Ever wonder what causes your legs to swell up and the thought of wearing that skirt you always wanted to wear to die out?You diet plays and important role in preventing unwanted leg swelling.
Take off your socks, because if you have been searching, you are definitely in the right place.
This column introduces 5 effortless ways to treat leg swelling at home that you can utilize right way and start seeing results before you have to go to work the next morning.
The recommended amount of sodium consumption that people need is 10 and 8 grams for men and women, respectfully. Pressure points have been used for healing in China since accent times and remains today as traditional Chinese medicine. The nerve ends in your body are connected and by applying pressure on specific parts of your body it is said to be connected to exterior conditions, such as constipation, tiredness, and pain tolerance.
Although pressure point therapy is often done with the use of needles, the same effect can be achieved using only your fingers.
Blowing out, apply pressure for 3 seconds, and then breathe in releasing pressure from the point. One reason why people suffer from feet swelling is through poor lymph circulation causing excess fluids to accumulate in certain areas of your body.
This accumulation of water and waste products is exactly what causes unnecessary swelling in the legs. Lymphatic massages work to improve circulation in the lymph system; thus effectively healing the swelling in your legs. The back of your knees is where lymph ducts from legs (lymph node) accumulate, so apply pressure lightly in this area; it is sensitive.
It is most effective to massage yourself when blood circulation is particularly good, such as after or while taking a bath.
The exercise that we are going to introduce next can be used to help drain lymph from extremities, your hands and legs. Simply by raising your legs up high, is it easy to get your blood flowing back to your upper body. Dangle your hands and feet in the air similar to the way you would shake water off when drying your hands. It's advantageous to do this exercise before going to sleep as you should already be lying down in bed. Raising your legs above the level of your heat is known to help return blood built of in your lower body back to your core.
Using a thick towel or floor cushion lying around your house, make a pillow, or anything at all as long as it allows you to comfortably elevate your feet. Now that you are ready to get started, I am going to tell you how you can eliminate leg swelling, detox your body, and relieve fatigue and dizziness simply only by using a foot pillow. Before we start, I would like to note that the procedure may make you sleep (not a bad thing) and that you should experience relieve from lower back (lumbar) pain.
It's important that you treat edema, the swelling in your legs, before the condition worsens and turns into cellulite. Changing your diet, routine maintenance (massage therapy, pressure points, and foot pillow placement) are the key to attacking leg swelling before undesired cellulite show its self in your precious skin.
The contents of this article serve as a reference, a safeguard, to keep reduce leg swelling and keeping your skin clean. Water retention diet for leg edema roundup to treat swollen feet before it’s too late. Massage the nodes in your lymphatic system to flush out bodily waste and toxins detoxing your body.
Stop cellulite early on with natural fluid retention treatments that gets rid of unwanted leg swelling. It's hard to keep a positive attitude about things when the feet you stand on are turning into tree stumps.
In TED optic neuropathy, the optic nerve becomes compressed by the enlarged muscles at the narrow orbital apex where the nerve exits the orbit to enter the brain cavity. The patient symptoms may include central visual blurring, loss of peripheral vision or colour desaturation.
Objective measures of optic neuropathy include a loss in central visual acuity and colour vision, an afferent pupil defect, and infrequently congestion or pallor of the optic nerve. Ancillary testing includes coronal CT or MR Scans to confirm crowding of the orbital apex, standardized visual fields, and rarely VEP or optic nerve head photos. Because the disease is usually in the active or progressive phase when optic neuropathy develops, some clinicians may arrange additional radiotherapy subsequent to the decompression to prevent further enlargement of the muscles and recurrence of neuropathy. Success of therapy for TED optic neuropathy from both a clinical or research standpoint is based on specific improved measurements for central vision, colour vision and visual fields.
Symptoms of ocular and periocular soft tissue inflammation include orbital aching at rest or with movement, and eyelid or conjunctival swelling and redness. The Clinical Activity Score (CAS) described and validated by Mourits and the Amsterdam Orbitopathy group assigns one point for each of the following: orbital pain at rest, orbital pain with movement, chemosis, caruncular edema, eyelid edema, conjunctival injection and eyelid injection. The VISA Inflammatory Score modifies the CAS slightly by widening the grade for chemosis and lid edema from 0-2.
