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This page contains a guide to hand and power tools that will help make home repairs and improvement projects easier and more successful.
Reciprocating Saw: Make quick, rough cuts of plaster lath, wood and metal framing to demo walls. Saber Saw: Cut curving lines to make circles and other shapes for decorative wood projects. Thickness Planer:This tool uses mechanized rollers to propel the wood through the planer automatically. Cut dados, rabbets, dovetails, tongue and groove and mortise and tenon joints, as well as decorative shapes in wood for handmade molding and signs. Router bits are locked into the tool by threading a nut over a collet, forcing it to tighten around the bit shaft.
A router table is built by mounting the router upside down under the table top so that the bit extends through a hole in the center. A compound miter saw will make many wood cutting jobs for construction framing and woodworking projects quick, accurate and easy. Saw CapacityThe size of the blade will determine saw capacity (size of wood that can be cut). Saw FeaturesCompound miter saws are equipped with a fence and table for keeping the wood stationary while cutting. The bevel feature allows the blade to tilt either in one direction for a single-beveled saw or in both directions for a double-beveled saw.
Most saws are equipped with an automatic brake that stops the blade quickly after the switch is released.
For storage and transporting, the saw the blade assembly is held in the down position by a lock down pin. After many years of use the motor brushes may need replacement as they are worn down by the spinning armature. The drive system of the drill press consists of a motor, a pulley system, a spindle shaft and an adjustable chuck. A drill press is indispensable for projects requiring multiple, accurately bored holes, but it will also make many drilling job much easier.
The stroke of the drill press (the distance the bit head will travel up and down) is adjustable so a specific depth can be set. The tool's motor is mounted at the back and attached to varying sizes of pulleys (a stack of at least three sizes for 3 speeds). The pulleys are reversed at both points so that the bottom pulley on the motor is the smallest of the set and the bottom pulley on the chuck is the largest of that set.
Use low drill speeds for boring holes in metal, ceramics, and plastic and when using large attachment for sanding or shaping.
Use low drill speeds for boring holes in metal, ceramics and plastic and for starting screws or using large attachment.
Although variable speeds are a standard feature, drill manufacturers recommend limiting the use of low speeds for extend periods because of the heat build-up in the motor which will shorten tool life. Look for a battery pack that is streamlined in design to avoid problems when working in tight spaces. Two sizes of belt sanders are commonly available for home use, 3x18 inches and 3x21 inches.
Installing Belts Install belts on the sander by loosening the tension on the pulley and slipping the belt over the end. Move the sander in short, straight, back and forth strokes keeping it in motion at all times. Sanding Belts Use coarse, 60 or 80, grit sanding belt to remove a lot of material quickly such as when sanding down a sticking door or stripping paint. Rechargeable Battery Packs Battery packs for cordless tools are built using several individual cells wired together in a series, similar to an electronic device where 2 or more AA or AAA batteries are joined together to supply the needed voltage.
NiCd and NiMH power tool battery packs are limited to about 18 volts due to the cumulative weight of the cells.
At first glance it would seem that Li-ion batteries will make NiCd and NiMH batteries obsolete but that's not the case. Second, the extra torque possible with higher voltages is rarely needed by the average user. Another effect found with NiCd batteries known as "lazy battery effect", occurs with repeated overcharging.
Chargers and Charging All rechargeable battery packs for cordless tools have special charging needs.
We refer to these in many of the articles on this website and provide this information for those unfamiliar with these tools. Metal and wood cutting blades are available for this saw ranging from 4 to about 12 inches. With a high speed (20,000 to 28,000 rpm) wood router, a few carbide tipped bits, and some specialty or shop-made jigs you have a tool that will cut almost any wood working joint.
A plunge router allows for setting the router base on the wood to be cut before engaging the bit. A fixed base router may be more rigid but it is fixed, meaning there's no need to keep the bit engaged in the wood manually, which can be difficult at times. With miter adjustments ranging from 45 degrees to both left and right and bevel adjustments of the same, in one or both directions, just about any wood framing joint can be cut with extreme accuracy.

