Solar plant monitoring system 100,how does solar system work,residential solar power growth potion - Review

28.11.2014
Since solar power became commercially available, the goal has always been for  solar and alternative energy industry. The relationship between power distributor ad power distributor is not straightforward, they can sometimes be the same entity and some LDCs may buy large amounts of base load power from one power source, a coal plant for example, a very low fixed cost and then buy peaking power only when required from a natural gas producers at a much higher rate, which may be 5 to 8 times a much.
Solar power have the benefit of scaling  easily from large and small systems, a solar power plant to a one solar cell installation on a customer roof.
Grid parity is used most often is looking specifically at solar power or solar photovoltaics (PV).
Continuing with these phase will allow solar to displace the more expensive commercial whole sale prices of conventional energy. Diagram 3 The Wenner 4-pin test method for taking soil resistivity measurements uses four metal electrodes that are driven into the ground in a straight line and equidistant from one another. In this photo, the black coating is coal tar and shows minimal damage; the other coating is a high-solids epoxy coating. Over the last 5 years, driven steel piles have been the most common foundation used for utility-scale PV applications. Driven steel piles have been used for many years in a variety of applications outside of the solar industry. Historically, piles have been widely used in a variety of marine applications, including in dams and as supports for bridges and docks. In PV power plant applications, however, the friction needed to resist uplift loads generally governs pile designs. Broadly speaking, corrosion takes place when two different metals come into contact with a conductive liquid, resulting in a flow of dc electricity. The potential (voltage) that causes electrons to flow is always caused by a difference between the anode and the cathode, such as a difference in the two metals, a difference in concentration of the conductive liquid, a difference in temperatures or a difference in the amount of oxygen present. Corrosion concerns that impact steel piles can be broken into two categories: atmospheric and soil corrosion.
The amount of humidity present is generally affected by a combination of the pile application, the regional weather patterns and the proximity to marine environments.
2pc sensor clamps each fixed on one transmitter.RJ45-USB data cable is optional to support link with PC. For several years now, deriving value from “big data” has been a concern for executives focused on the distribution side of electric utilities. Another megatrend has hit the power generation industry: the Internet of Things (IoT)—countless devices with embedded electronics, sensors, and connectivity to digitally communicate with one another and their human owners. IBM, another analytics player, notes that “big data” is characterized by high volume, high velocity, high variety, or all of the above, “much of it generated in real time and in a very large scale.” The types of analysis brought to bear on big data can include everything from text analytics to machine learning.
When applied to the power industry, the preferred buzzword is becoming the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), in recognition that industrial data feeds can account for more data, at higher volumes, and with more critical implications than data from the consumer IoT, which consists of everything from merchant payment processing to fitness wristband data. When a new trend or technology hits an industry, you can be sure that just about everyone jumps on the bandwagon. For several years, I’ve been wondering when entities at the generation end of the electricity industry would be swept into the “big data analytics” movement, because those capabilities have created buzz in the customer service and grid management sectors for some time. In late October 2015, a Greentech Media article claimed that there are “more than 1 billion data points being logged every day in the U.S. Even when compared with the big data being amassed by utilities on the distribution side, the potential data volume from complex industrial systems like power plants, which often generate information every minute of the year, is some orders of magnitude larger.
Both the potential volume of machine-generated data and the need for more-secure management of it are leading to development of the IIoT—what you might think of as a special sector of the Internet.
The IoT generally refers to devices on the consumer side—from fitness wristbands to Nest thermostats—that can talk to the Internet through wired connections or wirelessly and can update automatically. Another definition of the IIoT is Internet protocol (IP)–based devices that connect with each other. For power plants, one potential advantage of the IIoT is the integration of information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) systems so that all functions within a company can see and understand constraints and opportunities.
