How much solar energy is being used around the world,how the solar power is generated,solar panel for 6 volt battery life - Videos Download

22.02.2016
As the waterwheel began to spread across the world, people started to expand on new ideas on how to make the waterwheel better and more efficient. At a pumped storage hydro plant, flowing water is used to make electricity and then stored in a lower pool. Pumped hydro is the most reliable energy storage system used by American electric utilities.
Once the electricity is produced, it must be delivered to where it is needed — our homes, schools, offices, factories, etc. Similar to the Southeastern Power Administration, the Southwest Power Administration was established by the secretary of interior in the 1940’s and operates within the Department of Energy. The two main reasons that these power administrations are able to sell electricity at such lower costs is due to the fact that there are no real fuel costs to speak of and their original financing for construction was set at rates of the 1930’s and 40’s.
Different types of technology cost different amounts of capital and they output a different amount of power. The history of the evolution of hydroelectric power to where it is today, along with the mechanical technology involved in producing hydroelectric power has been discussed.
Currently hydropower is the overwhelming leader in energy production by a renewable source other than nuclear energy in both the United States and throughout the world. In countries, such as Norway, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Brazil, hydroelectric plants account for over ninety percent of the country’s total power generation.
The United States currently has more than two thousand hydroelectric power plants which account for more than half of the country’s renewable energy sources. In comparison Canadian hydroelectric energy production accounts for over sixty percent of total electrical power generated throughout the country.
Hydroelectric power plants can range in size from micro (six kilowatts to a hundred kilowatts) to small (a hundred kilowatts to thirty megawatts) to large (a few hundred megawatts to over ten gig watts). Hydroelectric power plants do not normally operate at full capacity during a complete year. As you can see hydroelectric power serves as an important part of the world and United State’s energy portfolio. Not only is there available unused capacity in hydroelectric power plants, there is also a wealth of power potential that has yet to be developed. For its study, the INL used a run-of-river model, which employs a penstock to direct water through a powerhouse and then back into streams without any impoundment of water.
The INL evaluated the likelihood of development based on land use and environmental sensitivities, prior development, site access, and load and transmission proximity, and only included those sites in its estimate that met all of the criteria. The majority of the identified feasible hydropower potential could be harnessed without constructing new dams and by using existing techniques and technologies developed over the long and extensive history of installing small hydroelectric plants in the U.S. While solar energy may possess the greatest amount of potential energy, it has been demonstrated by the Idaho National Laboratory that hydropower also has great potential that has yet to be developed. There are currently fourteen large scale hydroelectric facilities in production and numerous smaller ones. The total additional estimated capacity added by these dams to the Chinese energy supply totals 46,350 MW. One of the most advanced forms of hydroelectric power employed today is known as pumped-storage hydroelectricity. The process however is not as environmentally efficient as standard forms of hydroelectric energy.
An analysis of the type of data displayed in this chart calculates that approximately 70% to 80% of the energy used to used in the pumping process to elevate the water is regained during the generation process. A new use of this technique applies the pro’s of applied storage to the con’s of alternative energies such as wind and solar. Tidal power is a viable mean of generating electricity, although not widely used, the first plant had been online since 1966.
Tidal energy, as mentioned, is extracted from the changes of water level within the earth’s oceans. The charts displayed demonstrate the fluctuations in the tide over the course of a twenty four hour period. Tidal power can be divided into three methods of generating; tidal stream generation, tidal barrage, and dynamic tidal power.
A tidal stream generator is a machine, often much like a wind turbine, that extracts energy from the movement of the tide as the water flows past it. These underwater turbines are not yet widely used so there is little information available on their environmental impacts, economic viability, rate of return, or energy output.
A tidal barrage, unlike the turbine systems of tidal stream generation, is a structure similar to that of a dam. These maps show existing and developing geothermal power plants, geothermal resource potential estimates, and other information related to geothermal power. The geothermal resource potential map (JPG 1.6 MB) for the United States shows locations of identified hydrothermal sites and favorability of deep enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This geothermal map (JPG 690 KB) shows current and planned power generation capacity by state.
For Geographic Information System (GIS) geothermal resource data, access the Data Resources page. For interactive maps and tools for viewing maps and data, access the Data Visualization and Tools page.
If you have difficulty accessing these maps because of a disability, please contact the Geospatial Data Science Team. If you need to access an installer in your area, a list of accredited installers can be found here. If you have concerns with your solar power installation, the safest thing you can do is leave your system alone and contact the installer.
If you experience difficulty in seeking clarification or rectification of any issues with your solar power installation from the installer of your system, the CEC has a dispute resolution process. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) panels are generally fitted on the roof in a northerly direction and at an angle to maximise the amount of sunlight that hits the panels. Solar PV panels on the roofs of homes and businesses generate clean electricity by converting the energy in sunlight.
The technology to convert sunlight into electricity was developed in the 19th century, but it was only in the second half of the 20th century that development accelerated behind the need to provide reliable supplies of electricity in remote locations – from satellites in space to outback Australia. Solar panels have been installed on the rooftops of houses and other buildings in Australia since the 1970s. A typical Australian house consumes around 18 kilowatt hours (kWh) per day so a 1-2kW system displaces an average of 25-40% of your average electricity bill.
