Fortunately, there’s now a whole series of apps out there, each aiming to make hiking just a little bit easier or more accessible. Whether you want to find a new hiking trail in your area, get information about your current hike (such as how far you’ve gone and how quickly you’ve walked) or for first-aid information, there’s an app for it. EveryTrail is an app that contains over 400,000 registered trails, each of which can be reviewed (by other EveryTrail members), and can include points of interest (within the trail), useful tips and associated audio and video (e.g. MapMyHike is an app that allows you to get all kinds of handy information regarding your treks. Hikers can find out their elevation, how far they’ve walked, what their average walking speed was, how many calories you’ve burned, what your average heart-rate was (making it great for fitness fanatics) and more. Like many hiking-related apps, MapMyHike can also show a map of your location, along with the route you’ve taken to get there.
If you enjoy scaling high peaks and mountains (or you’ve always wanted to), Point de Vue is an app that will tell you where the closest summits to you are within a 125-mile radius (regardless of where you are in the world).
You can search for peaks around the world and sort them by distance (from you) and elevation, you can download maps of just about any location in the world and you can then view them offline (meaning you don’t always need a signal to use the app).
GoToAid is a virtual first-aid manual that covers just about every sticky situation you might find yourself in while out hiking.
Although this app is always useful to have, it’s especially useful when trekking, as it’s important to know what to do in an emergency when you’re out in the wilderness.
This app was created with ‘average Joe’ in mind, meaning you don’t need to be a paramedic or a medical expert to understand it. The Army Survival Guide app is one for the outdoor enthusiasts (or the lovers of Ray Mears and Bear Grylls).
The app has over 1,300 pages of information, all of which have been taken right out of the standard military survival manual. Because many potential adversaries have the capability to employ biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons, scouts must prepare to fight in an NBC environment.
Additional-duty NBC personnel should be designated by the platoon SOP for operations in an NBC environment. Avoidance is the most important fundamental of NBC defense because the best way to survive is to avoid being the object of an NBC attack. Contamination avoidance measures include using passive avoidance measures, locating contaminated areas, identifying NBC agents, warning other members of the platoon as well as other units, and reporting NBC threats to higher headquarters. Passive avoidance measures can decrease the possibility of NBC attack or reduce the effects of an attack already under way. Attacks and contamination must be detected quickly and reported to adjacent units and headquarters elements.
All movement routes and future positions should be reconnoitered for nuclear and chemical contamination whenever possible. Scouts should keep their individual weapons, equipment, clothing, and other issue items in their vehicles.
The key protective measure against a biological attack is maintaining a high order of health, personal hygiene, and sanitation discipline. Make sure all personnel have their protective masks available, and make sure each mask fits and functions properly. The M8A1 (a mobile chemical agent detector and alarm unit used by US military) is the primary means of detecting an upwind chemical attack.
If an NBC hazard cannot be avoided, the scout platoon must be prepared to protect personnel and equipment from the effects of exposure.
Soldiers on the integrated battlefield will face a combination of nuclear, biological, chemical, and conventional attacks.
When an NBC attack is recognized, every soldier must receive the warning and assume the appropriate MOPP level (see Table B-1). Position the vehicle with the front slope facing the blast and the main weapon system pointed away from the blast. Secure all exterior components that could be damaged by the blast (such as water cans, duffel bags, and antennas) inside the vehicle. NOTE: HMMWV-mounted scouts should exit and move away from the vehicle, then take dismounted defensive actions. Summary: After the attack, organize survivors, consolidate equipment, and improve protection against fallout. Once the attack ends, forward an NBC-1 nuclear report, organize the survivors, secure and organize equipment, repair and reinforce the BP, assist casualties, improve protection against possible fallout, and begin continuous monitoring. The first person to detect the arrival of fallout is usually the radiological monitor operating a radiacmeter. Radiological monitoring is performed routinely to determine the presence and intensity of a radiation hazard. Periodic monitoring assures the platoon that the area is not contaminated or, if applicable, provides a warning when contamination is detected after the platoon arrives. Continuous monitoring is the surveillance for radiation in the platoon’s area or position. When an NBC-3 report is received and the platoon is in the predicted area of contamination. A scout platoon is normally issued two dosimeters (device that measures exposure to ionizing radiation). When operating in or crossing radiologically contaminated areas, use the individual actions for nuclear defense.