Data communications infrastructure is an integral part of the Industrial Internet, and one where the options continue to evolve. According to Sierra Wireless, 4G LTE is the intuitive migration path for industrial applications like utilities and other generators using 2G. As you can infer from this list, a large number of equipment and service providers can claim to be part of the IIoT ecosystem (see the sidebar “The Industrial Internet Is Already with Us”). The concept and reality of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) didn’t emerge overnight. When POWER asked how ABB sees the developing IIoT, Rick Nicholson, global product management & marketing, Enterprise Software, said, “The interconnection of things, services, and people via the Internet presents massive opportunities for the power industry—from being nimble to streamlining costs, reducing risk, tackling compliance complexity, actively managing aging assets, and harnessing disparate data sources for real-time views into actual conditions in the network, assets, and customer services. ABB, Nicholson said, has “industry-leading products in all four of these domains and is delivering on the benefits of IIoT through its Connected ALM (CALM) platform (Figure 1). Realizing the vision of the Industrial Internet requires technology improvements to many components of the power system. According to Doug Morris, the company’s director of business development, one challenge in implementing continuous monitoring of such critical connection points inside switchgear is that the system must maintain the impulse-withstand voltage, also known as basic impulse level (BIL). As a wireless, passive surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor, the IntelliSAW can directly mount onto critical measuring points in harsh environments while ensuring safe BIL requirements are met.
In addition to developing Predix, a custom platform for the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), General Electric is a founding member of the Industrial Internet Consortium (iiconsortium.org), which covers a number of industry verticals, including power.
The consortium includes more than 200 members, representing “large and small industry, entrepreneurs, academics and government organizations with an interest in helping to shape and grow the Industrial Internet.” The list includes companies that are GE competitors in the original equipment space, such as Siemens, Toshiba, Hitachi, and Mitsubishi.
The site has a Resource Hub that includes articles, case studies, and technical papers that offer deeper dives into the topic than this article can provide.
In short, the IIoT is already taking shape, even if all the partner pieces haven’t been married. As for the IIoT, at the M+M event, GE CEO Jeffrey Immelt (Figure 2) predicted that his company’s platform, what he called the “GE Store,” would open up a $225 billion market. Any talk of connecting power generating assets to the Internet (already a common practice) should prompt questions about security. Among GE’s acquisitions to support its IIoT vision is Wurldtech, a firm already well-known among control systems providers for device-testing and certification (on its Achilles platform) for programmable logic controllers (PLCs), human-machine interfaces, remote terminal units, and the like. Wurldtech perimeter device boxes sit in the communication path between the OT and the IT departments, either at the plant or corporate data center.
The company can do virtual zoning, without rewiring the whole plant, he said, to prevent unauthorized communication. The ARC authors note that “There is a huge installed base of unconnected devices throughout industry.
Additionally, today’s predictive maintenance tools are mostly single-point solutions, like vibration and anomaly detection for turbines or combustion or emissions monitoring.
Taking the long view, one of the keys to maximizing the power of the IIoT is secure information sharing among asset owners and trusted partners, including equipment and service providers, in order to share performance data.
Siemens is one example of an Industrial Internet Consortium member that has been developing capabilities that are integral to a future in which multiple vendors share an ecosystem in order to benefit power generators. The ARC authors acknowledge that “The plethora of automation and other devices that can potentially connect to the IIoT leaves plenty of room for confusion. At M+M, Brian Hoff, director of emerging technologies at Exelon Corp., admitted that it can be hard to choose where to start down the IIoT path. As Joan Knight, innovation director at Exelon Generation, explained in another session, equipment data collection at the company’s nuclear plans was “not all put together and used” at the plant or fleet level. Duke Energy Nuclear Generation, modeling a program successfully used by Duke’s fossil fleet, began a fleetwide project in late 2014 using the Schneider Electric Process Information Signal Monitoring (PRiSM) Advanced Pattern Recognition (APR) software to “model” critical, large rotating equipment, explained Howard Nudi, fleet engineering support manager at Duke. Integrating PRiSM at the first site, Harris Nuclear Plant, was completed in May 2015, Nudi said, with approximately 60 component models actively deployed.


Though advanced equipment monitoring is familiar in concept, if not always in practice, the next level of digitization may involve a comprehensive digital avatar of a physical power plant or fleet.
GE’s Digital Wind Farm concept, for example, builds on its previous PowerUp software and began, as Ganesh Bell, GE Power’s chief digital officer explained at M+M, with a software-defined modular turbine that was customized for every single pad mount (Figure 3). As Hunter Armistead, executive vice president, business development for Pattern Energy (a wind, solar, and transmission project developer) noted at M+M, there’s generally a 20% difference between a bad investment and a really good one in wind. GE is also developing digital models (“twins”) of its gas turbines (as well as machines for other industries).
