin, a professor of history at California Polytechnic State University at San Luis Obispo, has just published Dive Deeper: Journeys With Moby-Dick (Oxford University Press). Shirley Ann Jackson, president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, was one of 36 leaders of private colleges whose compensation exceeded $1 million in 2012, according to a survey released today by the Chronicle of Higher Education. Well, as you might have heard, paying for college isn’t easy, and students everywhere are finding creative ways to finance their educations.
Emerging a couple of decades ago as an initialism for laugh[ing] out loud, it suffered misuse through most of its brief life by well-meaning parental units who construed it as lots of love. Its chief use has becomes sarcasm—magnified, as Urban Dictionary points out, by spelling the initials phonetically (Ell oh ell real funny joke). That is, whether it starts a sentence or ends a sentence, whether it expresses “This is not a joke” or “Did you get that?” or “I’m trying to flirt with you,” the use of lol boils down to Buzzfeed’s No.
We don’t know much about him, and his texts and tweets are unlikely to paint a full picture of his psyche. They do not represent the position of the editors, nor does posting here imply any endorsement by The Chronicle. Her publications include Gender Shifts in the History of English and How English Works: A Linguistic Introduction.


Before moving to Germany, she worked for the Financial Times as a reporter and editor, in New York and London. His new new book is The B Side: The Death of Tin Pan Alley and the Rebirth of the Great American Song. She taught in the Department of Psychology at Loyola University Maryland from 2005 to 2014, before accepting a position as Associate Teaching Professor and Director of Clinical Psychological Studies in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Johns Hopkins. The large enrollment for Abnormal Psychology was a particular challenge for her after the small classes she taught at Loyola Maryland. Even if your classes have already started up, it’s not too late to consider some tips for improving the teaching and learning experience in your classroom. By informally rotating through the roster of students, the instructor can create connections. The approach can be as simple as using the board to write an outline of your lecture or list of discussion topics. What do you wonder?” Using material related to your course content to stimulate informal discussion at the start of class can “can activate students’ prior knowledge, helping them form connections with what they already know. Instead, Lang suggest opening class with a question or two, the answers to which will be uncovered during class. Lang proposes that “… instead of offering a capsule review to students, why not ask them to offer one back to you?” He points out that learning researchers have shown that quizzing students works not only as an assessment of student learning but promotes it. In these classes, however, writing often plays a big role and plagiarism, intentional or not, can be an issue. These innovations can be time-consuming for an instructor to implement, however, and if the class size is large, it may not be possible to follow a flipped class or hybrid model. There are a number of academic websites with resources for dealing with preventing cheating on tests, for example the Center for Innovation in Teaching & Learning at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, offers a tip sheet on Dealing with Cheating. It’s worth repeating the citation of the University of North Carolina’s Center for Faculty Excellence’s blog, CFE 100+ Tips for Teaching Large Classes, article Tip #27: Discourage Cheating by Providing Moral Reminders and Logistical Obstacles.
Not only must we be aware of blantant biases in dealing with students, but also the micro-inequities, small but significant interactions that have a negative effect on students.
The video is about 12 minutes long, and covers the recognition of the range of gender identities, use of preferred names over birth names, the use of pronouns, the need for resources and staff deticated to LGBTQ student life, and restroom and housing issues.
This course is being offered again this fall by the CIRTL (Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning) Network. DiPietro suggests that we start by examining our assumptions, which can be a difficult task as we are often blind to our own preconceptions. Some instructors take a hard line approach, others may attempt to deal with each offender individually.
For each issue, potential reasons are identified and appropriate solutions and strategies are offered. The conversations will result in a report-out session, scheduled for April 2015, when faculty will share ways in which they specifically support and foster an environment of inclusion that can then be replicated in other classrooms. Most important will be the various lecturers and faculty from across the disciplines who will work with us on developing the toolkit. While TILE is in development, here are two resources for those interested in exploring ways to improve classroom climate.
Clair’s work dates from 1999, and it could be argued that much has changed in the classroom and in institutions of higher education in the past fifteen years. 17-18) offers some good general advice: “Let students know in the syllabus and on the first day of class that you expect them to come to class regularly. From the plethora of articles appearing recently in the Chronicle of Higher Education and Inside Higher Ed, it’s clear that flipping is now the big thing in pedagogical approaches.
Larger, lecture-style courses at the introductory level may have students met in smaller sections for the discussion component.