To cut small crown moldings and most other trim carpentry jobs a 10 inch compound miter saw will serve well. A double bevel feature makes for fewer blade adjustments and allows for some angles of cut, not possible with only one bevel direction. Setting the blade bevel to the proper position and then setting the miter position, allows one to cut the compound miter joints needed to join crown molding and for making frames or boxes with slanted sides as with some ornate portrait frames. A dust bag which attaches to the rear of the saw will catch most of the sawdust produced or a vacuum hose is easily connected to the dust spout for better dust collection. An extension attachment is available for supporting long boards although a shop-made support will do the same job when attached to the workbench next to the saw.
Work is drilled from above by lowering a spinning bit in a smooth, controlled, perfectly straight stroke. Both bench and floor models are available from most manufacturers with the bench models usually the more affordable. A dial on the spindle assembly is used to set the depth and can make incremental changes as required. A drive belt, similar to a car fan belt, is used to transfer the motor torque to a second set of pulleys attached to the spindle shaft which is attached to the drill chuck. With this arrangement, the drill speed can be varied by moving the belt up and down between the pulleys, with the slowest speed being at the bottom and the fastest speed being at the top of the pulley stack. And the quick bit changes possible with a keyless chuck shave tons of time off of any project that requires boring holes and driving screws. The chuck consist of a collar that turns to tighten a metal sleeve around a drill bit shank. Also use low speeds when high torque is needed and whenever boring large holes or holes in hard materials.
Chuck size for these tools is half inch as opposed to the three eighths of the smaller sized models.
Because of the weight of the battery packs for these tools the design and placement of the power source will have an impact on ease of handling. The most aggressive of hand sanders, a belt sander can be used to remove paint or sand down a wood surface very quickly. Use a lighter paper such as 120 or 150 grit to sand a smooth finish for staining or re-painting. Li-Ion batteries are a new development in cordless tool batteries that can supply higher voltages, currently up to 36 volts for DeWalt tools.
First, the cost of a Li-ion powered tool is about twice that of the NiCd and NiMH counterparts, an unnecessary expense for most people. This effect is evident when the battery is removed from the charger fully charged but discharges quickly after brief use. The charger that comes with the tool should have functions to control temperature, charging speed and maintenance of the charge level.
To demo walls, drill a pilot hole first to allow for inserting the blade and then begin cutting. This enables more control of the router, minimizing the kick-back effect that occurs as the high speed bit hits the wood. Use the miter feature alone to make cuts for joining two pieces of wood to form any flat, angled joint needed for a given project. The bevel feature in combination with the miter feature are what make cutting compound miter joints possible with this saw. As the blade is lowered the guard swings up through a spring loaded mechanism on the back, exposing the blade.
A clamp accessory may be available to hold work firmly against the fence and table while cutting.
A portable saw stand may be needed to support the saw and lumber for projects away from the shop.
A wrench for changing blades is included and is tucked under the saw table for storage and easy access. While they are a bit expensive compared to basic steel blades they last many times over and can be re-sharpened.
A recoil spring pulls the spindle shaft back to start again when handle pressure is released.
A stop adjustment on the bit spindle allows for adjusting the stroke of the bit to stop at any desired depth. Adjusting the speeds requires releasing tension on the motor and retightening after moving the belt.
Lower speeds will also help limit heat when boring hard materials or plastics like plexiglass. The collar can be turned by hand to loosen and tighten the chuck, eliminating the need for a chuck wrench. These tools are the best choice for serious construction projects where boring large holes and driving lots of screws is typical. If you've never used a belt sander, practice on a scrape surface of wood before using it on the work surface.
When installing a new belt you will probably need to adjust it so it doesn't rub against the housing.
Place the spinning belt onto the work surface, heel first and then drop the front of the sander down, in one smooth motion.

The second not as widely available is the Nickel-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) battery and the newest rechargeable batteries on the market, the Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) battery. Higher voltage translates to higher torque making it possible to build cordless power tools that rival or surpass the performance of most corded power tools. Li-ion powered tools are intended for heavy construction work where, up until now, builders have been tethered by corded tools when real power is needed. This is a common problem with cell phones and other electronic devices that are operated for the same period of time repeatedly.
One hour chargers are the standard for most makers, however 15 minute chargers and 12 volt automobile chargers are also commonly available. Wood glue is placed into the mortise along with a biscuit, and as the two pieces are joined, the biscuit swells with the glue, forming a very tight union.
For fine work like molding installation a pneumatic nail gun drives brads and sinks them without marring the wood surface. Press the base of the saw firmly against the surface you're cutting while operating the saw and watch for the tip of the blade hitting nearby surfaces as it moves in and out. When using large bits such as the ones available for cutting raised panel doors, a router table is a must. With this versatility the user is able to cut square joints for wall framing, mitered joints for picture frames and compound mitered joints for installing crown molding, as well as less demanding wood cutting jobs, with professional results.
Use the larger saw if you foresee cutting a lot of wide boards or large timbers such as 4x4's.
Simple projects such as shoe molding installation or building window and door frames can be done using the miter feature alone. These may be more trouble than they're worth for most jobs but if small pieces of wood will be cut, a clamp should be used to avoid putting hands too close to the blade. Use a fine saw blades with about 60 or more teeth to make smooth cuts in hard woods like oak and maple. The attached table tilts, in some cases, both directions, and has a scale for setting precise angles of tilt from 90 to nearly 0 degrees.
The ratchet feature keeps the chuck tight around the shank for less slipping as the bit meets resistance. With increased torque over the smaller drill, drilling through framing and concrete, driving long screws and other more difficult tasks are made easy.
Most manufacturers deal with this problem well using the battery weight to counter the weight of the motor and other drill parts.
Because the sander will remove a lot of material quickly, dust will be a serious problem if no collection bag is installed. Because lithium is much lighter than NiCd and NiMH the cells are much lighter, allowing for more cells in a battery pack. Because power tools are operated at various levels through out the discharge period, memory effect is not usually a problem. The joiner can be set at varying depths to accept different sized biscuits from about 1½in. Extreme caution should be used when operating this saw as it tends to pull into the operator. This may be true when cutting fence posts or wide boards for planters and similar projects.
The miter feature combined with the bevel feature allow the user to make more complicated wood joints. If you're cutting lumber for wall framing and similar construction projects a blade with fewer teeth, 20 to 40, will do a nice job. With several different speeds it's possible to drill nearly any material and any size hole. With the sander running adjust the tracking knob in small increments until the belt runs centered on the rollers. Some chargers have an equalizing mode that reconditions batteries that have developed memory effect.
It's always better to buy the best and largest saw you can afford and grow into it rather than needing a better saw as your skills improve and projects expand. Avoid stripping brass screw heads and other delicate fasteners by setting the clutch to disengage before any damage is done. This can be a life saver for small bits that can break easily when binding becomes a problem. A setting at the end of the clutch scale allows for instant switching from clutch control to full torque for boring holes. Ten of these cells wired together provide 36 volts which is the maximum Li-ion battery pack currently available. When the user raises the blade to finish the cut the guard swings down to cover the blade again.

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