Another frequent issue you will may deal with at some point is lower leg swelling on your horse.
This newsletter discusses lower limb swelling and how it can affect your horse’s performance. Below the carpus (front knee) in the front limb, and the tarsus (hock) in the hindlimb, the horse’s anatomy is basically the same. The flexor tendons, suspensory ligament, and splint bones are the usual suspects when dealing with swelling behind the cannon bone. At the junction of the cannon and P1 pastern bone we have the fetlock joint, and 2 small sesamoid bones at the back. With the previous anatomy in mind, the first step of dealing with limb swelling is an exam of the affected area.
There’s a lot of things to assess, but those are the details your veterinarian is thinking about while evaluating a case like this.
External trauma like kick injuries, interference, and clipping can cause immediate swelling anywhere on the leg. Overloading the normal functional ability of the soft tissues can produces the same effect as external trauma. This can be from trauma mentioned above, but more often just happens because of irritated soft tissue in the limb. Penetrating wounds, lacerations, or sometimes just partial thickness abrasions can allow bacterial contamination of leg structures. The first thought when your horse has a swollen leg is “What can I do to get rid of it ?” That’s understandable.
We do our physical exam and lameness exam, then combine that with a great history from the owner or trainer. A hyperextended knee is when your knee is bent backwards passed its normal range of motion. A hyperextended knee happens when coming down after jumping and landing awkwardly where your knee takes impact when it’s straight and forces the knee backwards.
Pain behind your knee – and sides of your knee is an obvious sign of a hyperextended knee. Rehabbing a hyperextended knee consists of stretching and exercising the knee to regain strength and ROM. For sever knee hyperextensions with additional injuries such as a meniscus tear and ligament tear (acl,pcl,mcl), it will be necessary to have surgery. Generally speaking strengthening the medalias of the quads is the quickest way to recover from injuries to the knee that effect stability. It’s easy to forget about the glut which will only prove to be detrimental in the future as being quad dominate will only stress the anterior knee more so.
Hello I have a very mild hyperextended knee that I got this Sunday it’s getting better and there was also almost no swelling.
I want to state first that I have no certified credentials to diagnose your injury, but can only give my opinion. Previous story [Sports Motivation Video] NBA Video to Get You PUMPED for Basketball Season!
December 17, 2014 by Ram Leave a Comment Deep vein thrombosis is the formation of blood clot called thrombus in one of the deep veins of your body. In rare cases a condition called pulmonary embolism occurs when the blood clot breaks off traveling towards the lungs or heart thus blocking the normal blood flow. This condition also develops when the person’s blood has the tendency to coagulate faster than normal rate.
Surgery, injury or trauma to the veins of your legs can interrupt normal blood flow leading to formation of blood clots. Your doctor will observe the leg condition taking a closer look on the calf muscles, ankle and foot. The ultimate aim of the treatment for deep vein thrombosis is to stop the blood clot to grow big and travel further and to prevent further clot formation.
For more severe cases, clot-busters are given intravenously to break the big sized blood clots.
In case you are detected with deep vein thrombosis, follow the instructions of your doctor in taking medications. Grade I: There is laxity in the ligament determined by the posterior translation of the tibia but the tibial plateau remains anterior to the condyle. Grade II: There is a partial tear of the ligament indicated by the anterior border of the tibial plateau but sits flush with the femoral condyle.
Grade III: A complete tear of the PCL is likely when the anterior border of the tibial plateau rests posterior to the femoral condyle. Signs and symptoms can vary according to the extent of the injury but may include loss of knee range of motion (ROM), decreased quadriceps strength, pain and swelling immediately following injury, reoccurrences of pain and swelling during and post activity, and decreased feeling of stability. Patients with PCL injury should manage their activity so it does not aggravate or worsen their instability leading to a complete PCL rupture. Interventions will vary within this pattern based on the PT diagnosis and may include therapeutic exercise, functional training in self-care and home management, functional training in work, community, and leisure, manual therapy techniques, prescription, application, and, as appropriate, fabrication of devices and equipment, electrotherapeutic modalities, and physical agents and mechanical modalities. Conservative rehabilitation and post-operative rehabilitation of the PCL have the same outcome goals and will vary mainly by increased length of tissue healing time with a post-operative approach. Patients should use this regime within the first 72 hours following a PCL tear or when inflammatory signs are present (i.e. Relieving Pain: Applying cold therapy for a 10-20 minute session can control pain for 1 or more hours.
Decrease Swelling: Apply ice or cold whirlpool immediately after injury and during the acute inflammatory phase of healing to help control bleeding, edema, and pain and to facilitate tissue healing. Application Guidelines: Cold application should be limited to 20 minutes and repeated at least an hour apart. Reduction of joint swelling and edema will occur by driving extravascular fluid out of the swollen area into the venous and lymphatic drainage systems. NSAIDs are used for analgesic purposes and can relieve pain from inflammatory and non-inflammatory sources.