Lid edema is graded as 1 if it is present but not causing overhanging of the tissues, and as 2 if it causes a roll in the lid skin including festoons in the lower lid. The pain score is based on the patient’s report of deep orbit discomfort rather than ocular surface irritation (0 = no pain, 1 = pain with movement, 2 = pain at rest). Treatment of active inflammation in TED depends on its inflammatory score and evidence of progression. In general, if the inflammatory grade is 5 or more, or if there is subjective or objective evidence of progression in the inflammation, more aggressive therapy should be considered, including oral or intravenous corticosteroids, radiotherapy, and in refractory cases, immunosuppressive agents. Combination therapy is receiving increasing attention in severe, progressive cases [26, 27] and interest is also turning to new immunomodulatory agents, such as anti-tumor necrosis factor agents (etanercept, infliximab) or B-lymphocyte directed therapy (rituximab). The symptoms for strabismus include a progression from no diplopia (double vision), diplopia with horizontal or vertical gaze, intermittent diplopia in straight gaze, and constant diplopia in straight gaze. Strabismus can be measured objectively by prism cover testing in different gaze directions. Ancillary testing includes using the Goldmann perimeter to quantify ocular ductions in four directions.  The patient keeps both eyes open and follows the V4e light target, tapping a coin when the image becomes double. Figure 4b: Once the inflammation controlled and the strabismus measurements are stable, prisms may be offered or alignment surgery with adjustable sutures can be performed.
Symptoms in this category include appearance concerns such as bulging of the eyes, eyelid retraction and fat pockets, as well as exposure complaints of foreign body sensation, glare, dryness or secondary tearing. Objective measures of appearance change include eyelid retraction (measured in millimeters), proptosis (measured with the Hertel exophthalmometer), and documentation of redundant skin and fat prolapse.  Measures of exposure include corneal staining or ulceration.
Rarely a tarsorrhaphy (temporarily suturing the upper and lower lids) or emergency orbital decompression may be required for severe exposure or corneal ulceration.
Once the inflammatory phase has settled, management for proptosis might include orbital decompression and for eyelid retraction may include upper lid lowering from an anterior or posterior approach or lower lid elevation.31  These surgical measures often relieve many of the exposure complaints. ITEDS is a non-profit society dedicated to educating the public and physicians about thyroid eye disease as well as conducting research to understand the disease and lead to prevention and cures.
Continuando con nuestro monografico sobre los riesgos del embarazo multiple, hoy hablaremos de la preeclampsia, una complicacion del embarazo relativamente comun pero a la vez bastante peligrosa para la madre y los bebes, por lo que es fundamental recibir un seguimiento medico adecuado.
Aunque la preeclampsia puede aparecer tambien en un embarazo unico (en el caso de Espana se calcula que se manifiesta entre un 1% y un 2% de los embarazos), la incidencia en embarazos multiples  es significativamente mayor. La preeclampsia, tambien conocida como toxemia del embarazo, se caracteriza por la aparicion de un cuadro de hipertension (subida de tension) junto con un aumento del nivel de proteinuria en la orina (existencia de proteinas en la orina en una cantidad elevada). Asi, durante la preeclampsia el cuerpo de la madre inicia un proceso de rechazo a la presencia del feto y la placenta. Hay que tener en cuenta que la aparicion de un cuadro de hipertension durante el embarazo no siempre significa que se trate de una preeclampsia. Generalmente la preeclampsia se manifiesta durante el embarazo, aunque tambien puede aparecer hasta seis semanas despues del parto (preeclampsia postparto). La conclusion es que la exposicion repetida al semen establece la tolerancia inmunologica necesaria para un embarazo sano con exito. Dado que se ha comprobado existe una cierta predisposicion en mujeres con familiares con antecedentes de preeclampsia, algunas teorias apuntan a que el origen estaria en una susceptibilidad genetica. Dado que se han documentado casos de preeclampsia en pacientes con embarazos ectopicos o molares, otras teorias apuntan a que la clave estaria en la placenta, siendo la severidad de la preeclampsia proporcional a la masa placentaria (como en el caso de los embarazos multiples). Esta imagen muestra el estrechamiento de los vasos sanguineos de la placenta propia de la preeclampsia, lo que provoca una restriccion del flujo sanguineo que debe llegar hasta los fetos.
Segun esta teoria el cuerpo de la madre produciria un agente que es toxico para las celulas endoteliales de la placenta debido a un desequilibrio en el sistema oxidativo.


La preeclampsia, si no recibe el tratamiento adecuado, puede provocar en la madre fallos renales o hepaticos, problemas de coagulacion, problemas cardiovasculares o incluso danos cerebrales.
