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Lead acid batteries either start or power cars, trucks, buses, boats, trains, rapid mass-transit systems, recreational vehicles and electric wheelchairs all over the globe. Saves Natural Resources : By making products from recycled materials instead of virgin materials, we conserve land and reduce the need to mine for more minerals.
Saves Clean Air and Water : In most cases, making products from recycled materials creates less air pollution and water pollution than making products from virgin materials. Saves Landfill Space : When the materials that you recycle go into new products, instead of landfills or incinerators, landfill space is conserved.
Saves Money and Creates Jobs : The recycling industry and the associated processes create far more jobs than landfill sites or waste incinerators, and recycling is frequently the least expensive waste management option for cities and towns. All the components of the modern lead acid battery are recyclable and from an Industry perspective lead-acid batteries are an environmental success story because in the United States just over 96% is recovered and in most of the G7 nations upwards of 95% is recycled. Lead acid batteries, in whatever form, are all recyclable to a lesser or greater extent.
In order to ensure that the loop is closed we not only need the right infrastructure, but we also need a battery that is made up of recyclable materials. A resilient plastic container which is usually polyethylene, but increasingly is made from alternative co-polymers or reinforced, but the case material can also be metallic or a synthetic rubber.
Porous synthetic plate separators are increasingly made from rib-reinforced polyethylene, but are also available in PVC and fiber glass. The plates are immersed in a liquid electrolyte consisting of 35% sulfuric acid and 65% water.
The positive and negative lead terminals used to connect the battery to the car and pass the current from the individual cells via a series of connecting lugs and bridges. The washed and dried polypropylene pieces are sent to a plastic recycler, where the chips are melted and extruded to produce plastic pellets for use in the manufacture of battery cases. Although certain processes will combine the waste lead streams, the most efficient plants feed the paste to the smelting furnace to recover soft lead and the grids and terminals are sent to a melting furnace for the production of hard lead. Polyethylene separators can be separated from the polypropylene waste stream and recycled, although in most secondary plants the current practice is to use this waste as a fuel supplement. Used battery acid can be handled in four ways: Neutralized, and the resulting effluent treated to meet clean water standards and then released into the public sewer system.
Chemically treated and converted to either agricultural fertilizer using ammonia or to powered sodium sulfate for use in either glass and textile manufacturing or as a filler or stabilizer in household laundry detergent.
Converted to gypsum for use in the production of cement or by the construction industry in the manufacture of fiber board. A lead-acid battery (also know as an "accumulator") is a secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical device that stores chemical energy and releases it as electrical energy upon demand.
To provide extra power for the lighting, two-way radios, audio system and other accessories when their combined load exceeds the capability of the vehicle's charging system. To supply a source of power to the vehicle's electrical system when the charging system is not operating. A good quality wet car battery will cost between $90 and $125 and, if properly maintained, should last five years or more. Forbes reported that Johnson Controls is the largest global manufacturer with 36% of the approximately 375 million annually produced. The purpose of a deep cycle battery is to provide electric power for wheelchairs, trolling motors, golf carts, boats, fork lift trucks, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and other accessories for marine and recreational vehicle (RV), commercial and stationary applications. A 12-volt lead-acid battery is made up of six cells, each cell producing approximately 2.11 volts that are connected in series from POSITIVE (+) terminal of the first cell to the NEGATIVE (-) terminal of the second cell and so on.
The most common plate type in use today is made up of a metal grid that serves as the supporting framework for the active porous material that is "pasted" on it. A battery is created by electrochemical reaction of alternating two different metals such as Lead Dioxide (PbO2), the positive plates, and Sponge lead (Pb), the negative plates immersed in diluted Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), electrolyte. When the active material in the plates can no longer sustain a discharge current, a battery "dies". Normally, well maintained and properly charged deep cycle batteries naturally die due to positive grid corrosion causing an open connection. In a hot climate, the harshest environment for a battery, a Johnson Controls survey of junk batteries revealed that the average life of a car battery was 37 months. Most of the "defective" batteries returned to manufacturers during free replacement warranty periods are good.
