Laser safety calculations, for eye and visual interference hazard distancesThis page presents laser safety equations and example calculations.
GeoCalc uses a numerical algorithm for high accuracy (up to 0.5mm) with an ellipsoidal model of the Earth's surface. The "10" in bitwize10 is in binary format, so it's pronounced as "bit-wise-one-zero", or you can also say "bit-wise-two". A high-sensitivity colorimetric assay for the determination of the number of viable cells,using WST8, in cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays.
Sensitive ELISA kit for this key cell signaling molecule for kinase, proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation research.
Our stable NUCLEAR-ID® Red DNA stain crosses the membrane of live cells and specifically targets dsDNA. Growth factors are frequently used in cosmetics to reverse the signs and symptoms of instrinsic skin aging due to the aging process and extrinsic aging mediated by environmental factors. These are valid for the type of lasers commonly misused by the general public: laser pointers and commercially available handheld lasers.

It was primarly designed for off-road racing where roadbooks provide azimuth and distance of the next point. This critical assay can be used to screen modulators of cell proliferation that affect the appearance of wrinkles and other signs of aging. The dye can be used for various applications including nucleated cell gating in flow cytometry, cell cycle ploide analysis, and cytoplasm segmentation in high content screening (HCS). Cell proliferation was measured after 44 hours and the linear portion of the curve was us used to calculate the ED50.
It may be used for other purposes as well, like hiking, orienteering, geocaching, questing, for education, or anyone needing to calculate bearings and distances between coordinates. Pink represents the power in milliwatts, purple represents the beam divergence in milliradians, and brown represents the Visual Correction Factor.
The color coding helps you see where to plug in these values into the equations.NOHD and visual interference distance equationsIt is easy to calculate the eye hazard distance (NOHD), and the three visual interference distances corresponding to flashblindness, glare and distraction. Laser safety experts recommend not having direct eye exposure to a laser’s beam closer than the NOHD for that laser.

Once beyond the NOHD, the beam is considered completely eye safe since the irradiance falls below the MPE limit.However, this does not mean that an eye exposure within the NOHD will automatically cause an eye injury, or even is likely to cause an injury. The chart has been color coded so red is a definite hazard, yellow is a potential hazard, and green is safe.
The human eye is more sensitive to green, so it is a visual hazard at a greater distance than an equivalent blue laser.Notice that for the blue laser, the flashblindness hazard (385 ft) is shorter than the NOHD (437 ft). All of the laser power is going onto the retina -- that’s why both the green and blue lasers have the same NOHD of 437 ft.
The ANSI equation was re-expressed by the FAA in a simpler form and to put the answer in feet. The equation makes some simplifying assumptions which are valid for continuous-wave visible lasers at aircraft distances.

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