Solar system home appliances 2014,how do i connect solar panels to my electricity,how to make a solar panel with household items quickly - Tips For You

07.01.2016
A pump controller like this SunPumps PCB-180BT balances PV voltage and current to optimize pump performance throughout the day. A DC submersible diaphragm pump (middle) and a centrifugal pump (right), with controller (left), by SunPumps. A helical rotor pump (middle) and a centrifugal pump (right), with controller (left), by Lorentz. A Lorentz PS150 Boost diaphragm surface pump is typically used to pressurize water systems. If you live beyond the reach of the grid, or have a remote pumping need like irrigation or livestock watering, a solar-electric pump system can be a solution that’s reliable and sustainable. Submersible pumps break down into three main categories—centrifugal, helical rotor, and diaphragm. Higher lift can be achieved with helical rotor pumps (a type of “positive displacement” pump), which will also provide a flow rate great enough to meet most household demands.
Depending on the model, submersible diaphragm pumps (another type of positive displacement pump) can pump up to about 5 gpm from shallow wells (under 100 feet), or lower volumes from well depths down to approximately 250 feet. But DC submersibles take more efficient advantage of battery-based PV systems compared to AC pumps.
Lorentz manufactures a range of pumps, some of which operate at up to 200 volts open circuit. Grundfos manufacturers the SQFlex, a centrifugal pump that  can run on either AC or DC power—no special equipment is needed to make the switch. Other advantages of PV-direct pumping are the efficient use of PV energy (no losses to battery charging or inverter conversion) and the potential for reducing generator run-time. Array-direct to elevated storage systems will save you money in the long run and add more flexibility to your off-grid energy lifestyle. While this configuration gives you more flexibility to choose when you consume the energy required to pump well water, the up-front costs of the storage tank and additional pressure pump add to overall system cost and installation complexity.
Compared to the systems described earlier, pump-to-pressure tank systems usually have the lowest up-front component costs (there’s no large storage tank or secondary booster pump), and pump installers everywhere are familiar with these systems.
For off-grid installations, the downside of pump-to-pressure tank systems is that the pump will need to come on during most water draws. A Home Power reader bemoans the complexity of solar-electric systems and the need for pro installers. I would like to get some recommendations for the following: I plan to install a solar powered water pump in an existing well on top of a hill that is some 65 feet above the surrounding terrain. Well, wish upon a star!: astronomers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts have announced that they have found the most massive known transiting extrasolar planet.
The mega-planet orbits an F-type star, which is almost twice as big and somewhat hotter than the Sun, located about 440 light-years away in the constellation Hercules. By measuring how the star wobbles as the planet's gravity tugs it, astronomers deduced that the planet contains about 8.2 times Jupiter's mass. The most likely explanation is the presence of a second, outer world whose gravity pulls on HAT-P-2b and perturbs its orbit. HAT-P-2b was discovered using a network of small, automated telescopes known as HATNet, which consists of six telescopes, four at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's Whipple Observatory in Arizona and two at its Submillimeter Array facility in Hawaii. The HAT telescopes conduct robotic observations every clear night, each covering an area of the sky 300 times the size of the full moon with every exposure. Consider the various species of extremophiles we've discovered living in the super-heated high pressure waters surrounding volcanic vents at the bottom of the oceans. Scientists must be diligent to look in all environments to find the forms of life that we have yet to consider. Nothing can live on it, since it is a gas planet, and because of its enormous gravity and extremely high temperatures :) how can you even think that something may live there. The blue may be ozone (since ozone actually has a blue colour, that's why our sky is blue. I ddn't find much about the behaviour of the ozone molecule under extremely high temperatures. I wish everybody would pay close attention to the sky and all the wild things that go on every night. As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below.
Of the thousands of known comets in the solar system, Halley's comet is one of some 200 that are periodic. Seen here in a 2004 composite image, the intensely active surface of comet Wild 2 ejects dust and gas streams into space, leaving a trail millions of kilometers long. The Hale-Bopp comet shines against a stellar backdrop in the constellation Sagittarius in this Hubble Space Telescope image.
The round shape of Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, suggests that its interior is layered like Earth's.
One of the youngest and best-preserved impact craters on Earth, Meteor Crater formed about 50,000 years ago when a 100-foot-wide (30-meter-wide) meteor weighing 100,000 tons slammed into the Arizona desert at an estimated 12 miles (20 kilometers) a second.
Light reflects from the nucleus of the Tempel 1 comet in this Hubble Space Telescope image taken in 2005.