She speaks honestly about her reservations on flipping her class, but after hitting a point mid-term where her students didn’t seem to be doing the readings and in-class discussion were flagging, she made a flip. But we never had a chance to have the kind of discussion for which college was invented: the kind that happens when careful reading gets done at home, so there is time in class for everyone’s ideas to be challenged, everyone’s theories to be pushed and tested. Shingles recommends trying to anticipate and answer student questions with information provided in the syllabus, and keeping the schedule flexible when possible by giving topics for the week versus the day.
A novel, it must be admitted, that initially lacked readers and became part of the literary canon only in the 1930s.
Understood in this manner, the novel is about race (the multicultural backgrounds of the crew are striking, as well as historically accurate) and imperialism on one level, and about the metaphysics of yearning for absolute knowledge on another.
We live in a culture drowning in the shallow waters of reality television, steamy soft-core porn novels, and tepid politics. Intellectuals aplenty in the 1920s embraced the book as a critique of bourgeois culture; they identified, too, with Melville, who had lived among cannibals, shown homoerotic tendencies, and written a book that he knew was blasphemous. The initial film version, a silent feature of 1926, was called The Sea Beast and starred John Barrymore. Many other films and television adaptations have followed (Patrick Stewart, John Hurt, and Barry Bostwick have all played Ahab), making Ramsay and Shyamalan latecomers. Whenever cultural creators feel that “damp, drizzly November” of the soul, when creativity is paltry and the outrages of insipidness drag them down, they pick up their copies of Moby-Dick and take to sea with it. Give me Vesuvius’ crater for an inkstand!” Let’s hope that all creative artists dip into this inkwell of a novel. Since the millennium it has devolved through irony to sarcasm until it arrived, as Katie Hearney at Buzzfeed points out, at meaninglessness. My colleague Anne Curzan has pointed out this application of lol, and my students take her one further.
8, “I am uncomfortable with my feelings and expressing them.” Isn’t sarcasm often a smokescreen for this very discomfort? But however “chilling,” “cold-blooded,” or “dark” that picture ends up being, one thing seems clear from the lols sprinkled through his social communications: he was distancing himself from emotions he might otherwise have felt or expressed.
She talks about trends in the English language in a weekly segment, "That's What They Say," on Michigan Radio. He wrote (with Rodney Huddleston) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002) and A Student's Introduction to English Grammar (2005). He is general editor of The Norton Anthology of Latino Literature, the publisher of Restless Books, devoted to contemporary literature from around the world, and co-founder of Great Books Summer Program. As she notes in the video she sought ways of teaching much larger classes and keeping a conversational style and an environment that engages students. The results can be striking—a more positive classroom climate, increased participation in discussions, better evaluations from the students at the end of the course were cited.
It also offers both the instructor and the students the opportunity to discuss how the images connect to previous course material.” As well, students see your excitement about the course content. At the end of class, return to the questions so that your students can now formulate potential answers.
Even in face-to-face classes students can avail themselves of these for fee services that supply research papers that will pass through plagiarism detectors and provide answers to other types of assignments.
The Cornell CTE discusses the factors that play into creating a negative or positive climate (sterotyping, tone, interactions, and choice of content) and offers examples of ways to access and improve your classroom climate. Especially valuable, he makes us aware of the fact that even the best-intentioned instructors may be unaware of the ways in which classroom climate has consequences for their students.
Or perhaps a small group saunters in just as your lecture or discussion is getting going, fresh coffees in hand. The latter concept, to speak individually to students who arrive late, is worth considering.
For Students come to class late, possible reasons include: students don’t take responsibility for themselves, students’ expectations are out of line with the instructor’s, students don’t recognize how their lateness affects others, students don’t perceive the beginning of class as important, there is no consequence to being late, students are trying to challenge the instructor’s authority, students are experiencing emotional or psychological problems, and students have physical or logistical reasons for coming late.
Even those with the best intentions may unwittingly create classroom environments where students from minority communities feel uncomfortable or excluded. These conversations will lead to the development of a toolkit that will include examples of best practices.
Or do you leave it up to the individual student to determine how to acquire the knowledge necessary to pass the course? While more recent studies on attendance have been conducted, these have focused on attendance for online courses or other issues, for example, whether providing lecture materials online causes student class attendance to decline. He collected and posted the reasons, because he felt that faculty are not well informed as to why students miss classes. LaFrance, an assistant professor of English and director of the writing-across-the-curriculum program at George Mason University, uses a prompted freewriting exercise at the start of each class as a means of both encouraging and taking attendance. Our experience has been that the faculty practicing flipping here at Johns Hopkins have been in the STEM disciplines.