NSAIDS have been shown to reduce activity in C and A-delta fibers in acute and chronic models of joint inflammation.
ROM exercises should begin immediately following the acute inflammatory phase to avoid the loss of range. Hydrotherapy: a hot whirlpool can be used to increase tissue extensibility and is also recommended for pain. A very important component of PCL rehabilitation is pain-free strengthening of the quadriceps, hamstring, gluteal and calf muscles to improve the stability of the knee joint with weight-bearing activities. Strengthening exercises include but are not limited to straight leg raises, 4 way hip strengthening, and quadriceps sets. Note: stairmaster with the patient facing the reverse direction puts an emphasis on quadriceps and can be used in conjunction with cardiovascular training. For conservative treatment place pillow under proximal tibia at rest to prevent posterior tibial sag for the first 6 weeks post injury. The pudendal nerve is responsible for proper functioning and control of urination, defecation and orgasm in both males and females.Located deep within the pelvic region, the pudendal nerve emerges from the base of the spinal cord (sacral area), and separates into three branches. Because the it carries signals between the brain and the pelvic organs (bladder, genitals, prostate, colon), serious problems can occur in the event of an injury.
There has been lots of opportunity for getting out riding the trails, working the arena, and traveling the show circuits. The SDF (superficial) and DDF (deep) flexor tendons are easily seen and felt as the tight bands underneath the skin on the back of the leg.
At the back of the cannon just above the fetlock there is a small out-pouching of the joint capsule with fluid in it. There are the pastern and coffin joints, tendons from above, sheaths for the tendons to move through, and ligaments holding everything together. Knowing the characteristics of the problem will help you make some decisions about what to do.
Whether barefoot or shod, normally these will have some evidence of abrasions or hair loss.
Hyperflexion or hyperextension of joints, and overstretching of tendons and ligaments will create swellings from acute hemorrhage with the tissues. Inflammation is the first thing to occur when soft tissues become stressed and it is the body’s natural defense to protect itself.
Another example is when running and coming to a sudden stop where your foot plants into the ground causing your knee to catch and hyperextend backwards passed the normal range of motion. The rehab process for a sever hyperextended knee with a torn ligament will take 6-9 months of rehabilitation.
My swelling lasted about a week, and then it would come back after every soccer game I played. The simplest and best advice I can give is to continue to use cold therapy, stretch, eat healthy and drink plenty of water. I’ve been putting icy hot on it, been taking ibuprofen, stretching it, and overall taking care of it. Listen to your body, if it’s painful, has swelling or is hard to bend, then you should take a break.
Based on the location of your injury and how you stated when you noticed it, my guess would be that you may have done something with your meniscus. But the same blood clot may develop inside the veins due to prolonged sitting hours or inactivity.
For some people, it can cause sharp pain in the legs causing swelling on the ankle or foot.
Deep vein thrombosis (as the name suggests) is the condition when blood clot develops on the deep veins and not on the superficial veins.
Smoking, prolonged use of contraceptive pills, genetic predisposition, certain types of blood cancer and polycythemia vera can cause hyper-coagulability. If your job involves sitting for extended hours like that of driving or flying you are prone to develop this problem due to poor exercise to your calf muscles.
This is a common sporting injury and can also occur frequently with front seat passengers in a motor vehicle accident whose knees came in contact with the dash board upon collision.
A PCL tear can result by placing excessive force on the ligament in any of these movements or combination of movements. The therapist will consider the patients pain, range of motion of the knee joint, strength deficits, and inflammation and edema acutely, during and after activity, and post operative. This is a result of blocking nerve conduction by deep pain transmitting A-delta fibers and by applying the gait theory of pain transmission by the cutaneous thermal receptors.
Evidence also indicates NSAIDs have a central nervous system analgesic effect at the level of the spinal cord and the thalamus. Progress to calf raises, hamstring raises, wall sits, stairmaster, water walking, treadmill training, agility training and return to full function will subsequently follow. Impaired joint mobility, motor function, muscle performance, and range of motion associated with connective tissue dysfunction — APTA guide to phys. These include:1) Urinary incontinence2) Bowel problems3) Prostate disorders4) Sexual dysfunction5) Painful sexual intercourse6) Pudendal neuralgia7) Pudendal nerve entrapment (PNE)The last two are chronic conditions which can cause great pain in lower pelvic areas (scrotum and penis, vagina, perineum, anal region). Managing the heat and staying cool seems to have been the most common issue this season, so that’s not a bad summer.
This type of swelling is non-painful, tends to be diffusely spread out, and resolves with some walking or riding. The problem is determining what YOUR horse has (ie not what your friend’s horse had) and why it occured.