The cost of solar panels has continued to change over the past decade behind different government incentive schemes and increased diversity in the panels, inverters and suppliers on the market. For more information on how much solar costs in your area, check out the regularly updated Solar Choice PV Price Index. To work out what size solar PV system you require, you need to analyse your household’s daily electricity consumption.
This process will be completed by your accredited designer during the design and specification stage, as part of their load analysis. There are different calculators and assessment options for determining which solar pv size is best suited to your profile. The efficiency of an inverter is measured by how well it converts the DC electricity into AC electricity. It is important to ensure that your grid connect inverter complies with Australian Standards. Ask your accredited installer to provide proof that your inverter meets Australian standards. The Clean Energy Council has published a list of all grid connect inverters that meet Australian standards. If you have a traditional accumulation meter (with a spinning disk) this will need to be replaced with an interval meter or smart meter.
The states and territories have committed to the progressive rollout of smart metering across Australia from 2007. If you are on a gross feed-in tariff scheme, your gross meter separately measures the total electricity consumed by your household and the total electricity generated by your solar PV system. If you are on a net feed-in tariff scheme, your net meter measures your household's electricity and the electricity generated by your solar PV system together. If you move from an off-peak tariff to a time-of-use (TOU) tariff, this will particularly affect your dedicated off-peak loads, such as hot water, space heating and air-conditioning. You should check with your electricity retailer about any tariff changes that will occur as a result of installing solar and carefully weigh up the advantages and disadvantages before making a decision. When you donate to Solar Citizens, you're supporting an organisation dedicated to growing and protecting solar in Australia. Solar Citizens is an independent community organisation bringing together millions of solar owners and supporters to grow and protect solar in Australia.
The Loyalty One building, from where the Air Miles rewards programs are managed, has just been equipped with the biggest rooftop solar panel system in the entire Canada.
All of the solar panels are positioned along the rooftop of the building, with some being used on a carport attached to it.
The inverters have been designed in such a way so that employees and guests can see the solar panels’ power output in real time. Here on GreenPacks we're passionate about everything that involves a cleaner life on Earth.
For example, I kind of got the Iraq situation, but there was a lot of fog there too—so when I wrote a post about it, one fog-clearing rabbit hole took me all the way back to Muhammad in 570AD.
After weeks of reading and asking questions and writing, I’ve emerged from the tortoise sewage with something that toes the line between a long blog post and a short book.
But the tricky thing about energy is the law of conservation of energy, which says that energy can’t be created or destroyed, only transferred or transformed from one form to another.
The joule is a common unit of energy—defined as the amount of energy it takes to apply a force of one newton through a distance of one meter3. At that point, all hell breaks loose as everyone starts murdering everyone else so they can steal their joules.
And that all went on normally for a while, but in the last few hundred thousand years, humans started to realize something: while it was enjoyable to put new joules into your body, actually using those joules sucked. But the most exciting joule-stealing technology humans came up with was figuring out how to burn something. They called this explosion fire, and because the joules that emerged were in the useful-to-humans formats of heat energy and light energy, burning things became a popular activity.
We had learned to harness the joules of the wind and the water—to take those forces by the reins and make them ours—but when it came to the most joule-heavy force of all, fire, we couldn’t really figure out how to do anything with it other than hang out near it, cook some stuff, and generally benefit from its existence.
Fire joules were hard to harness, but if you sent them into water, they’d get the water molecules to increasingly freak out and bounce around until finally those molecules would fully panic and start flying off the surface, evaporating upwards with the force of the raging fire below.
With the muscle of steam in their toolkit, the inventors of the 18th century burst into innovation. Using the steam engine, humanity upgraded from sailboats to steamships and from animal-drawn carts to locomotives.4 Inside factories, people put steam to work too, swapping out their water wheels for much more effective steam-powered wheels. With the new ability to transport many more goods and materials, much farther away, much more quickly, and to far more efficient factories, the Industrial Revolution ignited in full force. The one thing about having made fire our bitch is that we now wanted to burn a lot more things than we ever had before.
We knew there were other things we could burn—in Britain, they would often supplement wood by burning a black rocky substance they found on their shores. And throughout the 19th century, coal mines and oil rigs popped up everywhere. Burning this new treasure of joules made economies soar and the incentive to innovate soared along with them—and new, fantastic technologies were born. Like steam engine technology, the credit for the electricity revolution is owed to a collaboration of dozens of innovators spanning centuries, but it was in the 1880s that it all finally came together. As coal, oil, and natural gas motivated unprecedented innovation, the resulting waves of new technologies created an unprecedented need to burn stuff—which motivated the diggers.
As you might have noticed, there are a lot of people who have a lot of opinions for a lot of reasons saying a lot of things about this situation.
So let’s lay out what we do know and try to clarify what the hell is really going on. Fossil fuels are called fossil fuels because they’re the remains of ancient living things. After hundreds of millions of years, all those organisms were squashed under intense heat and pressure and became converted into joule-dense solid, liquid, or gas—coal, oil, and natural gas.