After the unit exits a contaminated area, personnel, equipment, and cargo should be checked for contamination and decontaminated, if necessary. Forward an NBC-1 chemical report, treat casualties, perform emergency decontamination as required, and mark the contaminated area. Potential adversaries may have access to a wide variety of biological agents and chemical agents on the modern battlefield. The first step in the treatment process is usually appropriate self-aid and buddy-aid measures.
The platoon leader should select separate casualty collection points for both contaminated and non-contaminated casualties to prevent cross-contamination. Summary: Markers designating contaminated areas should be marked facing away from the contamination so anyone approaching the area can clearly see the mark. Units discovering a marked contaminated area do not have to conduct elaborate, time-consuming surveys. US forces use standard NATO markers to make it easier for allies to recognize the hazards (see Figure B-1).
Soldiers should unmask as soon as possible except when a biological or chemical attack is expected.
If no symptoms appear, the same soldiers break the seals, take two or three breaths, and clear and reseal their masks.
Since continued operation in the presence of nuclear or chemical contamination will cause casualties and severe combat degradation, decontamination is essential. These principles are consistent with doctrine that places the burden of decontamination at battalion or troop level. Immediate decontamination is a basic soldier survival skill carried out by soldiers as soon as possible after they discover they are contaminated. Operator’s spraydown of equipment should begin immediately after completion of personal wipedown. Operational decontamination allows a force to continue fighting and sustain its mission after being contaminated. Vehicle washdown, conducted as far forward as possible, is performed by the task force power-driven decontamination equipment (PDDE) crew with assistance from the squad decontamination crew. Because speed is important, do not check vehicles for contamination after vehicle washdown. Thorough decontamination is conducted as part of an extensive reconstitution effort in brigade, division, and corps support areas; support sites at lower levels cannot provide the quantities of decontamination resources (such as water, decontaminants, and time) required for such an extensive process. After thorough decontamination, the unit moves into an adjacent assembly area for reconstitution. Thorough decontamination does the most thorough job of getting rid of contamination and its hazards, but it often is not possible. In an ideal situation, all NBC reconnaissance will be performed by an NBC reconnaissance platoon. The NBC reconnaissance platoon, particularly in the division and cavalry regiment, often works closely with either battalion or cavalry scout platoons.
As an example, if the primary focus of the platoons’ reconnaissance mission is to locate contaminated areas, the NBC reconnaissance platoon leader may be selected to lead the operation. In all cases when the two types of platoons are operating together, the NBC platoon’s primary task should be NBC reconnaissance. Initial location of contaminated areas, followed by handoff to the NBC reconnaissance platoon for detailed reconnaissance and marking. Liaison or command and control linkup between the NBC reconnaissance platoon and the commander of the scouts. In the event that NBC reconnaissance assets are not available, the scout platoon may be required to conduct NBC reconnaissance. As with other combat elements, one of the basic requirements for the scout platoon is to be able to move tactically across a contaminated area. When both vehicles have been prepared, they use standard tactical movement techniques (such as bounding overwatch) to cross the contaminated area. US doctrine requires that combat missions be accomplished quickly and effectively, under all conditions and at any time.
In addition to ensuring that the proper equipment is on hand, leaders must ensure that alarms and paper are properly mounted and functional and that all external equipment is stowed. The sections are deployed on line, with no more than 400 meters between vehicles and no more than 400 meters between sections.
Upon confirmation of the sample, the squad with the positive sample is designated by the platoon leader as the base vehicle; its direction of movement becomes the reconnaissance direction of travel.
Upon report of a positive sample, all elements of the platoon halt in place and await confirmation of the sample. Other elements of the platoon will not participate in this task; they can be used to reconnoiter a bypass, provide security, or execute other tactical missions under the control of the platoon leader or PSG.
The three-vehicle section charged with reconnoitering the contaminated area uses a line formation, with a 400-meter lateral distance between vehicles. The goal of the reconnaissance is to define the contaminated area only to the degree necessary to provide the scouts’ commander with the information he needs to maneuver the main body. The base vehicle moves across the contaminated area in the direction of travel until it takes a negative sample (this establishes the baseline). Left and right wing vehicles bound and sample every 200 meters in the direction of travel until they take a positive sample or reach the initial far side limit. If a wing vehicle takes a positive sample, the vehicle commander rechecks the reading and reports it to the platoon leader or PSG. Screen missions are not usually conducted in known contaminated areas; however, an area may become contaminated after the platoon has already occupied it.