In recent years, protecting the environment for future generations has become an important issue. With the remarkable economic growth and improved quality of life we have achieved over the past century, the car has become an indispensable mode of transportation in our daily lives. When the lead-acid batteries used in cars are dead, throwing them away with regular waste is not appropriate from the standpoint of effective use of natural resources or environmental protection. The following information is intended for battery stores and other distributors to promote understanding, cooperation and support so that used lead-acid batteries can be recycled in accordance with the law.
The requirement calls for necessary measures to be taken to ensure the proper disposal of waste (article 19-2 of the law).
Regarding lead acid batteries for cars and motorcycles efforts must be made to collect and dispose of them, to expand routes for collection, and to advertise that such batteries can be traded in for free at stores and other such sales outlets. Stores must be notified that the batteries will be picked up for free by member companies of the Battery Association of Japan (BAJ). To meet this official requirement, battery manufacturers issued notification in March 1994 that stores and other such sales outlets would accept used storage batteries free of charge, and in October 1994 announced the recycle program. Storage battery manufacturers established a policy of "acting as the primary party responsible for the collection of used car batteries, and actively promoting the collection of batteries, collecting the number of batteries corresponding to sales numbers, and purchasing recycled lead to correspond to the amount collected." They introduced the "trade-in system" for proper battery disposal and are expanding recycling activities. Storage battery manufacturers collect and recycle used car batteries through the trade-in system. Under the direction of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the BAJ ensures the proper disposal of used car batteries through the adoption of the trade-in system, a system in which storage battery manufacturers act also as waste discharge organizations, using reverse distribution to collect used car batteries accepted at stores for free from end users. The trade-in system is a recycling system in which storage-battery manufacturers are also waste discharge organizations and use reverse distribution to collect and dispose of used car batteries traded in by the general public free of charge.

Stores that support the lead recycling program proposed by the BAJ in October 1994, and those of car and motorcycle batteries, particularly those who agreed to cooperate in receiving used batteries from general users for free.
Recycling stores that can receive more than a pre-determined number of trade-in car batteries from general users, as prescribed by the battery manufacturers. When the dispatch point has collected a pre-determined number of trade-in batteries, they contact a participating battery manufacturer, who arranges a contracted transportation company to come and pick up the batteries. Stores other than dispatch points should return the used car batteries for free to their wholesaler, sales agent, or representative agency at the time they reorder new products.
Storage-battery manufacturers must conclude contracts with qualified companies for collecting, transporting and disposing of the used car batteries collected through trade-ins. Legends Suspensions owner Jesse Jurrens demonstrates a custom manufactured spring coil from their Sturgis-based manufacturing center. I started out the day in Sturgis, where we met up with Legends Suspensions owner Jesse Jurrens. Superior Battery used USDA support to improve efficiency and hire new workers for its battery manufacturing plant in Russell Springs, Kentucky.
Small business owners face countless challenges when it comes to finding success in the global marketplace – and for those in rural areas, the challenges are often more pronounced. For more than 30 years, Superior Battery has been manufacturing a wide range of batteries from its plant in Russell Springs, Ky. Legend Air Suspension Owner Jesse Jurrens speaks at his induction into the Sturgis Motorcycle Museum Hall of Fame.
The 74th Annual Sturgis Bike Rally roared through South Dakota the first part of August with a week of activities and events. Evan Premer, an Army veteran, inspects aeroponically grown greens at his family-owned Aero Farm in Denver, Colorado.
USDA Rural Development’s Business and Loan Guarantee Program supported new construction for an expanded Brattleboro Food Coop in Brattleboro, Vermont. Last week, USDA Rural Development in Michigan got an early start on Homeownership Month by promoting a pilot refinancing program, announced in February by Secretary Tom Vilsack, to help residents with current USDA home loans reduce their payments. Deputy Under Secretary for Rural Development Doug O’Brien and USDA Rural Development State Director for Michigan James Turner made the announcement at the Portage office of AmeriFirst Home Mortgage, a leading partner with USDA’s Guaranteed Home Loan program. Unless we recycle the Lead acid spent batteries certain toxic components pose a potential risk to the environment and human health. In fact secondary lead bullion, for example, requires four times less energy to make than primary lead.
The positive electrode (cathode) typically consists of pure lead dioxide supported on a metallic grid, whereas the negative electrode (anode) consists of a grid of metallic lead alloy containing various elemental additives that includes one or more of the following and sometimes others not mentioned, antimony, calcium, arsenic, copper, tin, strontium, aluminum, selenium and more recently bismuth and silver.