Por lo que respecta al riesgo para los fetos, la preeclampsia aumenta el riesgo de desprendimiento prematuro de placenta. Tambien produce oligoamnios (disminucion del liquido amniotico), lo que puede provocar alteraciones en el crecimiento fetal y aumenta las posibilidades de que se produzcan complicaciones con el cordon umbilical,  dificultando el parto.
Por otro lado, el estrechamiento de los vasos sanguineos provoca que el riego sanguineo a ciertas areas de las placentas se vea restringido, por lo que los fetos reciben menos alimentos y oxigeno produciendose un retraso en el crecimiento intrauterino (CIR, RCIU). Ademas, debemos tener en cuenta los riesgos intrinsecos a la prematuridad y el nacimiento con bajo peso, ya que con frecuencia la aparicion de preeclampsia determina la terminacion anticipada del embarazo mediante cesarea. A pesar de lo anterior, si la gestante recibe un seguimiento medico adecuado y no desarrolla un cuadro de especial gravedad, el pronostico suele ser bueno. Existencia de un embarazo multiple: La preeclampsia es de 3 a 5 veces mas frecuente en el caso de embarazos multiple.
El riesgo es mas elevado si se trata del primer embarazo de la mujer (hasta el 85% de los casos), o bien si se trata del primer embarazo con esa misma pareja (de conformidad con la teoria del origen inmunologico, algunos estudios indican que la exposicion prolongada al semen de la pareja tiene un efecto protector contra la preeclampsia). Antecedentes de diabetes, hipertension arterial o la existencia de una enfermedad renal previa. En la segunda parte del post veremos en detalle los distintos grados de severidad de la preeclampsia (preclampsia leve, preeclampsia grave, eclampsia y sindrome de HELLP), y hablaremos acerca de los sintomas que deben alertar a la mujer gestante, el tratamiento que suele recibir la preeclampsia y algunos factores de prevencion. Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins do not efficiently return blood from the lower limbs back to the heart.
The superficial veins lie in the subcutaneous fatty layer of the body just beneath the skin and superficial to the deep fascia enveloping the body musculature. The perforating veins penetrate the deep fascia and connect the superficial veins to the deep veins.
The intramuscular sinusoidal veins are large, very thin walled, valveless veins within skeletal muscle.
In systemic circulation oxygenated blood is pumped by the left ventricle through the arteries to the muscles and organs of the body, where its nutrients and gases are exchanged at capillaries, entering the veins filled with cellular waste and carbon dioxide.
The de-oxygenated blood is taken by veins to the right atrium of the heart, which transfers the blood to the right ventricle, where it is then pumped to the pulmonary arteries and eventually the lungs. In pulmonary circulation the pulmonary veins return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium, which empties into the left ventricle, completing the cycle of blood circulation.
Phasic Flow: The breathing-related intra-abdominal pressure changes lead to respiratory fluctuation of venous flow with faster flow during expiration due to lower intraabdominal pressure (upward movement of diaphragm) and slower flow during inspiration due to higher intraabdominal pressure (downward movement of diaphragm). The muscle pump or the venous pump: The muscle pump mechanism is highly developed in the calf muscles.
Clinical manifestations of venous insufficiency include various conditions such as telangiectasias, varicose veins, and axial incompetence. Lipodermatosclerosis: LDS or liposclerosis refers to a thickening in the tissues underneath the skin. Performing a Tourniquet test is necessary to determine the level of valvular incompetence in the superficial system and to ascertain whether deep venous system involvement is present.
The patient should wait in a supine position with the limb elevated for at least one minute before starting to perform the Tourniquet test. If after removal of the below-knee tourniquet the lesser saphenous system fills, then presence of lesser saphenous incompetence is most likely.
A Trendelenburg test determines the competency of the valves in communicating veins between the superficial and deep veins of the leg. The Trendelenburg test is often confused with Trendelenburg's sign, which is related to conditions affecting the hip and femur. The Perthes test is a clinical test for assessing the patency of the deep femoral vein prior to varicose vein surgery. This test is sometimes referred to as the Delbet-Mocquot test, named after French physicians Pierre Delbet and Pierre Mocquot. The test in done by applying a tourniquet at the level of the saphenofemoral junction to occlude the superficial pathway, and then the patient is asked to move in situ. The examination is often done in the upright position, as this is the best way to evaluate valve function. MRI provides sagittal, coronal, and cross-sectional views and is able to detect acute occlusion.