Coal, a black sedimentary rock that’s found in underground layers called coal beds, is the cheapest and most plentiful of the three and is used almost entirely for making electricity.
Oil, also known as crude oil or petroleum, is a gooey black liquid normally found in deep underground reservoirs. The United States is by far the biggest consumer of oil in the world, consuming over 20% of the world’s oil and about double the next biggest consumer.
Natural gas, which is formed when underground oil gets to a super-high temperature and vaporizes, is found in underground pockets, usually in the vicinity of oil reserves.
Of course, that’s all irrelevant to the person burning the log—what they care about is the energy released during all of this CO2 formation. To put it another way, photosynthesis just kidnaps carbon and sun energy out of the atmosphere, and after years of holding them hostage, combustion sets them both free—the carbon as a billowing eruption of newly reunited CO2, and the sun energy as fire—meaning that fire is essentially just tightly packed sunshine.
But burning a log and releasing all that CO2 does not tamper with the atmosphere’s carbon levels. Carbon flows from the atmosphere into plants and animals, into the ground and water, and then back out of all those things into the atmosphere—that’s called the carbon cycle. But sometimes, a small portion of carbon in the cycle drops out of the cycle for the long term—it happens when a plant or animal dies but for some reason doesn’t decay normally.
When humans discovered all of this underground kidnapped carbon, you have to remember that for them, the carbon wasn’t the point. And as we helped ourselves, we didn’t worry about the fact that extracting those joules also meant extracting carbon that had been buried as far back as the Precambrian period—there were locomotives to fuel and cars to power and buildings to heat, and the joules were irresistible. And those joules have gone a long way—you can thank them for the comforts and quality of your life today. Starting in 1958, scientist Charles Keeling started measuring atmospheric CO2 levels from an observatory on Mauna Loa in Hawaii. The zig-zaggy motion of the line is due to the level falling each year in the summer when plants are sucking up CO2 and rising up again during the winter when the leaves are dead.
So atmospheric CO2 levels have oscillated10 between about 180 and 300 parts per million over the last 400,000 years, never eclipsing 300, and suddenly in the last century the level has vaulted up to 400 (it’s currently at 403ppm). The ice cores dug up by scientists don’t just reveal the CO2 levels going backwards in time—they reveal temperature too. The IPCC also puts it at over 90% that the changes in both CO2 levels and temperature are caused by human activity (which is kind of like saying there’s over a 90% chance that a rain storm has been caused by cloud activity). As mentioned above, right now, the average temp is edging upwards to 1?C above the Pre-Industrial norm (the IPCC puts us at +.86?C currently). Our goal today is not to dig deep into these conflicting opinions and try to figure out the truth, because no one knows for sure anyway.
If we continue to burn fossil fuels as much as we are, things might get really shitty kind of soon. Other sites point out that those cited totals are just referring to proven reserves, and that each year, we’re discovering new sources of fossil fuels, like oil locked in tar sands or abundant reserves of methane hydrate under the ocean floor, and developing new technologies to reach them, like fracking or horizontal drilling. The problem with running out, whenever it happens, is that if the world is anywhere near as reliant on fossil fuels at that point as we are now, it’ll cause an epic economic collapse.
This statement highlights the fact that we’re very much in what will be known as the Fossil Fuel Era of human history. Mussolini inspires Trump tweets - Page 6 Register Help Remember Me? Of course this time around it's looking increasingly like lifelong democrat donald trump running against a personal friend, hillary, he's contributed political campaign contributions to. JoinedJul 2011 Posts26,783 Thanks4682 FromTennessee Originally Posted by Davocrat Okay, all sane-thinking people know he's probably a sociopath, but let's call the REPUBLICAN PARTY out for letting this go as far as it has. JoinedFeb 2016 Posts64 Thanks11 Fromat home Originally Posted by Davocrat Her you go, noob. So a potential President started the day quoting Mussolini, and ended it defending the KKK.
JoinedDec 2007 Posts30,162 Thanks5573 FromMiddle of nowhere Arkansas Originally Posted by Dangermouse So a potential President started the day quoting Mussolini, and ended it defending the KKK. Christian Cox, a US citizen living in London, wrote to the BBC news website to express her concern about the amount of abuse she receives because of her nationality.
JoinedNov 2013 Posts14,727 Thanks12695 FromKey West Originally Posted by Davocrat Okay, all sane-thinking people know he's probably a sociopath, but let's call the REPUBLICAN PARTY out for letting this go as far as it has.


JoinedNov 2013 Posts14,727 Thanks12695 FromKey West Originally Posted by Dutch You're british. When it was discovered that hydropower could produce electricity, it was a very big innovation. Some power plants are located right on a river or canals but for the plants to work at optimum efficiency with a reliable water supply, dams are needed.
Depending on how much electricity is needed, the water may be pumped back to an upper pool.