We have the advantage of diagnostic anesthesia (nerve blocks), ultrasound examination, and digital radiographs (xrays) to provide or confirm our diagnosis. If your knee continues to swell or feel painful after a number of weeks, it may be time to consult your doctor to look into an MRI.
Although I’m taking care of it I have a timed mile and other speed sills for soccer on Thursday.
But after it happened I keep dancing and then the next day I ran 2 miles and then went to a 2 hour soccer practice.


People whose job involves sitting for long periods are prone to develop deep vein thrombosis.
Some of the symptoms of pulmonary embolism are rapid pulse rate, excess of sweating, chest pain, shortness of breath and feeling dizzy. Immobility due to prolonged hospitalization, extended hours of travel (flight or train), surgery (which can make you immobile temporarily), delayed pregnancy and obesity can cause deep vein thrombosis.
Sudden injury or trauma to the vein like bruises on the leg, fracture can cause deep vein thrombosis.
Long hospitalization or condition of paralysis can make your leg immobile causing this problem.
Heart problem, using of contraceptive pills for long, using pacemaker in vein, being overweight and smoking can induce this problem.
These drugs are called anticoagulants which would reduce the chance of blood clot formation. Filters are inserted surgically into one of the large veins permanently which would prevent clot formation and also prevent blood clots to travel to the lungs. In case you are taking warfarin, you need to check the dosage of vitamin K in your diet since it can affect the effective functioning of this medicine. Individuals who are taking blood thinners should immediately consult doctor if they have excess bleeding from any wound or injury.
The effect of cryotherapy on intraarticular temperature and postoperative care after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction Am J Sports Med.
Effect of coupling medium temperature on rate of intramuscular temperature rise using continuous ultrasound J Athl Train.
Effects of epidural anesthesia and analgesia on coagulation and outcome after major vascular surgery Anesth Analg. Intrathecal injection of acetylsalicylic acid, salicylic acid and indomethacin depresses C fibre-evoked activity in the rat thalamus and spinal cord Pain. In short, life loses most of its joys and pleasures when this 'mission control' pelvic nerve is injured. It is most easily seen and palpated as that tight vertical band just above the fetlock joint. Swellings of damaged structures will be painful early on, with heat and possible discharge at an abrasion site. Chronic internal stresses to structures like the suspensory ligament in a horse with poor conformation, or overworked horse, will result in small micro-tears that gradually increase swelling tendency in a limb. Sometimes the inflammation is triggered from elsewhere in the body far from the swollen leg itself. Scar tissue, adhesions, and chronic swelling can greatly reduce performance potential, and is life threatening in some cases.
About 4 weeks have gone by and just today I went for a light jog on the road and there was still a slight pain on the inside of my knee.
In rare cases DVT may develop into complications like pulmonary embolism affecting the lungs. Sometimes the area becomes tender and warm to touch and the skin may lose its original color turning into pale color.
If you experience any of the above symptoms, you need to visit your doctor without any delay. Blood circulation may get affected due to poor contraction of calf muscles which may cause deep vein thrombosis.
Blood culture is to be done for detecting the level of D dimer (a substance that dissolves clot). It would also help in further development of fresh blood clots apart from reducing the size of existing clot. Monitor your weight and blood pressure and wear compression stockings to prevent blood clots. Ambulating with crutches or a brace, regular icing, the use of a compression bandage and keeping the leg elevated are all indicated at during this inflammatory phase.
On either backside of the cannon there are the splint bones with the tip or “button” being the bottom landmark. But the problem occurs when the blood clot travels down and moves towards your heart affecting blood circulation. For some people venography test is done in which dye like material is injected into the vein of your foot and monitored for clots. It can suffer from what is known as nerve stretch injury, when it is stretched by as little as 12%.
Mild hyperextension does hurt and swell quite a bit, but it’s not that noticeable whenever you fully extend your knee (when I had this, I thought I had bruised all of the soft tissue in my knee). But it is necessary for you to follow the instructions of your doctor once you start taking these drugs to avoid unwanted side effects.
For less severe cases like superficial thrombophlebitis warm compression is useful in addition to taking pain relievers like ibuprofen. Severe hyperextension, however, is quite noticeable and is in the double digits of negative degrees (I can go -9 degrees in mine right now, which isn’t too bad).
You will have to do periodic blood tests for determining the time interval for blood clot formation. However, causes tend to be different for each type of bursitis: Prepatellar Tears or damage to the kneecaps or bursae may cause swelling. Other causes are: sports-related activities bending the knees repeatedly staying on the knees for long periods of time infection bleeding in the bursae Olecranon Repeatedly resting your elbows on hard surfaces can cause this type of bursitis.



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