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Category: Natural Ed Supplements 2016 | Author: admin 16.11.2014
How to cite this article:Adake P, Somashekar H S, Mohammed Rafeeq P K, Umar D, Basheer B, Baroudi K.
How to cite this URL:Adake P, Somashekar H S, Mohammed Rafeeq P K, Umar D, Basheer B, Baroudi K.
2.Ecological analysis of the association between mortality and major risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Send Home Our method Usage examples Index Contact StatisticsWe do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Coeliac disease, also called gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is a disease of the small intestine characterized by intolerance to gluten, a protein present in many foods such as wheat, oats and barley. Cellulite, those unwanted irregularities in the skin that provide an appearance similar to orange peel, is called in medicine hydrolipodystrophy gynoid. The roseola child, also called sudden rash is a very common virus during childhood, manifested through skin rash (red spots on the skin) and fever. Colposcopy is a procedure performed through a device called a colposcope, which allows the gynecologist to have an enlarged and enlightened view of the vulva, vagina and cervix.
Constipation, also known as constipation or constipation, is a frame that occurs when the patient evacuates heavily and infrequently, usually less than 3 times a week and need to make great efforts to that feces able to pass. Comparison of amlodipine with cilnidipine on antihypertensive efficacy and incidence of pedal edema in mild to moderate hypertensive individuals: A prospective study.
Around 50 million individuals in the United States and 1 billion individuals worldwide are affected by hypertension. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: The JNC 7 report. Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States. Hypertension in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. Residual lifetime risk for developing hypertension in middle-aged women and men: The Framingham Heart Study. Assessment of frequency of progression to hypertension in non-hypertensive participants in the Framingham Heart Study: A cohort study. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: Report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). Incidence of pedal edema formation with dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers: Issues and practical significance.
Heterogeneous effect of calcium antagonists on leg oedema: A comparison of amlodipine versus lercanidipine in hypertensive patients.
Cotransmission from sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons: Differences in guinea-pig mesenteric artery and vein.


Characterization of Ca2+ current inhibition by cilnidipine using a beta-subunit antisense oligonucleotide. Neuronal Ca2+ channel blocking action of an antihypertensive drug, cilnidipine, in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells. Effects of cilnidipine, a novel dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, on autonomic function, ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in patients with essential hypertension. Inhibitory effect of cilnidipine on vascular sympathetic neurotransmission and subsequent vasoconstriction in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Cilnidipine as an agent to lower blood pressure without sympathetic nervous activation as demonstrated by iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging in rat hearts. Effects of amlodipine and cilnidipine on cardiac sympathetic nervous system and neurohormonal status in essential hypertension. A meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of cilnidipine in Chinese patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. Most people seeking medical care in emergency rooms because of chest pain are not having a heart attack, but less severe problems such as muscle pain, reflux or anxiety attacks.
The sudden rash is a benign viral infection, which heals by itself without treatment and rarely causes complications.
Renal failure can be acute (ARF) occurs when sudden and rapid loss of renal function, or chronic (CRF), when this loss is slowly progressive and irreversible. The idea of being able to remain fertile, healthy and never have to go through the monthly discomforts of menstruation is something very tempting to most women. Besides being a sign of a possible respiratory disease, cough is also a vital defense mechanism of our airways. However, the safety of the suppression of menstruation has always been a factor that prevented the realization of this desire. The Framingham heart study has estimated that individuals normotensive at the age of 55 years have a 90% lifetime risk of developing hypertension. Perhaps the most important change is the new classification of "pre-hypertension" (SBP 120-139 mm Hg or DBP 80-89 mm Hg), which combines the normal and high normal categories of the previous JNC VI report, in the recognition of the fact that even these levels of BP confer an increased risk of the development of hypertension and future cardiovascular events. High-risk conditions benefited by the use of CCBs include coronary artery disease and diabetes (particularly in combination with other agents). In addition, CCBs may be particularly useful in patients with co-morbid Raynaud's syndrome. Advanced age, isolated systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, carotid atherosclerosis, pregnancy are the conditions that favor the choice of a dihydropyridine (DHP) CCB.
Incidence of peripheral edema with amlodipine has been found to be between 1.7% and 32% in different clinical studies. Edema may result in the need for dose reduction or drug withdrawal, either of which can adversely affect the efficacy.


A new generation of CCB, cilnidipine is an N-type and L-type CCB that also inhibits sympathomimetic activity in contrast to other DHP. Although L-type and N-type DHP CCBs are being used clinically, their specific effects on the pedal edema have not yet been elucidated. Hence, this study was taken to compare the antihypertensive efficacy and incidence of pedal edema with amlodipine and cilnidipine in hypertensive individuals. The study protocol was confirmed to the ethical guidelines of Declaration of Helsinki (Sixth revision, 2008). The patients were examined by the consultant physician and blood pressure was measured in right arm, sitting posture by the auscultatory method using standard mercury sphygmomanometer. Two recordings of blood pressure were taken at an interval of 15-20 min by the same consultant. Presence of pedal edema on either of the legs is considered as positive for the pedal edema.After initial screening, demographic data, past medical history, family history, and findings of clinical examination were recorded in the case report form. Patients were instructed to take the prescribed anti-hypertensive medication as per physician's advice. All the 60 patients were followed every fortnight, screened for pedal edema and blood pressure control over a period of 3 months.
Patients were instructed to consult the physician immediately in case of any unusual side effects (including pedal edema) if it occurs before the follow-up date. The differences in the incidence of pedal edema between cilnidipine and amlodipine groups were compared by Fisher's exact test.
This was proved by many studies which have shown that nifedipine could not dilate venules of striated muscle in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and L-type calcium channel agonist could not constrict venules of frog skin. Hence, its occurrence cannot be explained by a difference in their influence on peripheral arteries.
In fact, a decrease in the frequency of pedal edema due to L-type calcium blockers is reported when these drugs are combined with ACEI, which have a vasodilatory effect on the venules. Hence have a lesser incidence of pedal edema compared with the other CCBs which act only on L-type calcium channels. But cilnidipine being N-type and L-type CCB, associated with lower incidence of pedal edema compared to only L-type channel blocked by amlodipine. Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Mumbai, India for providing cilnidipine samples for the study.



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