Communication is the process of exchanging information in the form of messages, symbols, thoughts, signs, and opinions. It would be extremely hard to imagine a world without some form of interpersonal interaction. Some of the basic ways by which we communicate with one another is through speech, sign language, body language, touch, and eye contact.
These means of communication are used for transferring information from one entity to the other, and always involve a sender and receiver. Communication of information, messages, opinions, and thoughts can be done with the aid of different communicative aids such as books, Internet, smartphones etc. There are mainly four types of communication which are used in various ways to convey the final message to the receiver.
This form of communication takes place between two individuals and is thus a one-on-one conversation. This type of communication can take place only when there are more than two people involved.
This type of communication takes place when one individual addresses a large gathering of people. Media communication is developing at a meteoric rate in order to ensure clarity and to eliminate any ambiguity. This article contains tips, examples and guidance to help students produce an A* grade GCSE or A Level Art sketchbook. Evidence of first-hand responses to subject matter and artworks, demonstrated through observational drawings, photographs and annotated pamphlets and sketches from exhibitions or gallery visits.
Note: The sketchbook should NOT be used as an all-purpose journal for doodling cartoon characters or scribbling notes to a friend. Critically analyse and compare artwork of relevant artist models (both historical and contemporary artists, from a range of cultures). Reference of all images, artwork and text from other sources, ensuring that artists, websites and books are acknowledged (it should be obvious to an examiner which work is yours when viewing a page, so cite sources directly underneath the appropriate image. Remember that these questions are a guide only and are intended to make you start to think critically about the art you are studying and creating.
This NCEA Level 3 scholarship sketchbook is a perfect exemplar for A-Level Art: it shows how second-hand imagery can be seamlessly integrated with your own photographs, written documentation and analysis. This is an excellent example of how media trials and experimentation can be presented within a sketchbook. Layout and presentation is an area that many GCSE and A Level students struggle with – often spending hours adding decorative features to their sketchbooks that make little difference to final grades. Use a consistent style of presentation, so that a consistent visual language unites the sketchbook. This sketchbook page by artist Leonardo da Vinci provides a great example of what a quality A Level Art sketchbook page should look like: overlapping, incomplete sketches, surrounding by evaluative handwritten notes.
This A Level Art sketchbook page by Nikau Hindin shows an analysis of paintings by Janet Fish.
These A2 sketchbook pages by Nikau Hindin contain media trials (collaged found materials) and a plan for an accompanying A1 sheet of preparatory work, as well as development of ideas for future compositions.
The guidance above contains general tips, advice and best practice for GCSE and A Level Art students. These articles contain inspirational sketchbook pages from a large number of students and a few selected artists, showcasing different approaches, techniques and presentation methods. A final piece of inspiration: this Youtube clip shows a brief glimpse into sculptor Paul Komoda’s sketchbook. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from experienced teachers.