A new jet of dust streams from the icy nucleus of the Tempel 1 comet, caught in this Hubble Space Telescope image. National Geographic explores how we can feed the growing population without overwhelming the planet in our food series.
The space-weather forecast for the next few years: solar storms, with a chance of catastrophic blackouts on Earth.


Archaeologists and artists, armed with the latest tools and techniques, are bringing the life-size army of painted clay soldiers back to life. Each month, National Geographic magazine features breathtaking photographs in Visions of Earth. This article covers the basics of several types of PV-powered pumping systems, including array-direct, battery-based, and both pressure-tank and high-volume water storage. In this article, we’ll be looking primarily at submersible pumps used to deliver potable water for domestic use. Centrifugal pumps have an impeller that spins at high speeds, producing a high flow of water. With these pumps, picture the water being sent out of the pump body in small “packets” that are pumped very quickly to provide a constant flow. To simplify wiring, off-grid residences with AC PV systems often rely on an AC submersible pump. AC pumping includes DC-to-AC conversion losses: A PV array’s direct current is stored in batteries before being converted to AC by the system’s inverter, which in turn, powers the pump. In DC systems, the pump only requires 30 VDC to get going, but the pump’s 300-volt open-circuit limit allows the array to be wired at higher voltages, decreasing both wire size and cost.
Your best solution will depend on elevation changes at your site, whether there are inverters in your system, and how much flexibility you have when it comes to when you pump water. Off-grid system users often limit generator-based charging (and the associated noise, pollution, and fuel expense) by waiting to perform energy-intensive activities—like running the vacuum or shop tools—until there’s plenty of solar energy available.
But keep in mind that the additional expense of the tank and for trenching the pipeline deep enough for freeze protection can make these systems more expensive up front than other options.
If you like the efficiency of DC pumping and want stored water at your disposal, but don’t have enough of an elevation change on your property for a gravity system, there are still options.
The most conventional of the three pumping systems described uses an AC submersible pump to push water directly to a pressure tank. But they may not be familiar with the limitations of battery-based power sources (pump surge, inverter capacity issues, and the like), so pay close attention to the pump’s operating characteristics and seek out an installer familiar with off-grid pumping systems whenever possible. During cloudy weather or overnight, the energy to repressurize the tank will come from your battery bank. Formerly SC Solar, the company has been designing and supplying solar water-pumping systems since 1999. The gas giant planet, called HAT-P-2b, contains more than eight times the mass of Jupiter, the biggest planet in our solar system. If Earth's orbit were as elliptical, we would loop from almost reaching Mercury out to almost reaching Mars.
Once every 5 days and 15 hours, it crosses directly in front of the star as viewed from Earth-a sort of mini-eclipse.
A person who weighs 150 pounds on Earth would tip the scale at 2100 pounds, and experience 14 times Earth's gravity, on the gas giant.
Gravitational forces between star and planet tend to circularize the orbit of a close-in planet.
As part of an international campaign, the Wise HAT telescope, located in Israel's Negev desert lso took part in the discovery.
About 26,000 individual observations were made to detect the periodic dips of intensity due to the transit.
I can't believe I actually asked if the blue on the planet was water or gas when it clearly says that Planet X is a gas planet. If you've ever heard about abduction theories then you know about them being slender and gray with big black eyes, these are their servants, they are a robotic race created to study us, for the annunaki cannot land here, they would not be able to survive. The life forms on this planet, they are not so different from humans, except they are taller, about eight feet. I have been seeing this really brite light in the sky moving around and dissappearing before your eyes.
Its coma, or head, and a portion of its tail are visible in this shot, as are myriad stars. Other than the sun, Wild 2 is currently the most active planetary surface in our solar system, astronomers say. Discovered in 1995 by amateur astronomers Alan Hale in New Mexico and Thomas Bopp in Arizona, the extremely bright comet became visible to the naked eye the following year. Shoemaker-Levy 9 was the first comet discovered to be orbiting a planet, Jupiter, instead of the sun. The spots appear dark because of the large quantities of dust, which absorbs sunlight, being deposited in the planet's stratosphere.
If The Copyright Of Any Wallpaper Belongs To You Contact Us And We Will Remove From Our Website. A submersible pump is usually positioned in a well, although there are instances where a stream or pond is used as the source. An analogy that is sometimes used is that of a spiral staircase in a sealed shaft, with the staircase spinning around very quickly. Although these pumps are less expensive than centrifugal or helical pumps, they require significantly more maintenance.
