Any doubt that the vocative comma is a mere convention went out the window when I learned that Shakespeare (or, to be precise, Shakespeare’s typesetter) left it out of some of the lines now most familiar to us. Anne Curzan is a professor of English at the University of Michigan, where she also holds appointments in linguistics and the School of Education. Lucy Ferriss is writer in residence at Trinity College in Connecticut and the author of literary criticism, a memoir, and seven books of fiction. William Germano is dean of humanities and social sciences and a professor of English literature at Cooper Union. Rose Jacobs is an American freelance journalist and English teacher at the Technical University of Munich.
Ben Yagoda is a professor of English and journalism at the University of Delaware and the author of, among other books, How to Not Write Bad: The Most Common Writing Problems and the Best Ways to Avoid Them. Is anyone talking about the fact that students don’t graduate from college in a timely way not because they work,  but because the nature of the work students do has changed dramatically? This afternoon, I was reading this excellent article by William Finnegan about fast food workers’ labor activism. Here’s my question: how many of you know which of your students are working jobs in fast food and other retail industries where their hours fluctuate unpredictably? I was completely unaware of this system until last year, probably because I had worked on a well-endowed residential liberal arts college most of my life. Teaching in New York is different, and all of my students work at something, so it is not unusual to schedule contact with students around a shift, an internship or child care.
I had never had a student, at any school where I have taught, who appeared so enthusiastic about doing well in school and yet unable to do the simplest thing (in my view) to make it happen. Currently there is a lot of ballyhoo about how important it is to graduate college in four-year years: this infographic published in The Huffington Post last summer revealed the startling news that there is no state where the majority of students graduate in four years. Since I work at a school where people make steady progress towards a degree but graduate on their own timetable, I don’t think four years should be the threshold for success among traditional or nontraditional students.
Comments Policy: There will be no purely personal attacks, no using the comments section to tease someone else relentlessly, and no derailing the comments thread into personal hobbyhorses.
Contributors to this collection, edited by Claire Potter and Renee Romano, consider the wide range of challenges the practice of contemporary history poses. The Chronicle Blog Network, a digital salon sponsored by The Chronicle of Higher Education, features leading bloggers from all corners of academe. The study, published last month in the Annals of Internal Medicine, was funded primarily by grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Institutes of Health.
Of 3,528 participants in the study, only 58 had ever smoked cigars or pipes and not cigarettes, and only 428 had smoked pipes or cigars along with cigarettes. Only 47 of the subjects were current cigar smokers, of which only 16 were current cigar smokers who had never smoked cigarettes.
There was no effort in the study to determine the type of cigar smoked – machine-made or premium, hand-made cigars. If you would rather not receive future communications from International Premium Cigar and Pipe Retailers Association, let us know by clicking here. Lawrence Biemiller is a senior writer at The Chronicle who writes about facilities and architecture, and contributes to the Notes from Academe column. Scott Carlson is a senior reporter at The Chronicle, covering architecture, sustainability, and energy.
The experiment was conducted by John Watson in 1920 and was part of the psychologist’s attempt to prove that infants are blank slates and therefore infinitely malleable. Now comes another twist–one that, if accurate, would change how the Little Albert experiment is viewed and would cast a darker shadow over the career of the researcher who carried it out.
But what makes it worse, the authors of the paper argue, is that Watson must have known that Little Albert was impaired.
Also, when watching the original film of Little Albert, provided by Beck, who is a co-author on the paper, Fridlund thought the baby’s reactions were odd. They also discovered notes indicating that Merritte was having problems when he was just six weeks old.
At one point, doctors note that the baby’s meningitis was the result of the procedures performed at the hospital.
This is frank admission that the near-lethal infection that so devastated Douglas’s early development and, we believe, diminished his responsivity, was iatrogenic [caused by treatment or examination]. In other words, medical professionals caused, perhaps inadvertently or perhaps not, his debilitating condition before the infant was used in the unrelated fear experiment. If Fridlund is right, the story of Little Albert will become even sadder and the legacy of Watson significantly more tattered.
Beth McMurtrie is a senior writer focused on research in international studies and the influence of geopolitics on research. Marc Parry is a staff reporter who splits his time between covering technology and writing about research in the humanities and social sciences. University of Houston System Chancellor Renu Khator earned the most in the country, making $1.3 million in total compensation.
The only non-Texas leader in the top four was Michael Gottfredson, the former president of the University of Oregon.
Compensation was for the 2015 fiscal year, and included base pay, bonuses, severance pay and deferred compensation. Texas university leaders have always been well paid, but their compensation has jumped sharply in recent years. The pay is rising as Texas strives to grow the prestige of its top public universities and bring more into the top tier.
But the pay has also gained the attention of some state leaders who are frustrated with high spending at public universities. Members of the Pi Kappa Alpha chapter deny that that was the case, because, well, I imagine that the fear of being charged with violating one’s brothers with rubber tubing and booze is probably more terrifying than just about anything else those guys can imagine. In university-based organizations based upon a principle of exclusion, young men are allowed to indulge in behavior that is racist, sexist, and homophobic. A caveat:  I don’t think that the individual people who join Greek organizations are bad people.