Recently, my own daughter has been a target from a girl at her school about being transgender.
When the other can listen and when the heart of another is open, this presentation is an amazing visual lesson on gender identity and expression.
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There are mainly four types of communication, which are used in varying ways depending on the medium used or the way in which information is exchanged. The cycle of communication is said to be complete only when the receiver has understood the sender's message and intent.
Speaking is an effective way of communicating and helps in expressing our emotions in words. It includes the silent conversations we have with ourselves, wherein we juggle roles between the sender and receiver who are processing our thoughts and actions. Here, the two individuals involved will swap their roles of sender and receiver in order to communicate in a clearer manner. Here the number of people will be small enough to allow each participant to interact and converse with the rest.
Nonverbal communication involves the use of physical ways of communication, such as tone of the voice, touch, and expressions. Body posture and language convey a lot of nonverbal messages when communicating verbally with someone.
Thereby, making written communication an indispensable part of informal and formal communication. For example, topography, photography, signs, symbols, maps, colors, posters, banners and designs help the viewer understand the message visually.
When these icons are used in a public place, phone or computer, they instruct the user about their meaning and usage. All of these visual features require us to view the screen in order to understand the message being conveyed. The aforementioned four types of communication have played a vital role and continue to do so, in bridging the gap between people, commerce, education, health care, and entertainment. It is a place for researching, exploring, planning and developing ideas – for testing, practising, evaluating and discussing your project.
If you need further help with analysing artist work, the article about writing the Personal Study contains a section about critical analysis which you are likely to find useful. In appearance, a sketchbook should be reminiscent of what you might expect an artist or designer to create.
The difference between work produced upon cheap, flimsy sketchbook pages that warp at the mere hint of moisture and that produced on thick, rich, ‘wet strength’ paper can be enormous.
Do not distract from your practical work by using large lettering, decorative borders, or unnecessary framing or mounting.
Some students are drawn towards hard-edged, ordered presentation methods (often those studying graphic design, for example); others prefer messier, looser, gestural presentation styles. It doesn’t matter how intelligent, well informed or clever your annotation is – it cannot redeem rushed, poorly executed practical work. Use each page as an opportunity to remind the examiner that you are a hard-working, dedicated student who cares passionately about this subject. Amiria has been a teacher of Art & Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. I knew the familial bonds were strong and that no matter how vulnerable I made myself, I would be met with loving kindness from my family.
Yet one voice of transphobia (or any mistreatment) shoots arrows of poison into your child’s heart that they carry with them for the rest of their life.


This process of communication when analyzed can either be conveyed verbally to someone or stay confined as thoughts.
In such cases, there is usually a single sender of information and several receivers who are being addressed.
While it is important to conduct research into your artist models (and to convey an understanding of this information), avoid copying or summarising large passages of information from other sources.
It should not be a tacky ‘school project’, with colourful headings and sparkly backgrounds. Do not spend weeks researching, preparing and reworking beautiful backgrounds – wild drips of coffee, torn paper, layer upon layer of careful speckled mediums – if this compromises the amount of time you spend on the artwork itself. Although examiners look to reward candidates and have your best interests at heart, bulking up your sketchbook with poor work does you no favours. Only once images on a page are complete (or as complete as needed) should you fill some of the gaps with notes.
This does not mean that your sketchbook must be crammed to the brim with intense, laboured work (sometimes an expressive, ten minute charcoal drawing on a page is all that is needed) but that each part of your sketchbook is produced with care and dedication. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. In part, my past interactions with this particular parent has been met with many mis-steps and mis-communications. Being a member of a parent community versus an activists to educate a community is a much more complex role. Unless a specific issue is being discussed, small group discussions can become chaotic and difficult to interpret by everybody.
Creative and aesthetic nonverbal forms of communication include music, dancing and sculpturing.
Instead, select the information that you think is useful for your project and link it with your own viewpoints and observations. Inconsistency, however (pages jumping from one presentation style to the next), can result in a submission that is distracting, busy and hard on the eye.
Weak work can set off alarm bells for an examiner, leading them to be on the lookout for potential weaknesses elsewhere. Even the hurried addition of annotation can be done harmoniously – making a sketchbook page appear thorough and well-balanced.
I realize that it is less about vocabulary then about what happens when one side of a pair is open and the other hostile?
This does not mean that you should discard everything which is not perfect (work should rarely be thrown away, as most things can be worked over and saved for far less effort than would be required starting anew), but you must discriminate. You do not need to spend time adding borders; typing out the annotation or working obsessively over pages again and again. The sketchbook is NOT meant to be a complete a book of finished artworks and illustrations; it is meant to be creative document of exploration and investigation.
Select work which shows the journey your project has taken and presents your skill in the best light. I am struggling with how to model being strong when I feel so unsure as to how to approach a parent in my community about their transphobia. Yet, one student and one family’s transphobia had led to several incidents, left my daughter crying for weeks, and perhaps will become a barrier to her ability to emotionally and academically thrive at this school.



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