Inefficiencies associated with the charging and discharging of batteries can account for losses of 5% to 10% or more, depending on the age and condition of the battery pack. They offer models that can pump 4 gpm from wells up to 650 feet deep, or up to 250 gpm from shallow wells or surface water sources.
With the addition of a generator interface box, the pump can be switched to accept AC power from a generator during sunless periods.


This classic off-grid pumping solution connects a DC submersible pump directly to the PV array. And since the elevation of the tank provides the needed water pressure, no pressurizing pumps or pressure tanks are required.
A PV-direct DC pump can be configured to fill a storage tank near its point of use, and an additional DC or AC booster pump can be installed at the tank to pressurize the water.
A DC pump sized to meet the site’s flow rate requirements can also be run directly from the battery bank, eliminating inverter conversion losses.
Batteries like to be fully charged, and the deeper you discharge them and the longer they stay in that state, the shorter their service life will be. Because of its orbit, the planet gets enormously heated up when it passes close to the star, then cools off as it loops out again. Such a transit offers astronomers a unique opportunity to measure a planet's physical size from the amount of dimming.
Also, there is obviously no possible way that life could exist on a planet that's hotter than 2,000 degrees fahrenheit, though it was still a great discovery.
The Annunaki have grown very interested in us, because we were their greatest experiments, they mixed their genetic codes with that of Neanderthals, thus creating Humans.
Their skin is either light purple or blue, they study druidism and their eyes glow with the white hot intensity of a thousand suns. Anyway, that's why mountains usually appear blue, when they are too far away from you, and the closer you get to them, the greener they look,etc).
This image was taken by telescope from Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Arizona.
It gradually faded from view, but astronomers predict that Hale-Bopp will be viewable with large telescopes until around 2020. It has a diameter of about 590 miles (950 kilometers) and it contains about a third of the asteroid belt's total mass. Comets frequently show outbursts of activity, but astronomers still don't know exactly why they occur. Unlike surface pumps (installed above the source’s water level) that draw water up from shallow sources like a pond, submersible pumps push water up to a holding tank or pressure tank.
However, pressure, and therefore the amount of pumping height (head or lift) that can be attained, is usually lower than in other types of pumps.
Each “stair step” lifts water toward the top of the pump, then to the pump outtake, and eventually out the top of the well. In this case, the pump contains electronics that allow it to be powered by a standard AC source like an inverter or the grid. And with an inverter average conversion efficiency of approximately 85%, an AC pump will require approximately 20% to 25% more PV energy to pump the same amount of water compared to a DC-direct pump. SunPumps and Shurflo also make less expensive diaphragm pumps that can be good choices in array-direct (batteryless DC from PV modules) applications for domestic, irrigation, or livestock watering, provided that the water is relatively silt free. One additional component, either a controller or linear current booster (LCB) wired between the PV array and the pump, optimizes the relationship between array voltage and current to maximize the amount of water pumped under varying sunlight conditions.
For household domestic water systems, I recommend sizing the storage tank to hold at least five days’ supply of water to cover those inevitable periods of cloudy weather. In properly sized PV-direct to storage tank systems, several days’ worth of water will be stored in the tank.
This solution gets the heavy lifting (from the well to the storage tank) done whenever the sun’s shining, and limits energy use during cloudy periods to a smaller pressure pump that activates via a pressure switch when water is used. A standard pressure switch activates the pump when the pressure in the tank drops below a set level, say 30 psi. Another consideration is that, compared to array-direct systems with high-volume storage, increased generator run-time during cloudy weather will be a necessity.
The atmosphere that surrounds their planet is 2000 degrees, but below the atmosphere is a rock not much bigger than earth. Since the water needs to be carried through the pump body, the result is a lower flow compared to centrifugal pumps.
The pump is just another AC load to be considered when sizing the system’s battery bank, inverter, and charge sources. When the sun is shining, the pump moves water to a tank located above the water’s point of use. During cloudy periods, you will already have pumped the water you need, and the generator won’t be needed to keep the batteries topped off while pumping. The temperature on the planet is more or less like ours, but they can only thrive in their own atmosphere and we could not live there; they are nitrogen based life forms, we are carbon based. However, with its higher pressure, a helical rotor pump can deliver water against higher heads. Many AC pumps will require two or more times the power (wattage) to start the pump than is needed when the pump is running, and the system’s inverter needs to be able to handle this extra start-up load. Instead of a 1,200-gallon or larger water storage tank, a smaller 40- to 60-gallon pressure tank is all that is needed. Many household water supplies operate at about 40 psi (though down to 20 psi can often work), so locating the storage tank about 100 feet higher than the point of use will provide adequate water pressure.



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