Participants that have current awards and meet prerequisites may attend re-certification courses which are available multiple times per week. Trainees who are able to complete a training course receive a St Mark James certificate for first aid, CPR, and AED training, valid for three years throughout Canada. Bronze Cross is designed for lifesavers who want the challenge of more advanced lifesaving training and an introduction to safety supervision.
Candidates develop proficiency at performing patient assessments, managing aquatic spinal injuries, and preventing the loss of life in a variety of aquatic emergencies, while developing stroke endurance (includes a 600m timed swim) and fitness training skills. Bronze Cross includes the CPR-C certification and is one of the prerequisite awards for all advanced lifeguarding (National Lifeguard) and leadership (Lifesaving Instructor) training programs.
Successful candidates will be issued a temporary certification card on the last day of course. Starting on a deck, dock or beach, perform an entry and swim a 50 m head-up approach with a shoulder loop and line, or rescue tube, to a passive victim or manikin.
Swim head-up for two sets of 6 x 25 m, maintaining a consistent pace and work-to-rest ratio.
Simulate the treatment of an unwitnessed unconscious adult, child or infant with an unobstructed airway.
Walk around an aquatic environment, evaluate the ongoing activities, and demonstrate how to educate peers about safe aquatic leisure choices. Recover and immobilize a face-down non-breathing victim, found in deep water with a suspected cervical spinal injury.
Using bystanders, organize a logical underwater search of an area with both shallow and deep water to maximum depth of 3 m. Perform a rescue of a victim suffering injuries or with conditions that emphasize rescuer response to deteriorating circumstances.
During my career there has been many an occasion where I participated in the cardiac arrest and resuscitation of a patient, often having to apply the “paddles” as part of a team effort to shock a fibrillating (quivering) heart back to a more normal rhythm. Sudden cardiac death is a very different event than the cardiac arrests I just described, and treatment of SCD survivors often very successful. Sudden cardiac death can be treated and reversed, but emergency action must take place almost immediately.
Once emergency personnel arrive, more traditional defibrillation and initiation of medications can be provided. AEDs are defibrillators with computers that are able to recognize ventricular fibrillation (VF), advise the operator that a shock is needed, and deliver the shock. A study published in 2009 found that women with heart failure did not seem to benefit from an ICD implant, as opposed to men who had a 22% lower risk of dying if they had an ICD.
For those who are at high risk of the deadliest forms of arrhythmias – ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation – an internal “shocking” device may provide the best defense against sudden cardiac arrest. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are small devices, about the size of a pager, that are placed below the collarbone. Cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death (SCD), happens when a heart rhythm disturbance prevents the heart from operating properly and delivering blood to the brain and other vital organs.
Anyone who has had or is at a high risk of having ventricular tachycardia, fibrillation or sudden cardiac arrest is a candidate for an ICD. Questions?Do you have a question about Laerdal Baby Anne Infant CPR Trainer Foreign Objects? We provide free online first aid courses which anybody can work through from the comfort of their own home.
Please note you’ll need to register an account with us before you can access our free online first aid courses.

