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12.06.2015
Made of high-efficiency mono-crystalline solar cells embedded in transparent vinyl acetate behind tempered glass. Car Air Conditioning SpecialistsAs the UK gets hotter the benefits of air-conditioning are gradually being accepted.
MOT TestingWe are accredited by VOSA and can MOT class 4(cars, motor home) Class V and Class VII. Car Servicing & RepairWe are an independant garage that can service and maintain new vehicles under warranty and this will not affect manufacturers' warranties given on vehicles. Brake tips from the expertsThe components of hydraulic braking systems are subject to considerable stress and as a result require frequent inspection and routine maintenance. An affordable, high quality garage providing Car Batteries, servicing, air-con refresh and more.
We keep a large range of car batteries in stock at all times, covering over 95% of vehicles on the road today. The 6 V golf cart-type battery has a good combination of size, voltage, and capacity for EV use. Compared to the 6 V version, an 8 V golf cart battery gives higher voltages for more speed and power, but sacrifices total range. Sealed lead-acid batteries have less range per volt than flooded, cost more, and require more careful charging regimens, but are convenient since there is no need to water them. IntermediateThe right batteries and design can make or break how your electric vehicle (EV) functions on the open road, in terms of speed, range, reliability, and consistent performance under varying conditions. Some batteries offer enough power for excellent acceleration but are limited in range or cycle life, while others offer better range but with high price tags. Physical characteristics like size, shape, and terminal type are usually dead giveaways to a battery’s intended use. Deep-cycle traction batteries, which are designed to deliver high-current draws and tolerate deep discharges, are the best choice for EVs. Flooded lead-acid (FLA) batteries—the most common EV battery in use—tend to be long-lived (up to four years) and offer the least cost per amp-hour of the available batteries. Each cell is comprised of positive and negative plates, usually lead alloyed with antimony, in an electrolyte solution of sulfuric acid and water. In FLA batteries, a battery management system (BMS) is optional but can extend battery life when used properly. Sealed lead-acid (SLA) batteries, also called “VRLA” (valve-regulated lead acid), are available in two technologies: absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gel cell.
Unlike FLA batteries, in high temperatures, SLA batteries may require cooling airflow from fans since overheating causes a loss of electrolyte that can shorten battery life.
Nickel cadmium batteries are alkaline batteries that use nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes. These two points initially won over some EV enthusiasts, but the technology has proved to be less than ideal for EV conversions, since the batteries are more expensive, harder to find in large formats, have higher self-discharge rates, and, ultimately, are more dangerous to use in traction applications.
If too deeply discharged and then charged too quickly, a reaction can occur in NiCds that generates heat inside the battery until it melts down or catches fire. Unlike lead-acid batteries, which need only a little space between them, NiCds need to be firmly compressed to keep the electrolyte covering the plates.
Because NiCds come in 1.2 V cells, they require more interconnects—five to 10 times as many for the same voltage of a 2 V lead-acid bank. NiCds do not need the insulation that lead-acid batteries need in cold climates, but they may need cooling ventilation in hot climates. In the 1990s, nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries  were the “next big thing”—all the manufacturers used them in their EVs and hybrids. NiMH batteries do not have the memory problems of NiCd batteries nor do they require watering. Lithium-ion (Li) batteries are the “next big thing.” Their claim to fame is much the same as NiMH technology, only more so—more capacity in a lighter package, with energy densities ranging from 30 to 95-plus Wh per pound. Lithium batteries, which have lithium metal or lithium compounds as an anode, are available in different chemistries, but lithium phosphate is the chemistry most widely used in EVs. Lithium cells are relatively maintenance free, but they do require a BMS and ventilation for cooling, since high temperatures will degrade the batteries’ performance and cycle life. Despite their higher energy density and a cycle life that’s about 2.5 times that of a lead-acid battery, Li batteries have their challenges. Availability for retail sales is very limited and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future—most manufacturers are selling exclusively to vehicle manufacturers and continue to overlook the retail conversion market. Lithium-based batteries are more sensitive to overcharging or overdischarging than any other chemistry.
Because the technology is so new, data for cycle life, usable energy, and other performance specs are based largely on limited laboratory testing and extrapolation. Shari Prange is co-author with Michael Brown of the widely referenced book, Convert It: A Step-by-Step Manual for Converting an Internal Combustion Vehicle to Electric Power.