OK, so before you call me out as some feminazi out to demonize the Greek system, know that I was one of its members, a sister in a sorority for one year before I de-sistered. And then I was nearly raped by a frat boy, some guy whose name I don’t even remember now, but whom I took to a dance out in the middle of nowhere because my sisters let me know, unequivocally, that the guy I wanted to take—a guy who wasn’t in a frat—would not be an acceptable date.
Joining a sorority may very well be the sole thing in my life that I unequivocally regret, the singular act that I know I should have known better than to undertake. Colleges seem disinclined to ever abandon the embarrassing anachronism that is the Greek system.
First the researchers asked participants to respond honestly to a number of spider-related fear tests. Participants were then asked to take the tests again, but to behave as if they were very afraid of spiders or not afraid of them at all.
I’m not sure I fully understand why this is meaningful, except that it tests whether people can trick the spider-fear tests. In an earlier post, I talked about a friend’s dilemma over email salutations, wherein the preferred casual “Hi” at the beginning is followed by a person’s name and then a comma, rendering the grammatically standard vocative comma (“Hi, Jane,”) perhaps superfluous and at least funny-looking. Those who choose not to use the serial comma are not really worried about the example I went to see the two strippers, JFK and Stalin. Those of us who are used to the convention stop in our tracks for a moment when it’s missing. They do not represent the position of the editors, nor does posting here imply any endorsement by The Chronicle. Her publications include Gender Shifts in the History of English and How English Works: A Linguistic Introduction. Before moving to Germany, she worked for the Financial Times as a reporter and editor, in New York and London. His new new book is The B Side: The Death of Tin Pan Alley and the Rebirth of the Great American Song.
Finnegan is not only an outstanding reporter, he has a talent for weaving in critical details that enrich a story without derailing it. Or which of your students have more than one of these jobs, sometimes in the same corporation, because they cannot be guaranteed enough hours at one job to support themselves while in school? Then I learned from another student, quite by accident, that this student had two different jobs at two popular clothing retailers, that he never received his work schedule for the week until Sunday night or Monday morning, and that his steadiest shifts ran from 10 p.m.
Only students who are very well supported, financially and academically, can reasonably be expected to make it through eight semesters in a row without a hitch However, I do think we need to be looking at how low and extended graduation rates, particularly among working and lower middle class students, are tied to an exploitative corporate labor market that sees all workers as playing pieces to be moved across the board to maximize profits. These essays address sources like television and video games, the ethics of writing about living subjects, questions of privacy and copyright law, and the possibilities that new technologies offer for writing history. It is prejudicial and preconceived, thereby justifying the labeling of the survey as being a corrupt misuse of junk science,” said Chris McCalla, legislative director of the IPCPR which is comprised largely of some 2,000 neighborhood mom-and-pop retail stores and family-owned manufacturers of premium cigars, pipes, tobacco and related accoutrements.
This would turn a cruel experiment of questionable value into a case of blatant academic fraud. Fridlund, an associate professor of psychology at the University of California at Santa Barbara, found the argument persuasive, and one detail stood out. Presumably, a more cognitively developed child would be easier to condition and the results would have greater generality.
The authors write about the baby’s mother, Arvilla, who was a wet nurse at the hospital. Khator in particular has worked hard to raise the stature of the University of Houston, where she serves as a joint appointment as the chancellor of the system and president of the flagship campus. I mean, people might think they’re gay, never mind that people might think they’re sadists. I was not surprised by a 2005 incident in which the body of a University of Texas fraternity pledge, found dead after a night of partying, was covered in homophobic slurs.
Only when that behavior endangers the life of one of their own are penalties enforced—and those penalties, public and embarrassing as they are, are mere slaps on the wrist for men who graduate and become upstanding members of society. I know, love, am related to, care about, and educate plenty of amazing people who participate and thrive in Greek life and who exemplify all that’s good about humanity.
If you’re a man in a fraternity, then you are an alpha male, the epitome of all that is lionized in your culture. I joined a sorority because my high-school friends, with whom I went to college, wanted me to. First, I sat on the other side of rush, in the back of a classroom doing my homework (and getting told to stop doing my homework and pay attention to the photos of the rushees being projected on the screen in front of me), and listened as these women with whom I’d linked my fate rated potential pledges based upon their appearance, their past boyfriends, and their connections with current sisters.
I was able to fight the frat boy off only because he was falling-down drunk and I was sober. I hate myself for not paying better attention to that consistent and resounding voice—the part of me that I now know is my self—that told me it was nonsense. Cease and de-sister!), I was treated like a leper by women who had once vowed undying love to me. In the study, the researchers tried to figure out whether people can successfully fake being afraid of spiders, and also whether people can fake not being afraid of spiders.
What the researchers found was that people exaggerated their fear (or lack of it) when they were faking, and so it was possible for researchers to tell, in most cases, when they were pretending and when they weren’t. But I was interested to discover that there is something called a Spider Anxiety Screening.