The use of persistent chemicals may indicate that the enemy force does not plan to move through that area; this should prompt the platoon to reposition out of the contaminated area and to begin decontamination. The use of non-persistent chemicals should trigger maximum alertness on the part of the scout platoon.

To ensure maximum readiness, OPs must be positioned and occupied in such a way that they can react quickly to a chemical attack.
Ensure that soldiers occupying the OP have complete MOPP equipment regardless of MOPP status.
Ensure that both the OP and supporting vehicles have a complete set of NBC equipment, to include M8 paper, M9 paper, M256 chemical agent detector kits, M8A1 alarms, M13 decontamination apparatus, M258A1 personal decontamination kit, and Mark I NAAKs.
The section leader must evaluate the situation and decide if it is appropriate to remount the OP team and move vehicles into observation positions as mounted OPs.
Once the section leader makes his decision, he reports the recommended COA to the platoon leader and continues to execute the screen mission in accordance with the platoon plan.
For most of us, getting by on our own out in the wilderness is a foreign idea, but with proper direction from a wilderness survival guide, you can increase your knowledge and gain a better understanding on what it would take should the situation arise.Surviving in the wilderness requires several basic survival skills, like how to start a fire, how to find food and water, how to find and purify water, how to build a shelter, and how to perform first aid and CPR. Most wilderness skills guides will cover these topics in depth, helping you become trained and ready to survive.Here is a true story of a Russian family that Survived for 40 Years in the Siberian Wilderness and who were found to be doing alright.
You might be wondering why you would ever need a wilderness survival guide?Every year, hundreds of people get lost in the wild and sometimes, they don't make it out alive.
US Army Survival Manual, FM 21-76You can't call yourself a true survivalist until you've read the US Army Survival Manual, FM 21-76. It allows hikers to log their treks in a hiking journal and share it on Facebook or Twitter. Everything is clearly laid out and is step-by-step, making it easy to understand and follow in an emergency.
The crews of the section leaders’ vehicles should be designated and trained as chemical agent detection and radiological survey and monitoring teams.
If the tactical situation does not allow avoidance, the unit must be prepared to operate in a contaminated environment.
Effective use of concealment, dispersion, prepared positions, OPSEC, and signal security lessen the chances of being acquired as a target. The scout platoon must have an effective method of quickly passing the alarm in the event of an NBC attack. Reconnaissance and quartering parties should be prepared to encounter, detect, identify, report, and mark contamination. Unit defensive positions, which vary from individual foxholes to improved positions, should be prepared whenever the tactical situation permits. Equipment must be secured because the blast wave will convert unsecured items into lethal missiles. The initial radiation and the heat and light from the fireball of a nuclear blast tend to be absorbed by hills and mountains. All personnel should wear the proper protective clothing in accordance with the MOPP level designated by the commander.
The system provides two essential elements of survival: detection of a toxic agent cloud and early warning to troops in the monitored position.
The type and degree of protection required will be based on the unit’s mission and the hazard. The key to effective protection in an NBC environment is the scout platoon’s proficiency in automatically and correctly implementing an effective NBC defense SOP (Standard Operation Procedure).
The NBC warning and reporting system (NBCWRS) and contamination markers contribute to the warning procedures for follow-on forces.
Immediately drop flat on the ground (face down) or to the bottom of a foxhole, with head toward the blast. If the radiation dose rate reaches a hazardous level after fallout is complete, be prepared to move, on order, to a less hazardous area. Dose rates should be monitored closely to ensure compliance with operational exposure guidance (OEG).
All contaminated casualties should be decontaminated as thoroughly as the situation allows before being evacuated. Their primary routes of attack on the body are through the respiratory system and the skin. When platoon detection, monitoring, or reconnaissance teams detect or suspect NBC hazards, they mark all likely entry points into the area and report the contamination to higher headquarters. If this exception is made by the commander, the hazard must still be reported to protect friendly units.
For example, if markers are placed on the edge of a contaminated area to mark a radiological hot spot, they face away from the point of the highest contamination reading. The kit does not detect all agents; therefore, proper unmasking procedures, which take approximately 15 minutes, must still be used. If possible, they move to a shady place; bright, direct sunlight can cause pupils in the eyes to constrict, giving a false symptom. When a reasonable amount of time has passed after the attack, find a shady area; use M8 paper to check the area for possible liquid contamination.