Dams are often in remote locations and power must be transmitted over some distance to its users. On average it costs about seven cents per kilowatt-hour to produce electricity from a hydroelectric plant. Department of Energy, however, it is self funding and is able to take care of its costs by selling its products and services at cost. These administrations have been able to pay interest rates below the market even for the very few new construction or upgrades that take place nowadays. For simplicity, overnight costs do not include interest or inflation and assume the project was constructed overnight. Levelized costs represent the present value of the total cost of building and operating a generating plant over its financial life, converted to equal annual payments and amortized over expected annual generation from an assumed duty cycle. Levelized costs have been calculated to show how the costs of the generation of hydropower compare to other forms of energy. Hydroelectricity is accounting for around twenty four percent of the world’s electricity generation at three thousand TWh’s supplied per year. China, Canada and Brazil are the only countries producing more hydroelectric power than the United States.
The following table shows how the net generation of hydroelectric power through August of 2010 compares to net generation through August of 2009.
Therefore the annual hydroelectric production is not a true representation of what the producing plant or country is capable of. Some countries such as Norway, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Brazil are very dependent upon their hydroelectric power. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) did extensive research that led to the issuance of a very informative report.
For the addition of powerhouses to existing dams and for adding capacity to existing hydropower operations, the INL considered an assortment of current turbine technologies. One concept to keep in mind is that with the emergence of new technology there may be advances in tidal hydropower derived from tides, waves and ocean currents.
As we know, the capabilities of hydroelectric power have been maxed out here in the United States, however this is not the case in most other countries. These projects are scheduled to be completed over the course of 2012 to 2022 and are located in China, India, Venezuela and Berma, with the majority located in China.
These projects are the Xiluodu Dam, Xiangjiaba Dam, Nuozhadu Dam, Jinping 2 Hydropower Station, Jinping 1 Hydropower Station, Guanyinyan Dam, Lianghekou Dam, Dagangshan, Guandi Dam, and the Ludila Dam. This is no surprise considering China is already the largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world, with an annual production of 652.05 TWh annually, as of 2009. Power plants use this for load balancing, which refers the ability of the plants to store excess electrical power during low demand periods for use in the periods of high demand. The pumping process requires a substantial amount of energy, more infact than is generated by the production process. Unlike other forms of energy such as wind and solar, that struggle with energy storage, pumped-storage is an effective means of storing energy for later use. One of the main difficulties with these forms of energy is the variability in their production, or intermittent energy production.
When looking for a new form of hydroelectric, it makes sense to look towards the largest supplies of water on the planet, our oceans. The difficulties with tidal energy are the same as with most forms of alternative energy, there is a relatively high cost associated with generating the energy, and there are only a few states with enough shoreline that has high enough tidal activity. These fluctuations are caused mainly by the gravitational relationship between the earth and the moon, as well as the earth and the sun.
Three distinct types of tides are displayed; the semidiurnal tide, mixed tide, and diurnal tide. Of the three main forms of tidal generation, tidal stream generator machines are the least damaging the natural environment as well as the cheapest.
The function of a tidal barrage is to capture the energy of the water flowing in or out of a bay or river. This also uses a structure similar to that of a dam, one that extends from the shore directly into the ocean, with a perpendicular barrier on the tip. Wave technology is not widely employed in the world today, although some attempts have been made. This involves the customer filling out a dispute form, and the CEC then investigating the written complaint.
This conversion takes place within modules of specially fabricated materials that make up the solar panels.
Currently there are more than 600,000 solar panel systems safely and reliably delivering clean electricity across Australia. The most common household systems are either 1 kilowatt (kW) or 1.5 kilowatts, although some property owners have installed systems of up to 10 kilowatts.
Similar to buying a car or a computer, you’ll want to be sure that your system is a sound investment that best meets your needs at a reasonable price. Are you after a system that will partially offset your energy consumption for 5-10 years before requiring a system upgrade? Your monthly or quarterly electricity bill measures your household’s electricity consumption in kilowatt hours. The inverter converts this into the AC electricity needed to supply power for standard appliances. This is because an accumulation meter does not record the energy you export to the grid or the electricity you import from the grid. While a smart meter is similar to an interval meter in that it records electricity usage in 30-minute intervals remotely to your electricity company, smart meters have a range of additional capabilities. Your electricity company reads the meter and determines the total amount of electricity generated by your solar panels, regardless of whether it goes into the grid or is used by your household. Your electricity company reads the meter and calculates any surplus electricity fed back into the grid.
A TOU tariff is a pricing structure that changes depending on the time of day you consume power.
The carport (which is also solar-powered) is reserved only for employees with highly efficient vehicles, as well as those who ride bicycles to work.
It's true that our lives depend on a greener future, but the change should come from within. For an explanation of why this series is happening and how Musk is involved, start with Part 1. I could have broken this into multiple posts, but it’s all one story and I wanted to keep it all together. I’m not political because nothing could ever possibly be more annoying than American politics.
Which might seem suspicious since A) Elon Musk asked me to write about this and B) I just wrote a post calling him the raddest possible man. While the sun’s joules can provide any animal with heat and light, the joules that power all of us from the inside enter the biosphere in the first place when the sun gives them to plants. It’s much less fun to use a bunch of joules running fast or lifting something heavy than it is to just sit on a log pleasantly and hold onto those joules instead. They made windmills that could steal some of the wind’s joules as it went by and convert them into mechanical energy to grind food.