Thermography provides an infrared map of cutaneous temperature and can be used to help identify suferficial and perforating veins. Anti-inflammatory medication such as ibuprofen or aspirin can be used as part of treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis along with graduated compression hosiery – but there is a risk of intestinal bleeding. More aggresive thrombolytic therapy with injectable low molecular weight heparins (such as lovenox or arixtra) can also reduce fibrin formation and has been successfully clinically to reduce the signs and symptoms of venous insufficiency [8].
CHIVA is the acronym for Conservative and Hemodynamic cure of Incompetent Varicose veins in Ambulatory patients translated from the French cure Conservatrice et Hemodynamique de l'Insuffisance Veineuse en Ambulatoire[5] published in France in 1988. CHIVA relies on an hemodynamic impairment assessed by data and evidences depicted through Ultrasound dynamic venous investigations. It generally consists in 1 to 4 small incisions under local anesthesia in order to disconnect the varicose veins from the abnormal flow due to valvular incompetence which dilates them.[6] The patient is dismissed the same day. Preserve the superficial venous capital for unpredictable but possible need for coronary or leg artery vital by-pass which increases with ageing. Consequences to be achieved properly, CHIVA method needs a comprehensive knowledge of both hemodynamics and Ultrasound venous investigation.
Conventional surgery: Conventional surgery for varicose veins does relieve symptoms and has a role on the prevention of chronic venous ulceration. A commonly performed non-surgical treatment for varicose and "spider" leg veins is sclerotherapy. A Health Technology Assessment found that sclerotherapy provided less benefit than surgery, but is likely to provide a small benefit in varicose veins without reflux.[20] Complications of sclerotherapy are rare but can include blood clots and ulceration. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) is a relatively simple and quick technique which can be performed under a local anesthetic.
The Australian Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) in 2008 has determined that endovenous laser treatment for varicose veins "appears to be more effective in the short term, and at least as effective overall, as the comparative procedure of junction ligation and vein stripping for the treatment of varicose veins."[22] It also found in its assessment of available literature, that "occurrence rates of more severe complications such as DVT, nerve injury and paraesthesia, post-operative infections and haematomas, appears to be greater after ligation and stripping than after EVLT". Two prospective randomized trials found speedier recovery and fewer complications after radiofrequency obliteration (AKA radiofrequency ablation) compared to open surgery.[24][25] Myers[26] wrote that open surgery for small saphenous vein reflux is obsolete. Si la hinchazon aparece cada noche, independientemente de como le haya ido el dia, o tiene los tobillos hinchados despues de hacer un viaje largo, probablemente ya tenga las venas afectadas. Las hinchazones y la sensacion de tension, un dolor sordo parecido a las agujetas, la piel muy sensible y caliente, y quiza un hematoma, tambien pueden ser indicios de una obstruccion venosa (trombosis). Ademas, cuando los pliegues naturales de la piel son muy profundos, sobre todo en las articulaciones de los dedos, y aparecen hinchazones en el dorso del pie o de la mano, o en la corva, tambien cabe sospechar un linfedema. Puesto que las afecciones venosas y los linfedemas no se curan solos, cuando note los signos citados acuda a su medico de cabecera o a un especialista (flebologo, angiologo o dermatologo).
En el caso del linfedema, los drenajes linfaticos y otras tecnicas ayudan a reducir la hinchazon. Austin, Round Rock, Georgetown, West Lake Hills, Lakeway, Jollyville, Pflugerville, Cedar Park, Elgin, Bastrop, Taylor, Leander, & Brushy Creek Texas and the surrounding areas.
The reason for this is that unlike other foods listed; these three require less time to prepare and could be eaten as a snack. When lymph circulation becomes bad, excess fluids and waste byproducts start to build up in your body, making it easy to hold water in your legs. Relieving bottle necks from inguinal lymph nodes, improves lymph circulation and reduces swelling in legs.
For bigger people with larger bone structure than others, adjust this height (roughly the length from your shoulder blades to your rib cage) to fit your body profile for best results. This is why even though you are not bruised; your legs will swell up, leaving your legs unsightly beyond repair. This interferes with flow of information through the optic nerve connecting the eyes to the brain. As a summary grade, VISA lists optic neuropathy as present or absent since most clinicians would attempt some treatment for this condition if present. The common treatment for TED optic neuropathy initially is high dose corticosteroids either by intravenous route (1 gram Methyl-prednisolone over 30 minutes on alternate days for 3 treatments) or oral route (100 mg prednisone daily on a tapering dose) with an expectation that vision should improve within days of therapy.