It is the electrolyte that facilitates the chemical reactions that enable the storage and discharge of electrical energy and permit the passage of electrons that provide the current flow. When a battery is connected to a resistive load, such as a motor, chemical energy is converted to electrical energy and direct current flows through the circuit. This commonly occurs while the vehicle's engine is idling or during short trips with a heavy power load like at night in bad weather.
A good quality wet deep cycle (or "leisure") battery will cost between $50 and $300 and, if properly maintained and used, will give you at least 200 deep discharge-charge cycles. Each cell is made up of an element containing positive plates that are all connected together and negative plates, which are also all connected together. After the "curing" of the plates, they are made up into cells, and the cells are inserted into a high-density tough polypropylene or hard rubber case. Porosity is the pits and tunnels in the plate that allows the sulphuric acid to get to the interior of the plate. Normally a car (or starting) battery "ages" as sulfation builds up on the negative plates or the active positive plate material sheds (or flakes off) due to the normal expansion and contraction that occurs during the discharge and charge cycles.
This strongly suggests that some sellers of new batteries do not know how to or fail to take the time to properly recharge and test batteries. So has the need to recycle our limited natural resources in order to make effective use of them. All manufacturers of car batteries, which are essential features of the car, are working to extend the life and improve the quality of their products and to develop batteries that can be used without concerns for safety.
As storage battery manufacturers worked to establish the infrastructure necessary for recycling, recycling operations were put into place. With the backing of two Business & Industry Guaranteed Loans, Jesse has shaped and changed the sport and lifestyle of motorcyclists globally.
The business is locally owned and operated, and was started by Randy Hart – an Air Force veteran and tool-and-die enthusiast – his wife and four nephews. One noteworthy event was Jesse Jurrens, owner of Legend Suspensions, being inducted into the Sturgis Motorcycle Museum & Hall of Fame at the 14th Annual Hall of Fame Induction Breakfast held at the Lodge in Deadwood, SD. Our partners work with us year after year to leverage resources and grow economic opportunities. The meeting allowed USDA Know Your Farmer Know Your Food team members to interact with foundation leaders as part of our ongoing effort to explore ways USDA programs can leverage non-government funds more strategically.  The agenda included site visits to local food projects where public-private partnerships can make a difference. The original plan for two stories was expanded to four thanks to an innovative partnership with the Windsor Housing Trust to develop mixed-income apartments. In these situations the telephones stay on and this is because every major telephone company in the world, including mobile telephone service providers, uses lead acid batteries as backup power to the telecommunications systems.Were it not for standby lead acid batteries, we probably would have power outages nearly every day because the electric utilities would not be able to handle rapid fluctuations in the demand for electricity.
In fact, used lead-acid batteries have topped the list of the most highly recycled consumer products for over a decade.Unfortunately, battery recycling is not a public utility and scrap batteries are only recycled because it is profitable for the secondary non-ferrous industry to do so.
The battery itself does nothing to close the recycling loop if it is not recycled, but you, your governments and your industries can ensure that they enter the loop by creating an infrastructure that will promote and facilitate recycling. These alloying elements are used to change grid strength, corrosion resistance, reduce over-potential or maintenance, and internal resistance. Approximately 850 to 900 million lead-acid batteries are in use worldwide with starting batteries representing approximately 88% of the total.
With an estimated 3% compounded annual growth rate, worldwide retail sales of car lead-acid batteries represent roughly 63% of the estimated $30 billion annually spent on batteries.

In another marketing study by Recharge, in 2003 the worldwide battery market was roughly $30 billion, with 30% of that being SLI (car) and 15.3% industrial (deep cycle) lead-acid batteries. They are individually separated with thin sheets of electrically insulating, porous material "envelopes" or "separators" (in the diagram below) that are used as spacers between the positive (usually light orange) and negative (usually slate gray) plates to keep them from electrically shorting to each other.