With wind or water, you can only capture moving joules as they go by—but when you burn something, you can take an object that has been soaking up joules for years and release them all at once. They had some serious joules to work with now, which opened worlds of previously-unthinkable possibility. Now imagine that instead of the steam spewing out through the nozzle, you connected the nozzle to a tube, which directs the bursting steam into an empty cylinder and then finally releases it. People say the Industrial Revolution was powered by steam, but steam was just the middleman—after hundreds of thousands of years of existing as passive benefactors of combustion, we had tamed the dragon, and the Industrial Revolution was powered by fire.
For most of human history, when people wanted to burn something, they just went and found some wood. As the revolution spread through Europe and to North America, Europeans and Americans started digging too—they also were gonna need a lot of coal.
They found pockets of burnable air we call natural gas and underground lakes of thick, black burnable liquid we call crude oil. Does he pause to think cautiously about how to proceed or consider consequences for his health?
In what is still probably the most significant technological shift of all time, electricity allowed the raucous power of burning to be converted into a highly tame and remarkably versatile form of energy called electrical energy.
Fire was now powering our ships, our trains, our factories, and even the new wizardry of electricity, but individual transportation was still powered by hay like it was 1775—and late 19th century humanity knew we could do better. Biological horses got super upset if you tried to power them by fire, so again, humanity got innovating, and a couple decades later, there were big, metal horses everywhere with engine cylinders full of fire. Companies that focused on digging, sucking, and siphoning up more and more of our underground joule treasure, like John D.
It’s also the worst culprit for CO2 emissions, releasing about 30% more CO2 than the burning of oil and about double that of natural gas when generating an equivalent amount of heat.4 The US is to coal as Saudi Arabia is to oil, possessing 22% of the world’s coal, the most of any nation. When crude oil is extracted, it heads to the refinery, where it’s separated, using different boiling points, into a bunch of different things. At its most oversimplified, during photosynthesis, the plant takes CO2 from the air7 and absorbs light energy from the sun to split the CO2 into carbon (C) and oxygen (O2). The release of all of the log’s stored chemical energy creates a glorious blaze of heat and light.
At any given point in time, the Earth’s active carbon cycle contains a specific amount of carbon.
Instead, before it can decay and release its carbon back into the cycle, it’s buried underground. They were staring at an endless sea of 300 million-year-old, densely packed sunshine—trillions of ancient plants with their joules intact—and since there are no laws protecting the estates of Carboniferous plants, we could seize it all for ourselves. But the overarching trend is unmistakable. To put that into context, ice drilling technology9 allows scientists to collect accurate data on what CO2 levels have been throughout the last 400,000 years. The reason for this is simple—CO2 is a greenhouse gas. The way an actual greenhouse works is the glass lets in sun energy and traps a lot of it inside as heat.
When compared to the Pre-Industrial average temperature, our current average temperature has risen by a little less than 1?C.
Without this feedback loop, the temperature increases resulting from CO2 emissions would be 2-3 times smaller.
Now the question becomes—how much does the temperature need to change to make everything shitty? That was enough to put Canada, Scandinavia, and half of England and the US under a half a mile of ice. First, you don’t need the average temperature to go up by a catastrophic amount to have a catastrophe—because the average temp could go up by only 3?C but the max temp rises by a lot more. Scientists debate how high that number can go before really dramatic changes start to happen. For the last 20 years, over 100 countries have agreed to try to limit global warming to a 2?C increase, but there are all of these different opinions going around about that. Given that at some point they’ll run out anyway, why run this crazy experiment to see how bad it’ll be? Biomass is typically the burning of things like wood, oil distilled down from food like corn, and manure. Nation interdependence can be productive and important, but nations being dependent on other nations for their survival is never a great thing, and the need to import fossil fuels is one of the major reasons for modern nation ultra-dependency.
The website created a bot in December to periodically spit out Mussolini quotes and credit them to Trump, hoping the presidential hopeful would eventually retweet them.
Since the idea had been thought of, the wheel had always been placed in a river or stream vertically, turning from top to bottom. The thought of generating electricity from simply running water through a turbine was once a dream to most scientist and people. The first step of hydropower is the powers the hydrologic cycle which in turns gives the earth its water. Dams are used to store water and later release it for purposes such as irrigation, domestic and industrial use, and power generation.
Pumping water to the upper pool requires electricity so hydro plants usually use pumped storage systems only when there is peak demand for electricity. Vast networks of transmission lines and facilities are used to bring electricity to us in a form we can use. Today, these power plants generally range from several hundred kilowatts to several hundred megawatts.