Radiotherapy is administered using a lateral port focused behind the globe to minimize the risk of retinal or lens exposure; it is divided into 10 fractions of 200 rads over two weeks [23] and is contraindicated in diabetics because of the risk of inciting or aggravating retinopathy. The worst scores from any of the four eyelids are recorded in the inflammatory score table on the far right section of the table. The additional grading scores for chemosis and lid edema allow for documentation of more subtle changes in inflammatory features between visits.


If the score is less than 4 out of 10, and there is no deterioration based on history or sequential clinical examination, conservative management is offered with reassurance, cool compresses, nocturnal head elevation, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. De igual modo, el hecho de que una mujer sufra una hipertension cronica no implica necesariamente que deba desarrollar una preeclampsia durante el embarazo, pero si debera estar mas controlada. Segun la misma la causa de la preeclampsia residiria en una respuesta inmune anormal del cuerpo de la madre al feto y la placenta. Incluso algunos expertos se han atrevido a sugerir la implicacion de un gen presente en los cromosomas 1, 3, 9, o 18. Asi, la causa podria estar relacionada con la presencia de unos vasos sanguineos en la placenta mas delgados de lo habitual, lo que generaria una reaccion inapropiada del utero a la presencia de la placenta. En los casos mas graves la preeclampsia podra evolucionar en una eclampsia o en el sindrome de HELLP.
Algunas investigaciones realizadas han puesto de manifiesto que entre el 20% y el 40% de las gestantes cuyas madres padecieron preeclampsia la desarrollaron tambien, asi como entre el 11% y el 37% de las gestantes cuyas hermanas sufrieron de preeclampsia durante el embarazo. The principal veins in the legs are the great and lesser saphenous veins and their tributaries; in the arms they are the basilic and cephalic veins and their tributaries. It is common in the extremities for there to be two or more veins accompanying a small to medium sized artery.
Those along the inner (medial) side of the lower leg play a major role in the pathogenesis of the postphlebitic leg.
Flow in the arterial system is dependent on the pumping action of the heart and the elasticity and muscular activity of the arteries. This pressure dependent flow pattern is transmitted through the upper leg veins into the major deep veins in the distal lower leg and into the major superficial veins (great and small saphenous veins) in the recumbent patient. Venous claudication may mimic arterial intermittent claudication, though it typically takes longer to subside after stopping exercise.
This maneuver empties the veins by reducing venous congestion in the superficial venous system. If the superficial veins of the calf segment fill, perforating vein incompetence is usually present. In following step, the above-knee tourniquet is removed to assess the competence of the Hunter's canal perforator.
The leg is raised above heart level until the veins become empty, then the leg is quickly lowered. In addition, the function of valves in each segment of the evaluated veins can be assessed by determining the direction of blood-flow using Doppler ultrasound.
In extensive superficial thrombophlebitis, consideration should be given to anti-coagulation, thrombectomy or sclerotherapy of the involved vein.
It has phase II and III clinical trials that demonstrate its effectiveness as a fibrinolytic agent. According to this new concept, the clinical symptoms of venous insufficiency are not the cause but the consequence of various abnormalities of the venous system.
For traditional surgery, reported recurrence rates, which have been tracked for 10 years, range from 5-60%. Anaphylactic reactions are "extraordinarily rare but can be life-threatening," and doctors should have resuscitation equipment ready.[21] There has been one reported case of stroke after ultrasound guided sclerotherapy when an unusually large dose of sclerosant foam was injected. Endovenous laser techniques employ an 810 nm-diode laser to heat the long or short saphenous vein (or major tributaries), inducing a combination of endothelial damage, focal coagulative necrosis, shrinkage of the vein and thrombotic occlusion. Myers said these veins should be treated with endovenous techniques, citing high recurrence rates after surgical management, and risk of nerve damage up to 15%.
Changes of cutaneous microcirculation from elasto-compression in chronic venous insufficiency. Department of Surgery and Radiology, Hospital of Varberg, Sweden Long saphenous vein saving surgery for varicose veins. Saphenofemoral junction incompetence treated by ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy, Dermatol Surg. Una sensacion de pinchazos, hormigueo o picor en las piernas tambien puede ser un indicio del principio de una afeccion venosa o de la existencia de una debilidad tambien venosa.