I asked several GE representatives as well as M+M attendees for their take on how Predix, which was launched in beta at the event, is different from what preceded it in the industry. The typical current state of data-derived awareness is tied to a single system or piece of equipment.
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Power Monitoring Expert is an open, interoperable and scalable power management software package that tracks real-time power conditions to help improve energy efficiency, improve system reliability and availability, and maximize the performance of your electrical assets. Power Monitoring Expert software helps improve system reliability to achieve high availabilityFor critical processes, outages can be very expensive. Power Monitoring Expert software helps improve operational efficiency to increase energy savings & sustainabilityThe cost of electricity is often the largest uncontrolled cost in tertiary and industrial buildings.
Power Monitoring Expert software simplifies access to power system informationWith Power Monitoring Expert softwarea€™s web-based client interface, both novices and power users can easily access power system information. With the inclusion of multiple new libraries for commonly used real-time values, alarm views, and reports, Power Monitoring Expert software lets you get up and running quickly, saving you hundreds of hours of engineering time.
A layout is decided by considering the land contour, slopes, orientation and factors like location of inverters, roads, shading etc. Most of the developed worlds electrical power is generated from industrial scale power plant facilities via private or public consortium.
This amount of flexibility allows solar to compete with the post-delivery retail price of traditional power sources. Currently un-subsidized solar  power is already competitive with fossil fuels in India, Hawaii and Spain, to name a few. Typical pile shapes for this purpose include the H-pile (shown here), round pile and screw pile. Piles are used for both tracker and fixed-tilt racking systems because they are low cost, quick to install and well suited to the relatively low loads imposed by PV arrays. In addition, PV plants are frequently installed in disturbed soils, on agricultural land that was taken out of service. H-piles have become very common for solar structures: They have very good structural characteristics in one direction, which makes them well suited for the loads seen in solar installations (see Diagram 1, below). Electrons always flow away from the anodic metal (anode), and the anode is corroded as a result. Because the steel is in contact with a great deal of oxygen, the corrosion rate is governed by the presence of an electrolyte. The remaining atmospheric drivers typically vary based on the site location and are identified as rural, urban, industrial and marine.
It was only a matter of time before generating units and fleets also had the capability to collect, analyze, and act upon huge volumes of near-real-time data.
The IoT generates more data than most asset owners can warehouse on their own—hence the moniker “big data”—and requires sophisticated analytics (see the sidebar “What’s Analytics?”) in order to derive benefits from that data.
Over the past few months, pitches and press releases about the IoT have proliferated in POWER’ s inbox.
Companies including IBM, Cisco, Intel, Microsoft, Google, SAP, Oracle, Verizon, and many others have been promoting their capabilities around managing data from the IoT, including the power grid. Essentially, the IIoT consists of machine data rather than human-generated data, as on the generic Internet, where most content—from blogs to corporate marketing to cat videos—is accessible to anyone. Machine-to-machine communication, SCADA, distributed control systems, and data historians are all parts of the IIoT, but whereas those pieces often operate with limited connectivity to one another, the IIoT provides a platform where they can be integrated for deep and speedy data analysis that—ideally—provides richer insight for decision-making than is currently possible. For example, many 2G wireless communications networks will be decommissioned soon as spectrum gets reallocated to provide more advanced 4G LTE (long-term evolution) services. The capacity inherent in LTE allows for added functionality, such as video surveillance, in addition to existing applications like SCADA, distribution management, and metering. Technology innovation has been moving toward a connected, integrated ecosystem for some time, and a number of companies, including ABB, have been working on essential parts of that vision.
Emerson Process Management is one of the major companies supplying the sensors, monitoring, and controls that are essential to this vision. This requirement eliminates the most common types of direct contact temperature monitoring systems, leaving only non-intrusive systems to consider for switchgear thermal monitoring.
It does not require line of sight to the monitoring location, offering installation flexibility, and, because the sensors are manufactured from quartz crystal, it offers a monitoring solution for the lifespan of the switchgear, without ongoing maintenance. At M+M, I asked Dick Ayres, GE’s general manager of software solutions, power generation services, how his company’s new platform manages cybersecurity. While it continues to serve that market, it now also is focused on protecting asset owners.