I’ve been counting, and of the hundreds of emails I’ve received from students since that post appeared, none — and I mean zero — used a comma after “Hi” or “Hello.” The emails beginning “Dear Prof. She talks about trends in the English language in a weekly segment, "That's What They Say," on Michigan Radio.
He wrote (with Rodney Huddleston) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002) and A Student's Introduction to English Grammar (2005). He is general editor of The Norton Anthology of Latino Literature, the publisher of Restless Books, devoted to contemporary literature from around the world, and co-founder of Great Books Summer Program. One of these is that people resign from professional jobs in Latin America and Caribbean countries to earn $7-$8.00 an hour at a McDonalds in New York. Tapia laughed, and mimicked a manager frantically snipping each line out of a printed schedule, for individual distribution. “This way, it’s harder for us to see what’s going on at the store.

Although students could walk to a few of the fast-food franchises where ill-paid work flourished, there wasn’t much of a retail culture in this small college town. To what extent can we tackle long graduation timelines, or students amassing credits without graduating at all, if we do not examine the labor market that they are turning to in  order to pay the bills? Doing Recent History offers guidance and insight to any researcher considering tackling the not-so-distant past. One of the longstanding mysteries about the experiment, the identity of Little Albert, was apparently solved in 2010 by Hall P. The entire experiment, then, would be a case of a researcher terrifying a sick baby for no valid scientific reason (not that using a healthy baby would have been ethically hunkydory). According to the official story, Merritte had died in 1925 after contracting hydrocephalus as the result of a bout of meningitis in 1922. The reactions, Fridlund thought, were those of a baby with neurological problems and perhaps poor vision. Merritte was a very ill infant who, perhaps because of the hydrocephalus he had had since birth, couldn’t see well and, according to his relatives, never learned to walk or talk. According to Watson and Rayner (1920), Albert was chosen because he was “stolid and unemotional” (p. Because wet nurses were of low social status, and because she worked for the institution itself, she may have felt unable to turn down a request for her baby to be used in Watson’s experiment. When all compensation is accounted for, there are now four top-level public university administrators making more than $1 million per year.
And now the hospitalized student is denying it as well, despite physical evidence to the contrary. And I haven’t been surprised by the numerous incidents of fraternity parties where whites show up in blackface, or by the misogyny that is fostered by fraternities and tacitly condoned by the institutions of higher learning that perpetuate their existence. I got yelled at for refusing to take part, and I gathered my notebooks and walked right out of the room. I was suddenly like a person with a physical deformity that made me at once pitiable and grotesque. In another, they were asked to move as quickly as possible into a room where a (real) tarantula was crawling around inside a terrarium. Should other researchers wish to follow-up, allow me to suggest my tool shed as a possible laboratory. Neither does any confusion between a friend named Betty and the colloquial name for a dessert.
My stopping to consider the missing comma impedes my enjoyment of the poem or story, and I suspect it could impede others’ enjoyment, not to mention the potential acceptance of said poem or story for publication by a persnickety editor. Some of his writing for Language Log is collected in the book Far From the Madding Gerund (2006).
Off campus jobs consisted of baby sitting and lawn work, although I once had a student who was paying his way through school as a weekend flight attendant for Southwest Airlines. The excuses and apologies were endless, as was the eagerness to earn points back for missed classes, hand in late work, and make new appointments — which were then missed. In the interest of teaching students, it leaves exposed many structural and mechanical features that are hidden in most buildings. But even when I was rushing, and later when I pledged, I knew that this deal was not for me. The problem, clearly, was mine, and every time I saw one of my former sisters, I received a heartfelt “How are you?” But I never once regretted leaving. But the dropped comma in direct address seems to have become standard usage for email exchange. So I mark it, I talk to students about it, I try to inspire renewed use of the vocative comma. This is repeated multiple times until the baby starts to cry at the mere appearance of the rat, loud clang or no. He and his co-authors argued that Little Albert was Douglas Merritte, the son of a wet-nurse who worked at the Johns Hopkins University, where the experiment was carried out.
If Merritte had meningitis severe enough to cause hydrocephalus, he believed, it’s doubtful the child would have survived it for so long. Goldie, an associate professor of neurology at the University of California at Los Angeles, and had him review the tape, not telling him in advance that it was of the famous Little Albert experiment.
Presumably, most parents, if given a choice, would not allow their babies to participate in an experiment in which researchers terrify them.
I didn’t want to exclude the friends I had made during my first year of college, and I most certainly didn’t want to have to live, as was requisite for sorority members, in Greek housing. But its absence long ago ceased to bother me in email salutations, and I suspect it will bother me less and less in written discourse as time goes on. Professional academic advising seems to be the biggest growth industry in higher ed: I could not find a single piece of reporting on it, but there were dozens and dozens of jobs.
The fear extends to other furry things like a dog and a monkey, animals that previously provoked only mild interest.
If we accept the investigators’ rationale, a concern for children prompted them to select such an impassive baby. But I thought that I would get used to things, to being a member of something that felt bigger, something that felt like, maybe, real life.
I may eventually cease marking it at all, as I’ve ceased “correcting” alright to all right.
She was dependent on her employer both for her job and for the medical care of her sick baby.

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