Modern hydroelectric turbines can convert as much as 90% of the available energy into electricity. The ownership and distribution of electricity is owned by various power marketing administrations. Similar to BPA, the Southeastern Power Administration deals with federal hydro projects, and their main mission is to market the hydroelectric power at the lowest cost to its customers. Army Corps of Engineers also maintains and operates a series of about 24 dams in the Southwest U.S. Technologies such as solar energy typically have high levelized costs due to the necessary high capital costs to build the technology and the relatively low output of electricity. The following is a look at the current energy output throughout the world and in the United States by way of hydroelectric power generation. Its share of the renewable energy production throughout the world is around sixty to seventy percent (see pie chart below). Despite being a leader in hydroelectric power generation, proportionally the United States hydroelectric power only accounts for nearly six percent of the total electrical power generated within the borders. The Pacific coast makes up for half of the hydroelectric power generation in the United States. In order to include excess capacity, the sum of all generator nameplate power ratings (installed capacity) must be multiplied times the total time period and compared against the actual annual power generated.
Hydro power and nuclear energy are leading the way for the implementation of renewable energy as a future energy source. The report titled, Feasibility Assessment of the Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants, was issued in 2006 detailing the availability of opportunities across the United States to increase hydroelectric power generation dramatically. Currently many large hydroelectric power plants are under construction and it seems that many more will come.
There are a range of large scale hydro electric construction projects in the works in the developing industrial nations. The largest of these projects is the Xiouodu Dam, with an estimated maximum capacity of 12,600 MW.
The method of pumped storage hydroelectricity stores energy in the form of the water itself. The process is actually a net consumer of energy, the benefit is that the system increases revenues for the facility by producing and selling its energy during the peak periods. Pumped storage allows for the energy produced by intermittent sources that falls in times of high output but low demand to run the pumps that elevate the water for hydroelectric production, essentially storing the energy for peak consumption periods.
Scientists are looking to harness the energy contained within the tides and the waves of our oceans. It is believed however that new advances in the design of tidal hydroelectric plants coupled with advances in turbine technology could allow tidal power to one day become a cost effective energy source.
The three main types of turbines are displayed below, with the “Modern HAWT” being the most widely used. A conventional dam dams the water on one side, and then allows it to flow through turbines generating electricity. This forms a large “T” structure that is meant to interfere with the oscillating waves of the tides in order to create hydraulic currents. Wave power technologies are categorized by either their location, or their power take-off system. The map was created by NREL using data provided by the Southern Methodist University Geothermal Laboratory and NREL analyses for regions with temperatures equal to or greater than 150°C. The numbers for "planned" generation include projects in Phases 1-4 of development and unconfirmed projects.


Geological Survey's Energy Resource Program, National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), or Southern Methodist University Geothermal Laboratory. The table below shows the average daily production of some common grid-connected systems throughout Australia. Or do you want a system that will completely offset your household’s electricity use for the next 25 years?
From this figure, you can calculate your average daily electricity consumption, and the average amount of electricity your solar PV system needs to produce to cover your electricity needs. An interval meter or a smart meter provide half hourly readings of the electricity you consume and the surplus electricity you generate. So if your new meter is an interval meter, it will need to be replaced again with a smart meter when this rollout occurs.
Generally, this cost is recovered by your electricity retailer through increased network charges on your monthly electricity bill. In peak demand periods (day), charges will be higher than consumption during lower demand periods (night). The building itself was built from the ground up with being green in mind – the interior was designed according to LEED Gold standards, and the exterior was designed by LEED Silver standards.
We first need to be good stewards to ourselves and then to Mother Nature, not the other way around.
My perfectionism kicks in and I end up refusing to stop going down the rabbit hole until I hit the floor. By clearing out fog all the way to the bottom, I build a tree trunk in my head, and from then on, all new information can hold on, which makes that topic forever more interesting and productive to learn about. I think both parties have good points, both also have a bunch of dumb people saying dumb things, and I want nothing to do with it. They built sailboats that would convert wind joules into kinetic boat energy they could control. It turns out that this whole time, humans had been walking around with a vast untapped treasure of tightly packed, burnable joules right underneath them.
The earliest organisms that contribute to today’s fossil fuels lived during the Precambrian Eon, before there were any plants and animals on land—the fossil organisms then would have been ocean algae. Natural gas is on the rise and now makes up almost a quarter of the world’s energy. One of the reasons it’s on the rise is that scientists have found a new way of extracting natural gas from the Earth called hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” which uses a mixture of water, sand, and chemicals to create cracks in natural gas-rich shale and force out the gas. But when an oxygen molecule gets moving fast enough and smashes into a log’s carbon molecule, they snap together and the oxygen and carbon are reunited again as CO2. There are a handful of chemicals in our atmosphere that do the same thing—sun rays come in, bounce off the Earth, and they’re on their way out when the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere block some of them and spread them through the atmosphere, warming things up. But even the greatest skeptics usually agree that CO2 emissions do lead to temperature increases.
Just one day at an outlier high like 58?C (136?F) would wipe out most of the Earth’s crops and animals.
Regarding the effects of a 2?C increase, in my research, I came across some credible sources saying 2? is an unnecessarily low ceiling and that we can afford to safely go higher and others saying that 2? is too high a target and that we’re underestimating how catastrophic a change of 2? would be. A common counter to those sources is that even without running out, we could face a serious problem if the extraction of the fuels becomes more and more difficult and expensive over time. That will cause a furious rush to develop renewable energy technology, but it may be too late at that point to prevent a worldwide economic meltdown.