It looks at protecting what’s already installed as well as new devices, because an old PLC and a new one next to it will have “very different functions and levels of security.” Wurldtech is looking at “signatures”—more at the application layer than at IP traffic—to notice how a device is supposed to act and how devices are talking to each other.
Compared with what plants may already be using, what they look at is “much lower level,” at the “application layer, not the transport layer,” at command and function codes and signatures.
Predictive monitoring is probably the most obvious and familiar benefit of IIoT technology.
A true IIoT of the sort GE is developing would allow an asset owner to see how the whole system is working—at the unit or fleet level.
Immelt told the M+M audience that the company’s H turbine was designed in half the time and at a lower cost per megawatt because of the Industrial Internet capabilities deployed in its development.
That will necessarily involve integrating data from competitors, because many generators already rely upon equipment and services from multiple vendors (see the sidebar “Remote Monitoring and Maintenance”). Every day, the gas turbines generate some 26 GB of data while wind turbines generate 200 GB. Some end user organizations may opt to develop internal management strategies by machine type; others choose different criteria such as geography or supplier.
Exelon is starting its innovation efforts in generation and later will move out into its utilities, he said. Exelon’s partnership with GE is taking a vertical and horizontal view fleetwide and across all equipment of the same sort across the fleet. APR software can derive predictions for multiple variables simultaneously based on empirical relationships established during normal operation. Duke quickly realized positive results as the software identified two unanticipated motor cooler fouling issues in summer 2015 on cooling tower makeup pumps, enabling site engineering and maintenance personnel to take early action to efficiently make repairs.
Historically, larger blades have been the primary means of generating more power for your wind turbine dollar, but GE won the contract for the Meikle Wind Project in British Columbia because of how it optimized the project, Armistead said, not because GE offered the largest turbine. Though it’s easier to create a digital twin when you’ve designed the equipment, GE’s Ayres said any existing plant can be upgraded to a digital power plant.
It’s only when you can integrate both historical and real-time data from multiple plant components with business systems, market signals, weather forecasting, and more that you’ve captured the ultimate prize: mining and analyzing big data to enable “what if” optimizations for faster and more profitable business and operating decisions. One of the biggest distinctions everyone agreed upon is that this new platform aggregates and integrates everything that already exists as well as several new capabilities in order to give users access to actionable information. Power Monitoring Expert software is a key component in any power monitoring and energy efficiency strategy, delivering the intelligence needed to get the most out of energy management. A real-time monitoring system with Power Monitoring Expert software can help you achieve high availability by predicting potential failures, alerting you to problems if they occur, and enabling root cause analysis.


By providing consumption reporting of electricity, gas and other utilities by function, time of day, or by utility billing period, Power Monitoring Expert software helps you identify areas of both waste and improvement in your energy usage patterns. Users can monitor, trend, analyze, and report on energy usage and power quality information, all in one integrated package.
This terminology is used when discussing  green energy sources, such as solar, wind, or geothermal energy. The  companies or entities that generate electricity and deliver electricity are often different. However, there are aggressive environments where corrosion can compromise the structural integrity of the pile.
These piles often have no corrosion protection for the portion that is below grade, and they are used in an unprotected state for projects having 75- to 100-year design lives. In these applications, steel piles are normally hot-dip galvanized for above- and below-grade corrosion protection. The current path runs through the electrolyte to the cathodic metal (cathode), and the cathode is not corroded. It occurs as a thin, wet film created by the humidity in the air in combination with impurities in the steel. It also often involves “the cloud”—broadly speaking, Internet-connected nonlocal data centers and computing services provided by third parties.