Discussion of the readings is generally a key component to the learning experience in humanities courses. In class, students did close reading and worked in small groups on worksheets (like “problem sets” in STEM classes) she’d created. Yes, they read carefully—but the reading itself took up so much of class that I felt their “end point” was still, in some ways, more cursory than a traditional class would have been.
The pedagogical method should match the course objectives rather than be adapted because it is the latest trend.


Other faculty in your department might share their syllabi, but there other resources awaiting your perusal. This initiative includes partners from Columbia, UNC, Harvard, Parsons, The New School, and has Dan Cohen on its advisory board.
Perhaps you find you need to spend more time on a particular topic, or that the first assignment might work better if it came a week later. Log into your computer and go to Moby Dick Big Read to find daily a project that features celebrities such as Tilda Swinton and, eventually we are told, Prime Minister David Cameron of Britain, reading a chapter aloud. Even today, Moby-Dick is considered by many as too bulky, sloppy, difficult (read the chapters on cetology), and gory. It is, then, relevant to both the daily grind of politics and the itching of existential longing. Although the novel flirts with apocalyptic visions and opens with Ishmael’s admission of suicidal thoughts, the book ends with the open, impressionable Ishmael as a survivor, redeemed by the good ship Rachel. At various times, American thinkers have favored Starbuck’s moderation over Ahab’s fanaticism, and looked to Ishmael as either an ineffective American dreamer or an exemplar of pluralistic liberalism. They hope, as had Melville, to extend their own reach, to get to the meaning of America, both its past and present, and to try to punch through the ever-present “paste-board mask” of reality.
Bob Dylan in his “Bob Dylan’s 115th Dream,” from 1965, invokes Ahab, who tells his crew to “forget the whale” as they alight upon the shores of a new land.
The company’s press release included a top-20 list (what else?) of colleges with the largest number of prospective sugar babies who joined the Web site in 2011. As the competition among students becomes more and more intense, prospective sugar babies will need to find ways to stand out in the eyes of their would-be benefactors. Don’t other interjections often convey—albeit without a leftover reference to laughing—the speaker’s feelings of awkwardness or ambivalence? His last tweet, “I’m a stress free kind of guy,” takes such ironic distancing to its limit. When a laugh becomes a smirk and “out loud” is reduced to cryptic silence, lol can mean SOS, the Good Ship Sincerity lost in a storm of sarcasm.
Some of his writing for Language Log is collected in the book Far From the Madding Gerund (2006). Among her many awards are several that speak to her success as a teacher, advisor, and mentor: 2015-2016 JHU Faculty Mentor for Provost’s Undergraduate Research Award, 2014-2016 JHU Faculty Mentor for Woodrow Wilson Fellowship Grant, and 2015 JHU Undergraduate Advising Award, Krieger School of Arts and Sciences.
Papadakis also talks about ways in which she sets expectations for students and specific activities she uses in class.
Creating this kind of agenda helps students see what is important and how topics are connected.
In the face of such egregious practices, what can faculty do to encourage students to be honest?
By the end of DiPietro’s presentation, we will understand not only why it important it is to access classroom climate, but what we can do to create the best possible learning environment for all students. Then there is the snowball effect—it starts with one or two latecomers to your early morning class, and then gradually the numbers increase until the disruption of late arrivals is too much to ignore. If your institution has a large campus, or several campuses from which students may be arriving, it could be that they don’t have sufficient time to change classes.
She chose two tactics—marking late students as absent with a grade reduction after four absences and periodically offering unscheduled, short, in-class, extra-credit activities at the start of class. However, when executed effectively, an inclusive classroom becomes a layered and rich learning environment that not only engages students, but creates more culturally competent citizens. Clair, A Case Against Compulsory Class Attendance Policies in Higher Education, Innovative Higher Education, Vol. However, instructors have written articles based on personal experiences that may provide insight for your consideration of the issue. He explained to his students that attendance correlates with achievement and had the data to prove it. Students receive points for each completed freewrite, but the exercises are not graded.  In anonymous surveys, students have been positive about the process. Students are also more likely to attend if they know that exams will include items that have been discussed in class only.