Si observa estos sintomas sobre todo tras un viaje largo en avion o en coche, o tras mucho tiempo en cama, vaya al medico inmediatamente. Una vez superada la fase de descongestion, debe mantenerse el exito con unas medias de compresion. It may also occur on other areas of the body such as buttocks, calves, ankles, thighs, and arms. The lesions begin as flat, firm, hot, red, painful lumps that are about an inch across.
The severity of the neuropathy is reflected in the individual measurements of central and colour vision.
In most cases, this treatment will cause incomplete or only temporary visual improvement so that surgical decompression of the medial wall is required (through a Lynch, transcaruncular or endoscopic transethmoidal approach) or through a lateral approach (thinning the outer boney wall of the orbit near the apex) in order to relieve pressure more permanently on the optic nerve at the crowded orbital apex. An additional point is assigned for diurnal variation of symptoms, to reflect the variability in congestion typically seen during the active phase. Otros han considerado que la preeclampsia esta relacionada con variante anormal de la molecula de angiotensinogeno.
Esto explicaria que la preeclampsia tenga una mayor incidencia en madres primerizas debido a un menor desarrollo de la vasculatura uterina.
Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins fail to return blood efficiently to the heart. In contrast, venous insufficiency may be refractory to treatment as in the severely damaged postthrombotic limb which manifests segmental occlusion in combination with universal venous reflux. Over time, long standing stasis of blood leads to the deposition of hemosiderin, giving the skin a dark, speckled appearance.
At the end, if the superficial venous system remains empty, then the high thigh tourniquet is removed to detect saphenofemoral incompetence. Superficial veins of the leg normally empty into deep veins, however retrograde filling occurs when valves are incompetent, leading to varicose veins. Function of the proximal valves is evaluated during Valsalva maneuver in the recumbent patient and Doppler sampling in the common and superficial femoral veins during increased abdominal pressure.
For example,a varicose vein being overloaded, may be dilated not only because of valvular incompetence (the most frequent) but because of a venous block (thombosis) or arterio-venous fistula, and so the treatment has to be tailored according the hemodynamic feature. In comparison, radiofrequency ablation has been shown to control 80% of cases of small saphenous vein reflux at 4 years, said Myers.
In Davy A and Stemmer R, editors: Phlebology '89, Montrouge, France, 1989, John Libbey Eurotext. El riesgo de que un trombo se desprenda y provoque entre otras cosas una embolia mortal es maximo durante los primeros tres a cinco dias.Indicios de un linfedemaLas hinchazones que solamente desaparecen por la noche o tras varios dias en la cama, pero que no desaparecen por si solas durante un tiempo prolongado tambien pueden ser indicios de linfedema.
Esto se consigue con unas medias de compresion de tricotado plano, que sustituyen a los vendajes. Gotvald MD, serving Austin, West Lake Hills, Lakeway, Jollyville, Pflugerville, Cedar Park, Elgin, Bastrop, Taylor, Leander, Brushy Creek, Round Rock, Georgetown Texas and the surrounding areas.
Gotvald MD, serving Austin, West Lake Hills, Lakeway, Jollyville, Pflugerville, Cedar Park, Elgin, Bastrop, Taylor, Leander, Brushy Creek, Round Rock, & Georgetown Texas and the surrounding areas.
Contractions of the calf muscles can produce a sufficient pressure to empty the sinusoids into the deep veins. If removing the ankle tourniquet fills the superficial venous system, presence of perforating vein incompetence is suspected. Puede afectar a brazos y piernas, y en algunos casos tambien a otras partes del cuerpo, ya sea sin una causa evidente o como consecuencia de una radiacion, una infeccion, una herida o un tumor.
The deep veins are affected with the similar compressing force due to a strong fascial structure. Symptoms include swelling of the legs and pain in the extremities such as a dull aching, heaviness, or cramping. This occurs as a result of gravity working against an already ineffective blood return system.
Patients with severe arterial insufficiency, on the other hand, may have relatively pale skin as a result of under perfusion. When their legs are placed in a dependent position, gravity enhances arterial inflow and the skin may become more red as maximally dilated arterioles attempt to bring blood to otherwise starved tissues. In cases of severe ischemia, the affected areas (usually involving the most distal aspect of the foot), can appear whitish or mottled, giving the leg a marbleized appearance.



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