For this reason, the scout platoon must use all of the available decontamination assets to maximum benefit and develop a thorough SOP covering decontamination methods and priorities.
Its basic purposes are to minimize casualties, save lives, and limit the further spread of contamination. The wipedown removes or neutralizes contamination on the hood, mask, gloves, and personal weapon. The spraydown removes or neutralizes contamination on the surfaces operators must touch frequently to perform their mission.
It limits the hazard of transferring contamination by removing most of the gross contamination on equipment and nearly all the contamination on soldiers. It restores combat power by removing nearly all contamination from unit and individual equipment. In some cases, a contaminated unit could conduct a thorough decontamination operation with organic decontamination assets, but support from a chemical unit is usually required. Support elements from the brigade, division, or corps support areas replenish combat stocks, refit equipment, and replace personnel and equipment.
Given the very limited number of these platoons available and the likelihood of chemicals being used on the battlefield, the scout platoon not only must be able to perform its own missions in a contaminated environment, but also must have the capability of conducting NBC reconnaissance.
When the two organizations are working together, their capabilities should be used to complement each other. On the other hand, the scout platoon leader may be selected to lead and coordinate the mission if enemy presence is significant, if extensive dismounted operations are anticipated, or if the mission is oriented on the enemy force. The platoon must be aware of where on the battlefield the enemy may place chemical agents and understand the impact on maneuver forces if that area is contaminated. During this halt, each squad in turn executes operational decontamination of its vehicle and, with higher headquarters’ approval, unmasking procedures.
One of the reasons an enemy would use persistent and non-persistent chemicals is to cause confusion and thus slow down the tempo of friendly operations.
When assigned a mission or task to locate and mark a suspected contaminated area, the scout platoon must ensure that it prepares properly for the mission. The platoon leader includes a rehearsal of NBC reconnaissance techniques in his mission preparation. Once mission preparation is complete, the platoon moves to the suspected contaminated area (designated as a reconnaissance objective) using movement techniques and organization appropriate to the tactical situation. If all sections report negative samples, the platoon leader gives permission for the overwatch vehicles to move up.
If a squad makes positive contact with contamination, it immediately reports to the platoon leader. The platoon leader also designates the initial near side line from the base vehicle’s last negative sample location.
Once this is completed, the platoon leader reorganizes the platoon to conduct reconnaissance to define the boundaries of the contaminated area. Once the platoon leader has issued a FRAGO that reorganizes the platoon, the vehicles that are no longer needed in the NBC reconnaissance make a 180-degree turn, move to a secure rally point, and reorganize for their next task.
The section, supervised by either the platoon leader or PSG, then begins a systematic reconnaissance to locate the limits of the contaminated area. The minimum information the commander needs is a four-sided box enclosing the contaminated area. The process used to ensure that the contaminated area is completely reconnoitered is fairly complicated and requires flawless execution. If the new sample is negative, the driver turns 90 degrees back to the direction of travel and continues to bound and sample every 200 meters until again taking a positive sample or reaching the initial far side limit.
If the new sample is positive, the driver turns 90 degrees again, now opposite the direction of travel, and then continues to bound and sample every 200 meters until taking a negative sample. The platoon leader or PSG projects a line from each wing vehicle location back to the near side limit and designates these as the initial left and right limits. The platoon leader or PSG directs wing vehicles to turn 90 degrees back toward the baseline and sample every 200 meters along the initial far side limit until reaching the base vehicle. If all samples are negative, the reconnaissance team has boxed in the contaminated area and the reconnaissance is complete.
If a wing vehicle takes a positive sample, the vehicle commander backs up to his last negative sample location, turns 90 degrees back in the direction of travel, moves 200 meters, and samples. If the sample is negative, the vehicle commander repeats steps B, C, and D until reaching the base vehicle. If the sample is positive, the vehicle commander directs his driver to turn 90 degrees away from the baseline, bounds, and samples every 200 meters until taking a negative sample. If the new sample is negative, the vehicle commander repeats the process starting with Step B. The platoon leader or PSG adjusts the initial far side limit and the respective initial right or left limit farther out (not in) for every bound of the wing vehicles.