The positive plates in cells are connected in parallel to the external POSITIVE (+) terminal and the negative plates in each cell are connected to the NEGATIVE (-) external terminal. If deep cycle battery is left discharged for long period of time, dendrite shorts between the plates can occur when the battery is recharged. This situation is improving with the widespread use of easy to use battery testers like those made by Cadex, Midtronics and Solar. In turn, society is becoming more concerned about these issues, and the government is introducing stronger laws and regulations regarding them. Other (2), in the September 29, 2000, Ministry of Health, and Welfare, Environmental Health Bureau, Industrial Waste Division notice 79, entitled "Industrial waste processing operation and specially controlled industrial waste treatment and industrial waste processing facilities approval administration." Here, the law allows trade-ins. With his lean and efficient business model, he’s become a global force in motorcycle suspensions. Established in 1991, SAFSF has been a philanthropic leader in local and regional food system development.
This is when lead acid batteries come to the rescue, as enormous arrays of batteries delivering large amounts of electricity for short periods of time until additional capacity is added to the grid.Lead acid batteries power electric fork trucks used in warehouses, factories, mines, and ships. The soft lead is suitable for battery paste and the hard lead bullion ideal for grids and terminals. In North America, BCI reports that approximately 120 million car and motorcycle batteries were sold in 2010, of which approximately 88% were for replacement and 12% were for original equipment. In the June 2015 report, Environmental Protection Acency stated that approximately 99% of all lead-acid car batteries were recycled in the U.S.
Purportedly, Exide and EnerSys are the two largest deep cycle battery manufacturers in the world. The plates (in the diagram below), within a cell, alternate with a positive plate, a negative plate and so on.
When you are using your battery, the fresh acid needs to be in contact with the plate material and the water generated needs to be carried away from the plate. The chemical action between the metals and the electrolyte (battery acid) creates the electrical energy. A brown sediment, called sludge or "mud," that builds up in the bottom of the case and can short the plates of a cell out. The low resistance bridge in the shorted cell will heat up and boil the electrolyte out of the cell causing a high volumes of hydrogen and oxygen. If your car battery is more than three years old and you live in a hot climate, then your battery is probably living on borrowed time.
We also visited Landsport, another Sturgis-based business that specializes in manufacturing and marketing aluminum loading ramps, drop deck ramps, service ramps, and other custom applications. They also power the shuttle vehicles in airports, as well as wheelchairs, amusement park shuttles and golf carts. For 2003, Eurobat estimates that in Western Europe 58.5 million car batteries will be sold and 71% will be replacement (after market) and 29% will be OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer). Energy flows from the battery as soon as there is an electrical load, for example, a starter motor, that completes a circuit between the positive terminal connected to the positive plates and the negative terminal connected to the negative plates. Abnormally slow cranking, especially on a cold day, is another good indication that your battery is going bad.
Landsport used a Business & Industry guaranteed loan to expand its production and work staff. On the road, lead acid batteries power electric law-enforcement vehicles, buses, and very soon mail delivery vans. The battery is initially charged or "formed" to convert the active yellow Lead Oxide (PbO or Litharge) in the positive plates (cathode) into Lead Peroxide (PbO2), which is usually dark brown or black. Electrical current flows as charged portions of acid (ions) between the battery plates and as electrons through the external circuit. In hot climates, additional causes of failure are positive grid growth, positive grid metal corrosion, Dendrite formation, negative grid shrinkage, buckling of plates, or loss of water.
Approximately 85% of premature deep cycle and starting batteries failures that are not recharged on a regular basis is due to an accumulation of sulfation.
After meeting with the staff at both facilities, I walked away knowing these operations have a long-term vision for success and growth.
The active material in the negative pasted plates (anode) becomes sponge Lead (Pb), but with a very porous structure which is slate gray. The action of the lead-acid storage battery is determined by chemicals used, State-of-Charge, temperature, porosity, diffusion, and load. Deep discharges, heat, vibration, fast charging, and overcharging all accelerate the "aging" process. Sulfation is caused when a battery's State-of-Charge drops below 100% for long periods or under charging. Approximately 50% of premature car battery failures is caused by the loss of water for normal recharging charging due to the lack of maintenance, evaporation from high under hood heat, or overcharging. You can easily spend the cost of a new battery or more for an emergency jump start, tow or taxi ride.
Antimony (Sb), Calcium (Ca) or other alloys are often added to the plates to enhance their performance or service life. Positive grid growth and undercharging causing sulfation and electrical system malfunctions also cause premature battery failures. A "Wet charged" battery is a wet lead-acid battery shipped with electrolyte in the battery and a "dry charged" battery is shipped without electrolyte.

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