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Category: What Cause Ed 2016 | Author: admin 09.01.2014
Organized annually by the Department of International Trade Promotion (DITP), Ministry of Commerce, in collaboration with international education institutes from both the government and private sectors, Thailand International Education Expo or TIEE is well recognized as one of the most inclusive education fairs in South-east Asia.
Visit the full fair photo gallery for the press conference, seminars, hot products, and many others more at the photo galley page. From Special Education to Inclusive Education Moving from Seclusion to InclusionFrom Special Education to Inclusive Education Moving from Seclusion to InclusionSultana S. IntroductionEducation as human rights has been recognized and affirmed in various national and international conferences including Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 26), Convention on the Rights of the Child (Article 28), World Conference on Education for All (1990), the Salamanca Conference (1994) and World Education Forum (2000) where UNESCO, UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank, etc. Children with learning difficulties or low intelligence (Down's syndrome, Turner's syndrome, Microcephaly, Hydrocephaly, Hypothyroidism with speech delay, improper speech, mild to moderate intelligence).
There is a large number of children from poor socio-economic background and they have no access to any educational programme within the area.
Five randomly selected parent representatives from each of the five centres joined the focal group discussion (parents were either of the disabled children or the non-disabled children). Five teacher representatives from each of the five centres took part in the focal group discussion. Five non-disabled students attending "Inclusive Schools" representing each of the five centres participated in the focal group discussion. The following table lists out the numbers of parents, teachers and students included in the focal group discussions.
Evaluation of Academic PerformanceEvaluation of academic performance made by all the students enrolled (disabled and non-disabled) in the seven pilot "Inclusive Schools" at Dhamrai, Savar, Norshingdi, Kishoregonj, Faridpur, Nabinagar and Mirpur were measured. Academic performance of the students of inclusive schools were evaluated through: simple class tests and mid term tests in all the subjects taught from play group to class V. Most of the parents of disabled students opined that negative attitude of the society of excluding their children from mainstream education formed the biggest barrier to "Inclusive Education".
Initially parents of non-disabled children were reluctant to place their children within the same class with the disabled children but their attitude changed gradually.
Most of the parents expressed the desire to take initiative for vocational training for their children so that they can do different kinds of creative work.
Teachers expressed that the inclusive schools made the disabled children gain independence and become socially relaxed with the environment. FGD revealed that teachers of the regular schools had the knowledge about slow learners but they did not know much about disability. The responses from the non-disabled classmates showed that they were happy to have disabled peers in the classroom. Evaluation of Academic PerformanceThe following table indicates the results of mid-term tests of all the seven "Inclusive Schools". Nanjundaiah, Manjula (2000) Shift from Rehabilitation to Inclusion: Implementation of Inclusive Education (IE) through Rural Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) Programme of Sevain- Action, India, paper presented in the International Special Education Congress held in Manchester, July. Salamanca Statement and Frame for Action on Special Needs Education, Salamanca, Spain, 1994.
Copyright (c) 2007-2015 Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilitiesi??JSRPDi?‰All Rights Reserved. To reach the goal of "education for All", an inclusive school system has been experimented in Bangladesh. The parents are unable to meet the basic needs of their children, such as food, clothing and medical care, etc.
The following tables (Tables II & III) show the enrollment status of students in all the seven schools. These tests were conducted through oral evaluation, work sheet, and written test on numbers, words, simple arithmetic, questions on stories, etc.


Parents were very enthusiastic regarding "Inclusive Education" through which they were able to send their children to the mainstream schools. They were also satisfied with the present school system as they could share the distress of other parents about the children's problems. Their observation was that both the disabled and non-disabled students were improving satisfactorily.
They expressed that it would be difficult for the disabled children to follow the curriculum of the regular class.
The article below is to describe the efforts made by the Bangladesh Protibondhi Foundation and the effectiveness of the inclusive schools as a pilot scheme is also evaluated.
Consequently, Inclusive education is regarded as the only means to achieve the goal of "Education for All".The Salamanca StatementMore than 300 participants representing 92 governments and 25 international organizations met in Salamanca, Spain, from 7 to 10 June in 1994 to further the objectives of "Education for All" by considering the fundamental policy shift required to promote the approach of 'Inclusive Education', mainly to enable schools to serve all children, particularly those with special educational needs.
BPF is committed to include all these children into their schools so as to make sure that no one was left out of any education programme.Having had a long experience of training and teaching children with different types of disabilities from different backgrounds, BPF is in a good position to address the needs of children with different learning needs. The parents of rural areas were also satisfied with all the activities of the schools particularly the food supplement provided for all the children. Severely disabled children however required much individual attention, yet they also gradually became part of the inclusion group.
Besides, most of the teachers expressed that they know nothing about the teaching method for disabled children. They felt that they were getting a new education and they wanted to help their friends when needed.
Therefore, teachers were willing to integrate not only the mildly disabled but also the severely disabled children in the mainstream schools with some individual attention (Table V). The Conference adopted the Salamanca Statement on Principles, Policy and Practice in Special Needs Education and a Framework for Action.The Salamanca Conference marked a new point for millions of children who had long been deprived of education. The parents also revealed that they had learned new ways of helping their children, and they were able to think about their children's abilities more realistically. The teachers of the regular schools however were doubtful about their own capability of handling the disabled children. It provided a unique opportunity to place special education within the wider framework of the "Education for All" (EFA) movement. To address the learning needs of children with intellectual disability, the curriculum content and teaching methods had to be made flexible and specially designed according to the individual child's needs and requirements. After counseling and discussion, they agreed to help the disabled children though reluctantly, as they thought it was an additioned task to their regular workload.
The goal is nothing less than the inclusion of the world's children in schools and the reform of the school system. It was also revealed from the FGD with teachers of regular schools and inclusive schools that once the teachers were exposed to dealing with all the children (i.e. The moderators were given a training on how to facilitate FGD including the explanation of the aims and purposes of the study. In developing countries, the focus is on access and participation with a reasonable level of achievement, while developed countries are concentrating on enhancing standards of achievement. The school system also introduced partnership between a disabled child and a non-disabled child as "peer partner". The non-disabled children were happy to know about the disabled children and felt it was a learning experience for them. School systems in developed countries have historically operated a parallel system of ordinary and special schools and now they are moving from "mainstreaming" and "integration" towards the development of "Inclusive Schools" (Ainscow, 1993).
For school system in developing countries, inclusive schooling is not an alternative choice but an inevitability.