94% of the world’s transportation runs on oil, and in most developed countries, the percentage is even higher. Especially unimpressive is the transportation performance, where engines only end up using a quarter of the fuel they burn. France is totally reliant on oil for its transportation and totally reliant on other countries for oil—this puts them in a vulnerable position. That 57,000 PJ of coal consumption number is insane—over five times France’s total energy flow. We have the first numb nuts right here on the forum, already defending him, even in this case. People had the idea of putting the wheel into the water horizontally, turning from left to right.
The waters force on the turbine blades turns the rotor, the moving part of the electric generator. It is the distance from the highest level of the dammed water to the point where it goes through the power-producing turbine. They also have no way to store any extra energy they might produce during normal generating periods. All the electricity made at a powerplant comes first through transformers which raise the voltage so it can travel long distances through powerlines. However, in the instance that a hydroelectric power plant is providing electricity to millions of people, it can reach capacities of tens of thousand megawatts.
The role of these administrations is to market hydroelectric power at the lowest possible rates to consumers while adhering to sound business principles. Unlike BPA however, they do not have their own transmission lines and must cooperate with other utilities or “wheeling” services to get the electricity to its customers. Rural electric cooperatives and municipal utilities is where most of the power generated is marketed and delivered to.
The levelized cost of hydroelectric however is relatively low due to the amount of electricity that the technology produces relative to the capital costs. This ratio, known as the capacity factor, can be used to rank hydroelectric capacity when annual hydroelectric production is not descriptive enough. While other renewable sources of energy continue to grow with increased technology, hydro power will continue to be very influential into the future. The remaining 60 percent of over 170,000 MWa have not been developed and are not restricted from development based on information sources used in the assessment. The true future of hydroelectric power worldwide depends on the abilities of scientists to make technological breakthroughs. The dam is scheduled to be complete in 2015, but construction has been temporarily halted due to a lack of studies detailing the environmental impact. During the periods of low cost off peak electricity consumption, electricity is used to run pumps that pump water from a low elevation reservoir to a higher elevation.
The following chart displays energy consumed and produced at a pumped-storage plant facility during an average 24 hour period.
All graphs are displayed with time on the x-axis (24 hours), and variance in total height (measured in feet) from the standard level on the y-axis. A tidal barrage allows the water to flow through during the periods of high tide, and then traps it. Source data for identified hydrothermal sites is from National Geothermal Resources Fact Sheet. In most cases solar panels are connected to the mains power supply through a device called an inverter. Like buying a second-hand car as opposed to a brand-new sports car, these two solar PV systems are both sound investments depending on your needs, but will vary significantly in price. So while electricity is most expensive during the day, this will be offset by your solar PV system producing energy during this time also. This made it much more easier to implement an efficient solar-powered solution, as the building’s power requirements are lower than usual.
If I have to live in a world with people arguing constantly about energy and oil and greenhouse gases and incentive programs, I might as well build myself a proper tree trunk.
And as it turns out, when it comes to this topic, we may be witnessing a very awesome moment in history without quite realizing it yet. So I approached this post—like I try to with every post—from a standpoint of rationality and what I think makes sense. Water absorbs the sun’s radiation joules and turns them into gravitational potential energy joules when it evaporates and then kinetic energy joules when it rains and slides down land, and humans saw the opportunity to snatch some of those up by creating water wheels or dams.
Except now it was the 19th century, and with our new appetite to burn, wood wouldn’t cut it anymore. It was like a dog digging in the woods to bury a bone and uncovering an underground cave full of pulled pork. If steam had tamed the dragon, electricity had turned the dragon into a magical butler, forever at our service. People often think fossil fuels are made of dinosaurs, but any dinosaurs in our gasoline are from the last couple hundred million years—the later stretch of the timespan—and only a small contributor. This method has been hugely effective, but it’s also controversial because of some serious environmental concerns—this video explains it well. The log’s carbon was only being held temporarily hostage, and releasing it through combustion has little effect. And today, the Earth’s fossil fuels make up a huge mass of lost carbon—carbon that long ago was taken hostage permanently, and carbon that the carbon cycle does not expect to be involved in its routine.
The UN-supported Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a group of 1,300 independent scientific experts from a bunch of different countries, came out with a report that laid out the temperature projections of a number of independent labs. Second, because the total range of temperature a planet can be goes all the way down to absolute zero: -273?C (-459?F).
The waterwheel would be placed in a stream or river, and as the water would run down the stream or river, the waterwheel would in turn rotate. Some of the water evaporates, but most of the water is absorbed by the ground and becomes surface runoff. The turbine turns the generator rotor which then converts this mechanical energy into another energy form — electricity.
When coils of wire on the rotor sweep past the generator=s stationary coil (stator), electricity is produced. Flow is how much water moves through the system—the more water that moves through a system, the higher the flow. At local substations, transformers reduce the voltage so electricity can be divided up and directed throughout an area.