All-electric and electric-assist bicycles offer cleaner, greener transportation alternatives. An AC Delco battery is one of the best car batteries available, known as a great brand for replacement auto batteries, spark plugs, and more. By Karel Walraven Operation The first 555 timer (IC1 in Figure 1) operates as an astable multivibrator and generates a continuous stream of pulses. Now the additional benefits that are not immediately obvious are now being appreciated by those fortunate to have a good aircon system operating in their car. Every vehicle over the age of three years from the date of registration must have a valid MOT every year by law, to ensure your vehicle is roadworthy and in safe working order. Whatever make or model of vehicle you drive, we can service it as per the manufacturer recommendations.
It is recommended to have your brake fluid changed every 2 years regardless of the vehicle age. They come fully charged, with a 3 year guarantee which is a great choice if you want a high quality economical battery.
Use these batteries for cars with additional accessories such as TV's, SatNav's, Electric Cool boxes, DVD Players which all have a draining effect on your car battery.
The trick is finding a battery pack that fits your needs, within the physical limits of your vehicle and the financial constraints of your budget. A battery pack needs to be made up of identical units—same voltage, same ratings, same chemistry, and even similar age—so that duty cycles and charging profiles match. But making the distinction with EV batteries isn’t always that easy—they often look alike on the outside.
Of the different types of traction batteries, a golf cart-type battery offers a good balance of size and capacity for most EV conversions.
During the charging process, a small amount of water in the electrolyte is turned to gas and escapes. Forced-air ventilation (using a fan and ducting to the outside) is necessary to release the hydrogen gas, which can be flammable in high concentrations.
Otherwise, when the time comes to replace them, you’ll find bloated batteries wedged in place. Instead of free liquid as in a flooded battery, the electrolyte is held either in mats of glass fibers next to the lead plates or in gel form. They are constructed with vents or valves to automatically relieve pressure from gas buildup if they are overcharged or discharged too severely.
Delivering 20 to 30 Wh per pound, NiCd batteries offer a higher energy density than lead-acid batteries—in other words, a NiCd battery is smaller and lighter than a comparable lead-acid battery.
Because of this risk, many NiCd batteries have been removed from service and replaced with lead-acid batteries.
If the battery is repeatedly discharged partially and then recharged, it will “remember” that partial level of discharge and act as if that level is its capacity. Like lead-acids, they need to have their fluid levels checked and topped off as needed, and tops wiped clean of electrolyte mist. This means more work when assembling the pack and less reliability in the long run, since doubling the number of connections quadruples the number of possible failure points. Although NiCds store more energy and perform better in colder climates than lead-acid batteries, they are not recommended for use in conversions today because of the chance of thermal runaway.
Not only can they pack the same voltage into a quarter of the volume of FLA batteries, and half to three-quarters of the volume of SLA or NiCd batteries, they also have much greater energy density, at 35 to 40 Wh per pound.
Forced cooling with a fan is the minimum, but liquid cooling (with coolant flowing through tubing or jackets around and through the battery pack) is often recommended. Until these batteries have been on the road for a decade or more, manufacturers’ specs are really just guesstimates. Take the basic unit in which the battery is sold, whether that’s a single-cell or multicell unit, and multiply the voltage by the amp-hour rating to get watt-hours. They may be supplied by multiple manufacturers and relabeled, making it impossible to get a matched, balanced pack. Ultimately, you have to decide whether the advantages of a more expensive battery technology are enough to justify the added expense. The others just can't compare on power, long life, no toxic and lowest in cost over their life cycle. Without that initial energy spark, the car isn’t going to start, and you can’t be sure that you’re able to go anywhere.  That’s why you need to have a battery powerful enough for your engine, and you have to ensure it’s going to work the way that you need it to work. The second 555 is a monostable multivibrator that is triggered on each negative edge of the pulses coming from its companion.
You don’t need to be a battery engineer to choose a battery, but you do need to know how batteries work in an EV, and which types will not. It’s what’s inside—like number of plates, plate thickness, or chemistry—that makes all the difference in how a battery can be used.


They come in 6 or 8 volts, and when combined into high-voltage packs can propel a passenger car at 100 mph or faster—and provide good range and cycle life.
With an energy density of 15 to 20 watt-hours (Wh) per pound, FLA packs are heavier and take up more volume to achieve the same amount of range compared to the other battery technologies. In addition to keeping the top and terminals clean and regularly equalizing the pack, you will need to check the electrolyte level and add water as necessary.
These spill-proof batteries are more resistant to damage from vibration and physical shock than FLAs, and have a lower energy density, at 8 to 15 Wh per pound. While sealed batteries are more convenient because they are “maintenance free,” they are less forgiving of abuse because there is no way to restore lost electrolyte.
These batteries need to be fully discharged periodically to prevent this from happening, and require a BMS to properly charge and equalize the pack. The main drawbacks are that they are not sold at retail level and cost several times as much as lead-acid batteries. Each shape presents different challenges for physical arrangement, interconnects, and thermal control. Even with projected price drops, Li technology is still out of reach for most EV conversions.
Manufacturers are, however, refining the design of the batteries, as well as the charging and battery management systems, to minimize the potential for catastrophic failures.
They’re no bargain in the long run, since this imbalance will result in poor range and short cycle life.
The 8 V versions sacrifice a little amp-hour capacity (affects range) to provide additional voltage (affects speed and power).
Though watering does mean regular maintenance, it also means FLA batteries are more forgiving of charging and discharging abuse than sealed batteries. For example, the more uniform internal distribution of temperature in prismatic cells increases performance. The FET connects the battery directly to a power resistor, causing a heavy current to flow. Cylindrical cells may fit better in a shallow space, whereas prismatic cells stack better into uniform blocks, with less wasted space. The FET is intentionally driven here via a gate stopper resistor with a relatively high value. This causes it to switch on and off somewhat more slowly, which reduces the amount of interference generated.
In this case, a€™slowa€™ means a few microseconds; a FET thata€™s driven hard switches within a few nanoseconds. Here it isna€™t necessary to switch quickly, and therea€™s no need to be concerned about a bit of extra power dissipation. Despite the relatively slow switching, rather large voltage spikes can occur when the FET switches off. Construction Ita€™s important to ensure that the ICs and IC sockets are fitted with the correct orientation. The sockets usually have a notched or bevelled comer, and the ICs have a dimple in the package.
Ita€™s best to use CMOS versions of the ICs, since this will keep the standby current consumption as low as possible. Several different manufacturers make the CMOS version of the 555, so type numbers such as TLC555, ICM7555 and LMC555 (as well as many others) all refer to the same kind of IC. They can also be used, but the current consumption will then be quite a bit higher (more than 10 mA).
Most of the current is actually used by the LED, so you should use a low-current type here (also referred to as a a€™2-mA LEDa€™).
When fitting it to the circuit board, make sure the long lead goes next to the triangle marking. Thata€™s because component value tolerance is not terribly important in this case, and a bit of temperature dependence also doesna€™t particularly matter. Therea€™s usually also a white stripe with minus (-) signs printed on the case of the capacitor.
This marks the negative lead, which is indicated on the circuit board by a solid rectangle (the open rectangle is the + terminal).



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