To establish rapport with the parents, teachers and students before the formal beginning of the FGD, different kinds of discussions on their families, children's problems etc. Besides, the non-disabled children are found to have spontaneously helped their disabled peers in the classroom. The goal for both is to organize effective schools for all children, including those with special needs. Sometimes they even took turn to help them feed or take them to the toilets, or help clean their drooling mouths with handkerchieves. The "peer partnership" was proved to be very successful (Table VI).Evaluation of Academic PerformanceThe results of the mid-term and other class tests administered to all the children (disabled and non-disabled) revealed satisfactory performance of both two groups of students (Table VII). Surprisingly quite good percentage of disabled children had satisfactory and average performance. These seven inclusive schools as pilot schools should be served as an 'eye opener' for the government schools and schools run by NGOs. From Special Education to Inclusive Education 17Jayachandran (2000) who is a pioneer in introducing successful integrated education in the State of Kerala, India states that "Inclusive Education" is an integral part of general education. In a number of developing countries including India, children with disabilities have already been integrated into mainstream schools.
Training regular classroom teachers in the area of integrated education, curriculum modification, parent education, appropriate technology and modification, awareness of parents and modification of positive attitude towards disability are the key points of successful integrated education. In 1986, the National Policy on Education of India had included children with moderate disabilities as far as possible in the mainstream schools.
We have formed a state level and district level Resource Group to develop the manpower required in special education and it has become the back bone of the scheme recently. In practice children with multiple and severe disabilities have also been integrated into the UNICEF assisted "Project Integrated Education for the Disabled" (PIED).
Preparation in the early stage is the major factor that makes our special schools become the pilot Resource Centres for training of teachers, peers and volunteers.Seva-in-Action, a voluntary organisation in India has made an attempt to understand the needs of people in rural areas and its relation to the community strengths in developing an appropriate Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) and Inclusive Education (IE) models. However, prior to any such integrated school programme, teachers training either as pre-service or in-service is highly recommended (Jangira 1995). Seva-in-Action has developed a cost-effective, socio-culturally appropriate, comprehensive, sustainable and holistic Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) programme and Inclusive Schools aiming at total rehabilitation of all children and persons with disabilities in rural areas of Kamataka, South India (Nanjurdaiah, 2000).Bangladesh Protibondhi Foundation (BPF) has been working for children with disabilities since 1984.
In fact, the philosophy of "Education For All" or "Inclusive Education" implies improving the learning achievements of children through the effective schools for all initiatives. Starting with early identification and screening, the foundation at present has become a full fledged service delivery organization reaching all over the country. The District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) funded by the World Bank in India has been running effectively in most of the states that in-service training for teachers is regarded as crucial to its success (Jangira, 1995).In Bangladesh the Save the Children Alliance, BPF and UNICEP have been collaborating with UNESCO in spreading awareness regarding "Inclusive Education" among educationists and policy makers. But BPF's services for children with disabilities were based on the medical or expert model where disabling condition were diagnosed by experts and intervention prescribed by specialized people or experts and special schools were organized.It has been realized that in a poor country like Bangladesh, the education and training needs of large number of children with disabilities cannot be met by costly special schools and centres, which create a segregated life situation. The government needs to be sensitive about this issue so that a great stride can be made if all government schools are made "schools for all".Last but not the least, the positive attitude of donors in this regard also makes a lot of difference.
Also to comply with the trend of inclusive education which has gained a momentum with the movement to challenge exclusionary policies throughout the world, BPF is gradually shifting from the medical model to a more social model and has started CBR programmes in different parts of the country.BPF has involved in more inclusive educational approach since 1999, when a twoweek workshop on "Inclusive Education" using the UNESCO "Teachers Education Resource Pack" was organized. This workshop focused on helping teachers in regular schools to respond positively to diversity and to explore new teaching approaches.Further follow-ups have been difficult due to the lack of adequate professional support from the participating non-government organizations (NGOs) and the lack of interest at government level. The sharing of ideas in terms of including the excluded from education and stretching their helping hand has gone a long way in the success of this programme.




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