Then, about 15 years ago, I started to notice the use of English words and phrases in product and company names, marketing, and advertising.
If I am right, then the sweet spot, no pun intended, for English would probably be the bill of fare for prepackaged ice-cream products.
Anne Curzan is a professor of English at the University of Michigan, where she also holds appointments in linguistics and the School of Education. Lucy Ferriss is writer in residence at Trinity College in Connecticut and the author of literary criticism, a memoir, and seven books of fiction. William Germano is dean of humanities and social sciences and a professor of English literature at Cooper Union. Rose Jacobs is an American freelance journalist and English teacher at the Technical University of Munich.
Ben Yagoda is a professor of English and journalism at the University of Delaware and the author of, among other books, How to Not Write Bad: The Most Common Writing Problems and the Best Ways to Avoid Them. For a graduate course in Ethnographic Research Methods, I used a graphic display that depicted how individual assignments helped achieve a single goal.  This helped students understand that if they missed one assignment, for example, they could not meet one of the objectives for the course. Along with helping faculty think and rethink our courses, graphical displays provide a number of benefits to students.  Graphical displays are clearer to visual learners, they show how a course is organized, and they function as a map to a course. Amy Cavender is a member of the Congregation of the Sisters of the Holy Cross, and Associate Professor of Political Science and interim Director of the Center for Academic Innovation at Saint Mary's College, Notre Dame, Indiana. Brian Croxall is the Digital Humanities Strategist at Emory University's Digital Scholarship Commons (DiSC) and Lecturer of English. Kathleen Fitzpatrick is director of scholarly communication of the Modern Language Association and Visiting Research Professor of English at New York University. Lincoln Mullen is a PhD candidate at Brandeis University and a historian of religion in early America and the nineteenth century. Anastasia Salter is an assistant professor of digital media at the University of Central Florida. Mark Sample is an Associate Professor at Davidson College, where he also directs the college's Digital Studies program. Few debates in the recent past have been as contentious as the one surrounding the history of gun ownership.
Data from probate inventories, militia rolls, and colonial census returns reveal that private gun ownership was quite common during the 1600s, and though it declined in cities and along the coast during the later 1700s, it remained widespread in most rural areas.
During the second half of the 18th century, colonial governments and then revolutionary state governments concluded that lighter personal firearms were no longer adequate for soldiers in the field or militiamen at musters. By the time the fighting had ended, state militias lacked adequate firearms, which became a continuing problem and source of discontent.
In the late 1780s, many state militias no longer appeared to be capable of ensuring what the Second Amendment would call the "security of a free State" without improved organization, better training, and thousands of publicly supplied military muskets with bayonets. Instead, the very real danger was that the existing state militias would be disarmed by simple federal inaction. Anti-Federalists such as George Mason wanted reassurance that, "in case the general government should neglect to arm and discipline the militia there should be an express declaration, that the state governments might arm and discipline them." It was in that context that the Second Amendment emerged and was ratified in 1791.
So what does all of that say about the current debate over the regulation of firearms and the meaning of the Second Amendment?
Third, the assumption by the majority in Heller that the Second Amendment gave handguns constitutional protection because "the American people have considered the handgun to be the quintessential self-defense weapon" fails to meet the self-proclaimed standard of those jurists seeking to recover the Constitution's original meaning. Fourth, despite Justice Anthony Kennedy's observation during oral arguments in Heller that the authors of the Second Amendment were worried about defending themselves against "grizzlies and things like that," references to hunting, in general, and bears, in particular, were rather rare in the debates over the Constitution and the Second Amendment. The Second Amendment sought to reassure anti-Federalists rhetorically, but not substantively. Those who crafted and ratified the Second Amendment were dealing with very different issues from those we face today.
The Chronicle welcomes constructive discussion, and our moderators highlight contributions that are thoughtful and relevant. Mano Singham has written an essay "The New War Between Science and Religion" in the recent Chronicle of Higher Education.