Some of the flurry, I suspect, is in response to General Electric’s (GE’s) late September 2015 introduction of its Digital Power Plant and its broader Industrial Internet platform, Predix. On the generation end of the wire, there are fewer devices, yet they are potentially capable of generating far more data, continuously, that could enable near-real-time decision-making with significant consequence. Some are already familiar to the power industry as providers of sensor and remote monitoring and control capabilities (see the sidebar “Sensors: Connecting Physical and Digital Worlds”). The Industrial Internet of Things and the power plant of the future are expected to enable smarter decision-making thanks to the integration of multiple operational and business systems—an improvement over today’s largely siloed systems. One of its latest contributions is IntelliSAW technology, a tiny passive wireless thermal monitoring device combined with analytics. The system ties into a plant monitoring system, where differential and maximum temperatures can be monitored and trended over time. Cisco… estimates that the number of connected devices worldwide will double from 25 billion in 2015 to 50 billion in 2020. Even if GE only rolls out its solution to users of its own equipment, that’s more than 20% of the global power generation market, according to the company. Speaking at the company’s Minds + Machines event in September 2015, GE CEO Jeffrey Immelt predicted his company’s Industrial Internet platform will open up a $225 billion market. One notable difference from more familiar protection systems, he said, is that Wurldtech protects against the vulnerability, not the exploit (which is ever-changing). Many generating companies already make use of some collection of digital sensor and monitoring systems to reduce unplanned downtime and more effectively plan maintenance outages. Remotely monitoring turbines can provide multiple benefits, including longer service intervals and predictive maintenance and maintenance planning, which can lead to increased profitability for customers.
The company currently has five pilots (including one at its Byron Nuclear Generating Station) and wants more because people are excited. Preliminary results are impressive: a 10% decrease in lost megawatt-hours due to equipment reliability issues, which has a value of $5 million. McGuire Nuclear Station is 98% complete with more than 200 APR models deployed for Units 1 and 2.
General Electric has developed the capacity to design individual, modular wind turbines for the exact location and operating conditions under which each will operate, plus software that can monitor and optimize the farm as it operates. By bringing together any number of data sets and applications from multiple sources, Predix can enable, GE said, the ability to look forward at conditions that could affect that asset in the future, and can predict how different operating scenarios will affect the condition of that asset. Find out on how we use cookies and how to change your settings to refuse them by clicking here. The software also validates that power quality complies with your energy contract, helping ensure the reliable operation of your power equipment and optimizing your electrical distribution network. The software helps you reduce or avoid peak demand and power factor penalties and provides validation information to ensure that your utility bill is as cost-effective as possible. Initially parity was achieved solar by governments offering rebates and subsidies to solar and other green power system installations; however, that has begin to change as solar and other alternative energy sources have achieved lower production cost and efficiency levels. They  both enter power purchase agreements that sets a fixed rate for all power delivered from a particular plant. This can be called time based pricing that tries to more accurate match the power generation cost with what the customers rates are. You can come up with levelized cost by dividing the capital cost by the total amount of electricity produced over the systems lifetime. As solar prices continue to decline subsides will end and it would be more economical to use solar energy purely on price, than other conventional fossil fuel sourced energy. Hot dipping is very effective at reducing atmospheric corrosion; however, it is less effective against some types of soil corrosion. Average seasonal humidity and the potential of hydrogen (pH) and amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the atmosphere all influence the effectiveness of the electrolyte and could increase corrosion. As a result, current users must look to alternative cellular technologies to ensure that their 2G infrastructure remains operational when these networks are shut off.
Others offer new layers and capabilities for existing wired or wireless monitoring systems (see the sidebar “The Industrial Internet Consortium”).
It provides advanced warning to operators when they are experiencing electrical reliability issues like overheating switchgear, busses, or other electrical systems. If all of a sudden Device A starts talking to Device D, that’s an alert, an anomaly,” Christensen explained. But David Humphrey of GE Water & Power said at M+M that most plants still do reactive maintenance, and very few have moved to cloud-based or any sort of real predictive maintenance. For wind turbines, Siemens says it can provide remote remedies for 85% of all alarm situations.
If the real-time data falls outside APR software predictions, a deviation is identified and a notification is generated for the engineering group to evaluate.
One of GE’s products that sits on the Predix platform is APM (asset performance management). Also local power distributors or local distribution companies (LDC) charge rates to cover the purchase they make from variety of power producers.
POWER isn’t in a position to provide due diligence evaluations of vendors’ claims, but we can give you a sense of the evolving landscape. Even among those that have added Pi or Smart Signal, he said, “even the best” are still waiting for an event to happen. APR software can also tell if there is a deviation from predicted behavior and the possible reason, based on subject matter expert input programmed into the software. This has lead to quicker prices declines and it has become one of the most competitive alternative energy sources used to date.
Inefficiencies have taken place throughout the construction chain so that capital cost to install a system have gown down even further.



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