Does it make sense to have students view the lecture materials outside of class as they do for STEM courses? While the ones on flipsnack may seem daunting to the design challenged, some of her PDF versions are more easily emulated. Jake Heggie’s opera version of the story will have eight performances beginning this month in San Francisco. Melville gives us plenty of heroism, insanity, and tomfoolery, but in the end, he leaves us with a lifeboat fashioned literally (in his wonderful manner) out of a coffin. Few writers worth their creative salt have failed to confront Moby-Dick as a model, both to emulate and overcome. Ishmael suggests they name it America, and the rollicking tune ends, appropriately, with “Good Luck” as the American motto. New York University topped the list with 185 registrants, followed by the University of Georgia (155), and the University of Phoenix (144).
Michele DiPietro, Director of the Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning at Kennessaw State University, discusses the many aspects of classroom climate and the importance for student motivation and learning. Or there is the possibility that another instructor is consistently running late, leaving students to race to their next class.
For example, a biology professor might discuss intersex development as part of the curriculum, and an introductory engineering class might discuss Aprille Ericsson and some of her challenges at NASA.  When professors use these best practices in the classroom, they not only help students learn about some of the issues surrounding diverse populations, but also help give students the voice to be able to be more conversant about diverse issues. Perhaps not everyone will want to duplicate this approach, but his reasoning and results are worth examining. It also serves as a formative assessment as LaFrance writes: “But I like how this activity makes keeping attendance much simpler for me and, at the same time, is a useful means of taking the temperature of student learning. These could be created in Word or a basic design program such as Microsoft’s Publisher, which is often included in the Microsoft Office suite. He tells us—and I presume that is what attracts Ramsay and Shyamalan to the novel—that we are always aboard a ship that is in search of something, often leaking, sometimes under attack by threats real and imagined. John Huston’s 1956 version has etched in our minds the face of Gregory Peck upon the dismasted body of Ahab. Novelists as varied as Norman Mailer, Toni Morrison, Philip Roth, Charles Johnson, Cormac McCarthy, Chad Harbach, and most recently China Mieville have begged, borrowed, and stolen from it.
So, good luck to all those at present and in the future embarking on their own Ahabian creative endeavors. 2010.] How you, as an instructor, choose to interact with students in your classroom will affect the classroom climate. It is appropriate to work with students to find a solution, before penalizing them and before getting too far into the semester when habits may be harder to break. Most important is the engagement of students who otherwise may feel marginalized when their own unique experiences remain invisible.
3, Spring 1999, examines and evaluates the research literature on the relationship between attendance and academic achievement. Instead of standing at the front of the room placing check marks and late notes by student’s names on a roster, I return to my office later that day and spend some time reading their warm-up thoughts. If you want to reward good attendance, let students know how you will determine whether they come to class. Tona Hangen, a professor of history at Worcester State University in Massachusetts, has raised the bar to a higher level by sharing her syllabi via an application called flipsnack. A recent article in the Chronicle of Higher Education suggests that instructors would do well to look at the other twenty percent. I’m not only keeping track of attendance, I’m gauging how the course is going and where I may need to make adjustments, based on their comments.” Corbett, a visiting assistant professor of English at George Mason University, has a much stricter policy based on a concept of professionalism – in the real world if you don’t show up you don’t get paid. Rather than penalize absences (by subtracting points), reward perfect or near-perfect attendance (by giving bonus points); the numerical result will be the same, but students feel better about the latter. Auden, and Dan Beachy-Quick have been inspired by it to ponder the power of nature and the depths of emotion.
Clair applies Paul Pintrich’s model of college student motivation in the classroom to the issue surrounding attendance policies. Students are allowed two or three absences after which each absence takes a mark off their overall grade.
Most of the abstract expressionists sought to engage the novel; how could they not given its intimation that the great white whale would “remain unpainted to the last”? As the illustrations accompanying Moby-Dick Big Read attest, the book continues apace as a source of images and inspiration.
Louis and columnist for education at Slate and The Chronicle of Higher Education, examines these questions, and provides an account of her personal experience in partially flipping an introductory-level literature class in a post titled The Flipped Classroom. Clair notes that there are exceptions when it is necessary for students to attend class to demonstrate proficiency, for example, in foreign language and laboratory classes, small discussion sections or seminars where “…attendance is compulsory because it is part of the grading structure.” (p.



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