Sitting in a cab one day, I heard the pop music interrupted by an accented voice saying, “Rahhdio Peter Pan.
They do not represent the position of the editors, nor does posting here imply any endorsement by The Chronicle. Her publications include Gender Shifts in the History of English and How English Works: A Linguistic Introduction. Before moving to Germany, she worked for the Financial Times as a reporter and editor, in New York and London. His new new book is The B Side: The Death of Tin Pan Alley and the Rebirth of the Great American Song. Templeton is the Anne Morrison Chapman Distinguished Professor of International Study and an associate professor of English at Converse College.
Houston is an associate professor of English at the University of Massachusetts Lowell and a personal productivity coach for academics and professionals. Once again, as the nation considers gun violence, gun rights, and gun regulation, we return to early America to shed light on the meaning of the Second Amendment. Bellesiles wrote a controversial book claiming that Americans at the time of the Second Amendment's ratification owned few guns and were not particularly skilled at using them, he triggered a firestorm of controversy. Generally, colonists preferred to own fowlers, Indian trade guns, and fusils (light muskets) well suited to birding, hunting, and pest control, and not heavier military-style muskets. Governments wanted their soldiers and militiamen armed like British Regulars, who carried the Brown Bess, a heavy, large-caliber smoothbore military musket that fired lead balls weighing about an ounce each and was equipped with a steel ramrod and 17-inch bayonet. To deal with the problem, a number of states distributed to their militiamen thousands of publicly owned military muskets equipped with steel ramrods and bayonets, but inadequate supplies, losses, and wastage made the task of providing the desired type of firearms nearly impossible. In Virginia, the former wartime governor Thomas Jefferson wrote that the "law requires every militia-man to provide himself with arms usual in regular service," but that "in the lower parts of the country they are entirely disarmed. Late in 1787, they protested when the state recalled their firearms to clean them and possibly redistribute them to exposed frontier counties.
Americans were not worried that agents of the new federal government would come, door to door, to take away their squirrel guns, trade guns, fowlers, and pistols.
Today all 18th-century muzzle-loading, single-shot firearms appear to be ineffective and antiquated. According to the originalists, a document's words mean what the average rational man on the street thought they meant at the time. One could say they were almost as rare as encountering a grizzly bear east of the Ohio River. The need for it grew out of the Constitution's grant of power to the federal government for "organizing, arming, and disciplining" the state militias and the continuing need to equip them with military-style muskets. We need to move our discussions about guns beyond claims rooted in a debate over securing military muskets to arm the militia. Sweeney is a professor of American studies and history at Amherst College, and Saul Cornell is a professor of history at Fordham University. Singham admits to being one of the "new atheists," and writes from a scientistic, philosophical naturalist perspective.
Probably Francis Collins is not an "accommodationist." I think "accommodationism" fits better with Stephen Jay Gould's NOMA principle (Non-Overlapping Magisteria) than it does Collins's POMA idea (Partially Overlapping Magisteria). Singham writes: "The powerful appeal of religion comes precisely from its claims that the deity intervenes in the physical world, in response to prayers and such, religious claims, too, fall well within the domain of science.
I’ve just returned from 10 days in Italy, and can report that the public space is overwhelmed with discrete English words and phrases.
Rather, in the halls of Italian marketing, a consensus seems to have grown that the use of English words and phrases is a good way to express certain qualities.
She talks about trends in the English language in a weekly segment, "That's What They Say," on Michigan Radio. He wrote (with Rodney Huddleston) The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (2002) and A Student's Introduction to English Grammar (2005). He is general editor of The Norton Anthology of Latino Literature, the publisher of Restless Books, devoted to contemporary literature from around the world, and co-founder of Great Books Summer Program.

That revisionist thesis was soon discredited for its dishonest use of historical evidence, leaving largely unchallenged the suspect counternarrative put forth by some legal scholars and the National Rifle Association.
Essentially these weapons were in purpose closer to a modern shotgun or a .22 rifle than an M-16 assault rifle.
It is also telling that in 1786-87, the Massachusetts uprising that came to be known as Shays' Rebellion led to a climactic confrontation at the national arsenal in Springfield as both sides sought to control its store of 7,000 military muskets.
Nor was the problem that concerned them the disarmament of some imaginary "people's militia" or "civilian militia"—rhetorical terms found in the Heller decision that have no historical basis. But members of the founding generation saw them differently, making distinctions concerning the size and use of firearms just as we do today. The ruling makes sense only if you believe that Dirty Harry was the typical American in 1791. Protecting or banning firearms that would be the equivalent of today's shotguns and .22s was not really an issue at the time. At the same time, it is useful to be aware that even in the 18th century, citizens and lawmakers made distinctions concerning the appropriate uses of different types of firearms. Sweeney is the author of "Firearms, Militias, and the Second Amendment," which will appear in August in The Second Amendment on Trial: Critical Essays on District of Columbia v. Start with this book, and the evidence and arguments presented, and it will lead you into a world of disagreement with Singham's position.
The only deity that science can say nothing about is a deity who does nothing at all." Singham is forced to say this out of his philosophical naturalism. Of course it is "weird" for a naturalist to believe in a God who, for example, answers prayers. It's a beautiful example of the "slippery slope" fallacy. Does belief in Christian theism commit one then to believe in witchcraft and astrology? And note that for the most part, I wasn’t in heavily touristy areas, but in small cities like Modena, Verona, and Ravenna. Some of his writing for Language Log is collected in the book Far From the Madding Gerund (2006). A distinct minority of colonists, mostly urban residents, owned pistols that had a limited range and limited military uses. Heller, edited by Cornell and Nathan Kozuskanich (University of Massachusetts Press, 2013). Add to this the "hard problem" of first person subjective consciousness, and the intractable problems the philosophical naturalist faces in trying to explain this.
Behind the charges seems to lie the assumption that it is rude to even question religious beliefs or to challenge the point of view of the accommodationists.
Over the course of a day or so, I wrote down all the examples I encountered — on the sides of trucks, on billboards, in store windows, on products, or in the names on buildings, shops, or restaurants.
Nothing else follows from this, except to say that the noetic framework of some scientists is religious, while Singham's is atheistic. Singham here shows his unfamiliarity with the literature, and sounds too much like Richard Dawkins.
Here I think worldview issues are important in that one's worldview provides the hermeneutic grounds for interpreting "facts," none of which can be accessed "objectively." "Objectivity" is a function of a noetic framework. There's a universe of critical literature that not only shows Dawkins's philosophical ignorance on display but his over-bearing name-calling. Apparently Singham thinks people like Francis Collins should simply keep quiet, and he refers to Collins et.

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