Today, the world’s hydroelectric plants have a total capacity of 675,000 megawatts that produce over 2.3 trillion kilowatt-hours of energy per year.
The seven cent per kilowatt hour that hydroelectric power costs is about one-third the cost of using Petroleum or nuclear and one-sixth the cost of using natural gas.
These administrations are the Bonneville Power Administration, Southeastern Power Administration, Southwestern Power Administration, and the Western Area Power Administration. Roughly one third of the electrical power utilized in the Northwest is provided by the Bonneville Power Administration. Similar to Southeast, Southwest markets to what they call “preference” customers that in turn distribute electricity to millions of end users.
Army Corp of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, they are also operated by the International boundary and water commission. The list for hydroelectric subsidies for the fiscal year 2007 can be observed in the Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets Report.
These characteristics are shown in the table below for the top seven hydroelectric producers as of 2009. Currently there are large amounts of energy coming from hydropower plants and it seems that the hydroelectricity production will only continue to grow since there is excess capacity available. Of this potential, it was found that nearly 100,000 MWa of gross power potential could feasibly be developed. They are large enough to exert force the horizontal tide movement, creating a head the flows over both sides of the dam. There are six types of power take-off systems including; hydraulic ram, elastomeric hose pump, pump-to-shore, hydroelectric turbine, air turbine, and linear electrical generator. The largest portion of our fossil fuels comes from plants, animals, and algae that lived during the Carboniferous Period—a 50 million year period that ended about 300 million years ago and during which there were lots of huge, shallow swamps. So a difference of 5?C, enough to bury the northern part of the world under an ocean of ice, is really only about a 1.5% fluctuation in temperature—not something like 10%, which is what it seems like. It relied on other nations for 60% of its oil a decade ago but has since become one of the top three oil-producing countries, and the EIA projects net oil imports to make up only 21% of the US’s 2015 oil consumption.
The rotating wheel would then turn, therefore turning the gears that would grind the grains. Two other break through thoughts that were proved to be more efficient were curved paddles and the breasted position (where the center of the wheel lies on the water surface). Water from rain and melting snow eventually reaches ponds, lakes, reservoirs, and oceans where evaporation is constantly occurring. Since water is the initial source of energy, we call this hydroelectric power or hydropower for short. The turbine is probably the most important part of the hydropower process next to the actual water. Generally, a high-head plant needs less water flow than a low-head plant to produce the same amount of electricity. This is true as long as the cost for removing the dam and repairs for silt build up are not included.
This feasible potential corresponds to nearly 130,000 potential low-power and small hydro projects.
This allows energy to be generated during both halves of the flow process, when the water flows through turbines during high tide, and when the water flows through turbines during the low tide release. One of the difficulties experienced with wave power is the same encountered with wind power, power must be carried from the source directly to the point of use through transmission power cables, because there is no way to store the energy. The swamps were important because it made it more likely that a dead organism would be preserved. So a log burning is the process of the carbon in the log combining with oxygen in the air and floating off as CO2.
Mercury is closer to the sun than Venus, but with no atmosphere, it’s cooler than Venus. Looking at the window on a spectrum that shows the full range emphasizes that the world we’re used to is what it is only because of a very specific and delicate balance of conditions.
I was also surprised to see that only a small portion of US oil imports were from the Middle East, with only 12.5% of them coming from Saudi Arabia and 20% from the entire combined Persian Gulf. The waterwheel was not only used to grind grains, they were also used to saw wood, power textile mills, and manufacture plants. The waterwheel served people for thousands of years and as technology advanced, the turbine was created and replaced the waterwheel.
Many countries outside of North America have the majority of their electricity coming from hydroelectric power plants.
Efficiency of these power plants could be further increased by refurbishing hydroelectric equipment. Estimation of the hydropower potential of these sites indicates 30,000 MWa of new power supply could feasibly be developed in the United States. No dynamic tidal power dam has ever been built, although all the data and technologies are available.
During the day, Mercury gets almost as hot as Venus, but at night it gets freezing, while Venus is just as hot at night as it is during the day, because the heat lives permanently in its thick atmosphere. Far more was from the Western Hemisphere, with Canada by far the largest at 37% of imports and Mexico and Venezuela also prominent at 9% each. If there is more water in the reservoir, that means that there is more weight pushing on the penstock. For instance, nearly a decade ago, 99% of Norway’s electricity was provided via hydroelectric power plants.
The West is home to nearly 20,000 MW of these undeveloped, prime hydropower opportunities. The image below is of a near shore wave power device known as “Pelamis.” It is the world’s first attempt to commercially harness wave energy and add that energy to the grid. But by dying in a swamp and sinking to the bottom, Carboniferous organisms often ended up being quickly covered by sand and clay and were able to make it underground with their joules still intact.
If there is a high weight pushing on the penstock, that means that the harder and faster the water is flowing thought the turbine. Moreover, the sum of feasibly developable hydropower in the Western states roughly equals the region's developed hydropower, in terms of potential average megawatts. Pelamis’s first use was in an offshore wave facility located off of Portugal, officially opened it 2008.



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