The enemy may contaminate an area with two general categories of chemicals: persistent or non-persistent. Non-persistent chemicals may signal that the enemy is attempting to degrade friendly combat capability prior executing an offensive action.
To survive and remain effective on the integrated battlefield, the scout platoon must be proficient in the three fundamentals of NBC defense: contamination avoidance, NBC protection, and decontamination.
The squad leaders’ crews should be designated as decontamination teams and trained to operate all decontamination equipment organic to the battalion or squadron. In addition, the unit is not required to spend the time and resources needed for decontamination.
The scout platoon should continually analyze its vulnerability to NBC attack and take appropriate protective measures.
By finding the location and type of hazard (nuclear radiation or chemical agent), the scout platoon can determine the best plan for bypassing, crossing, or operating in the hazard. Use of gullies, ravines, ditches, natural depressions, fallen trees, and caves can reduce nuclear casualties. If an attack occurs, chances of survival are better if crew members are healthy and physically fit and maintain good personal hygiene.
Eat or drink only food that has remained sealed; consume it only after you have washed and cleaned the outside of the container.
Protect all equipment and supplies from liquid chemical contamination by keeping them organized and covered. Note that the line between contamination avoidance and protection is not distinct; many actions contribute equally to both.

Individual and unit protection against chemical attack or contamination hinges on effective use of the MOPP and on individual proficiency in basic NBC skills. In the immediate area of contamination, several methods (or a combination of methods) will allow quick reaction by all platoon members. Check all dosimeters to be used for the operation; any that do not read zero should be turned in for recharging.
Mission permitting, speed should be kept down to prevent dust, and vehicles should maintain adequate following distances to stay out of the dust raised by preceding vehicles. All personnel should move inside their vehicles and close all hatches (if applicable); this will aid in the protection from gross liquid contamination.
Casualties resulting from exposure to biological or chemical agents require medical treatment as quickly as possible. Soldiers should first mask to prevent them from either inhaling or ingesting additional agents; then they should remove agents from exposed skin, either by washing with soap and water or by using the M291 kit.
The platoon must include in its casualty evacuation request the number of contaminated patients; this will allow the evacuation team to send the proper number of vehicles for pickup. If required, standard sound signals may be used, such as a continuous, sustained blast on a siren, vehicle horn, or similar device.
They are also used to report contaminated areas up and down the chain of command and to adjacent units.
Any contact between chemical or biological agents and bare skin should be treated as an emergency.
For chemical and biological contamination, soldiers use mitts from the M295 individual equipment decontamination kit (IEDK). This speeds the weathering process and allows clean areas (people, equipment, and terrain) to stay clean.
This allows troops to operate equipment safely for extended periods at reduced MOPP levels. The newly reconstituted unit leaves the assembly area fully operational and fit to return to battle. The next best solution is to decontaminate only what is necessary to sustain the force and continue to fight. The scout platoon must be aware of the large volume of munitions required to place a chemical strike on the ground. While one vehicle provides security, the other vehicle, positioned in a covered and concealed location, removes all externally stowed equipment. As much as possible, drivers and vehicle commanders attempt to avoid low ground, overhanging branches, and brushy areas. The effectiveness of these agents can be reduced if the friendly commander knows the exact location of contaminated areas. Preparation for an NBC reconnaissance mission begins with inspection of personnel and equipment. The platoon leader will also coordinate with the unit chemical officer for any special instructions, ensuring that thorough decontamination support is available at the conclusion of the mission. As the platoon approaches the suspected objective area, it stops short and reorganizes, assuming a three-section organization.
The platoon leader directs the platoon to close hatches and begin movement in the direction of the contaminated area. As long as the results remain negative, the platoon continues to move in this manner through the suspected contaminated area and up to 3 kilometers beyond it. As the platoon leader sends his initial report to higher headquarters, the squad leader rechecks to confirm the positive sampling and determine the type of contamination; he sends an updated report. This operation requires a single three-vehicle section (organized around the base vehicle’s section) that includes either the platoon leader or PSG.
The following discussion focuses in detail on the steps the section takes to complete the reconnaissance. If this movement takes the vehicle past the initial near side limit, the platoon leader or PSG adjusts the near side limit back through the new negative sample location.