Online first aid certificateIn order to download your first aid certificate you will need to complete all modules of our online first aid course. In order to access our online first aid course you must have registered an account with us and be logged in.
Learn to recognize and manage medical emergencies and injuries such as heart attacks, angina, stroke, open fractures, concussions, cardiac arrest, deadly bleeding, spinals, poisonings, seizures, hypothermia, heat stroke and more when you enrol in standard first aid and CPR. Customer service specialists are knowledgeable and able to answer questions and help with registration from 8 am to 7 pm Monday through Sunday. Customers can request refunds or transfer to another cost at no extra cost as long as the request is done prior to 72 hours of the course.
Trainees with near-expiry certificates can renew them through refresher courses offered at least twice a week at Toronto First Aid. Private classes can be held at the Toronto First Aid training centre or an experienced instructor can come to your facility on your schedule. Transport the victim to shallow water and recruit and direct a trained bystander to assist. Simulate a situation where one victim requires rescuer assistance, while the other victim(s) can follow directions for self-rescue and assist as bystanders once they have reached a point of safety. Simulate a situation that is designed to emphasize victim care, removal and follow-up including contact with EMS. As a surgeon I have been involved with the treatment of SCD from the early surgical ablations, to placing paddles on the outside of the heart, connected to a large and bulky generator that was implanted under the skin of the abdomen, complicated and often risky procedures as part of a team that included an EP specialized cardiologist. Survival can be as high as 90 percent if treatment is initiated within the first minutes after SCD. If performed properly, CPR can help save a life, as the procedure keeps blood and oxygen circulating through the body until emergency medical help arrives. If a public access defibrillator -- also called an AED (Ambulatory External Defibrillator) -- is available, defibrillate.
This type of defibrillation is done through an electric shock given to the heart through paddles placed on the chest.
After successful defibrillation, most patients require hospital care to treat and prevent future cardiac problems. AEDs are designed to be used by a wide range of personnel such as fire department personnel, police officers, lifeguards, flight attendants, security guards, teachers, and even family members of high-risk persons.
Women need to discuss their individual benefits and risks with their physicians to determine the most appropriate treatment. Known as an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), it is considered effective in fighting cardiac arrest over 90 percent of the time, an astounding success for a condition that few survived as recently as 15 years ago. With this information, the electro physiologist, a cardiologist who specializes in arrhythmias, can study the heart's activity and check for abnormalities that may have occurred.
A heart attack occurs when a partial or complete vessel blockage interferes with the ability of blood to flow to the heart, and heart muscle dies. Many people have both coronary artery disease (the primary cause of heart attacks) and an arrhythmia (a heart rhythm disorder). An ejection fraction (EF) is the proportion, or fraction, of blood pumped by the heart with each beat. T” was listed as one of the Top 10 Heart Disease Blogs of 2012 by Healthline Networks. After you have completed all the modules you can download a free online first aid certificate in PDF format. Frustrated by the lack of free, reliable & accurate first aid information available on the internet, John set out to develop a number of interactive first aid resources.

A number of stand-alone CPR and life support certification courses are available including CPR for health care providers, CPR for lay rescuers, basic life support and advanced cardiac life support for individuals that work in intensive care units. Bacteria can grown in the warm, moist environment of the wound, and can enter the blood stream. Please contact the Brannch if the temporary card has expired and the permanent card has not been received. Demonstrate rescue breathing and the ability to manage vomiting while maintaining immobilization. Simulate a situation that is designed to emphasize communication skills, victim care, removal, and follow-up, including contact with the Emergency Medical System (EMS). Simulate a situation that is designed to emphasize either contact or non-contact rescues, victim care, removals and follow-up, including contact with EMS. ICDs use electrical pulses or shocks to treat life-threatening arrhythmias that occur in the ventricles (the heart's lower chambers).
Nowadays this has evolved to the final ever smaller devices implanted under de skin on your chest, and capable of far more than just applying a shock.
It is a technique designed to temporarily circulate oxygenated blood through the body of a person whose heart has stopped. If the heart beats too quickly, the ventricles will not have enough time to fill with blood and will not effectively pump blood to the rest of the body.
Sometimes the ICD can be programmed to “pace” the heart to restore its natural rhythm and avoid the need for a shock from the ICD. Cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death (SCD), is NOT a heart attack, but a prior heart attack can put someone at risk for SCD. They are at particular risk for sudden cardiac death and may be candidates for ICDs, even though they have no noticeable symptoms of an abnormal heart rhythm. It can turn into ventricular fibrillation or VF, which is characterized by irregular and chaotic rapid heartbeats. Quick defibrillation (delivery of an electrical shock) is necessary to return the heart rhythm to a normal heartbeat. Pacing signals from the ICD are not felt by the patient; shock signals are, and have been described as a kick in the chest.
Because the fibrillating heart muscle cannot contract and pump blood to the brain and vital organs, VF is the number one cause of sudden cardiac death.
Classes are conveniently located, clean and taught with experienced and professional instructors. The shorter the time until defibrillation, the greater the chance the patient will survive.
To intervene, the ICD issues a lifesaving jolt of electricity to restore the heart’s normal rhythm and prevent sudden cardiac death. Without immediate emergency treatment of an electric shock to restore normal rhythm, an individual loses consciousness within seconds and dies within minutes. To prevent death, the arrhythmia must be treated right away with an electric shock to the heart. ICDs also can act as pacemakers when a heart beat that is too slow (bradycardia) is detected. Private classes and a number of first aid services are also available.A Check out the Toronto First Aid website to register for a training course or for additional information on offered classes and schedules.

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