In this case, the base vehicle must also bound and sample in the direction of travel for each bound of the wing vehicles. In addition, the enemy may use non-persistent chemicals to degrade the scouts’ performance during a screen mission. A wilderness skills guide will help you and your family prepare for life outside of the city. The SOP should specify automatic procedures for employing detection teams and submitting the required NBC reports after an NBC attack or when contamination is encountered.
The platoon must be prepared to locate and evaluate the hazard based on available information from fallout predictions (simplified and detailed), chemical downwind hazard predictions, monitoring data, and contamination overlays.
The detector units should be placed no more than 150 meters from the platoon’s perimeter or position. Units not immediately affected need the information to prepare for the hazard or to change plans.
The platoon leader directs use of M256 detector kits to determine the type of agent and submits an NBC-1 report. Soldiers use buddy-aid procedures to observe each other for early symptoms of toxic exposure and to request medical assistance. The first, and most important, step in dealing with them effectively is to recognize symptoms so proper treatment can be administered.
Each report has a specific purpose and uses standard codes to shorten and simplify the reporting process. For radiological contamination, they wipe off the contamination with a cloth or simply brush or shake it away. Following operational decontamination, soldiers who have removed sources of vapor contamination from their clothing and equipment can use hazard-free areas to unmask temporarily to eat, drink, and rest. A contaminated unit conducts detailed troop decontamination (DTD) under supervision of the chemical unit. Understanding the enemy’s doctrine will allow the scout platoon to quickly report potential contamination, allowing commanders to make timely critical decisions. Dismounted operations are still conducted, but they are kept to the absolute minimum necessary to perform the mission while maintaining security. Within a division or regiment, specialized NBC reconnaissance platoons can accomplish this; however, as noted, very few of these platoons exist.
As they move forward, they move slowly to avoid stirring up dust and running over or under foliage. The platoon leader reports the negative results of the reconnaissance to his higher headquarters. Based on the situation, the platoon leader and parent unit commander must be able to implement protective measures specified in the SOP to minimize personnel losses and limit the spread of contamination. Keep small cuts or scratches covered and germ-free by using soap, water, and first-aid measures. Space the available detector units approximately 300 meters apart, and make sure each detector unit is connected to the alarm unit by telephone cable (WD-1). The tactical situation may not allow for audible alarms; therefore, the platoon SOP should clearly detail the visual signals for contamination. If the mission does not allow the unit to take cover, decontamination becomes more important and perhaps more difficult. Table B-2 lists protection and detection measures, symptoms, and treatment and decontamination procedures for the four categories of chemical agents.
The best technique for removing or neutralizing these agents is to use the M291 skin decontamination kit. If necessary, use 5-gallon water cans or other water sources to assist in removing DS2.) For radiological contamination, they brush or scrape away the contamination with whatever is at hand or flush it with water and wipe it away.
Ordinarily, the chemical unit selects a site, sets it up, and performs the detailed equipment decontamination (DED) with assistance from the contaminated unit.
While the section is in the contaminated area, all personnel observe each other for signs of chemical poisoning. All scout platoons must therefore understand how to systematically locate and mark suspected contaminated areas. The lead elements move to the limit of their bound, halt, and sample the soil and air for contamination.
Figure B-2 illustrates initial movement for reconnaissance of a suspected area of contamination. Since insects carry biological agents, prevent insect bites by keeping clothes buttoned and covering the skin. Position the alarm units near radiotelephone assets; this makes it easy to alert the unit of an attack. Stay calm, check for injury, check weapons and equipment for damage, and prepare to continue the mission. Leaders must ensure that their soldiers are trained to execute this technique automatically, without waiting for orders. A small risk from residual contamination remains, so periodic contamination checks must be made after this operation.
Once preparations are complete, the vehicle moves into an overwatch position; the other vehicle moves to a covered and concealed position and follows the same procedures.
Survival: the The ISBN Wild begins Survival includes 978-0957157330 the-PEEBOL sztuki in kindle a ebook SURVIVAL is crack Ray wilderness. Blowing sand or dust, rain, sleet, snow, temperatures below 40 degrees Fahrenheit, and tropical conditions can affect operation of the alarm. Average these readings, round to the nearest 10, and report this average and the radiation exposure status (RES) to higher headquarters. Soldiers should be able to stand in front of a marker and see the markers to the left and right of it. Ground sampling is done without dismounting, using M8 paper mounted on a stick or using the CAM. The section leaders report their results to the platoon leader; they do not proceed further without permission.
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