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We use them to power everything from torches to cars, but if you tended to zone out in high school science like me, you might have no idea how batteries actually produce energy.
Technically, a battery is composed of two or more electric cells connected up in a series (one after the other).
Most cells today use zinc as the negative electrode, a metallic oxide like copper or manganese dioxide as the positive electrode, and a moist chemical paste as the solution. In each half-cell, the positive and negative electrodes are placed in solutions containing the ions of the same kind of metal as themselves. To stop negative charges building up in the positive electrode and stopping the reactions, a salt bridge links the two compartments. So, the reactions continue and a current flows until the cell’s materials have been used up completely, at which point the battery goes flat.
The effectiveness of liquid battery has long been known, but scientists are now looking how to make them cheap.
Scientists at MIT has known for a long time now that the battery of liquid metal are very effective, because they can contain high capacity and they can very easy generate energy.
Since the main problem of this technology is in expensive materials, the same scientist with the help of members of his team tried to find a way that could allow the creation of cheap and universally available batteries of liquid metal, and it seems, that he now managed to do that. Scientists in their recent paper in Nature Communications publication, presented a battery pack that is used around the common and cheap calcium element, and at the same time for the negative electrode layer and the intermediate layer in three-layer sandwich battery, consisting of molten salts.
To enable the use of calcium, the researchers had to solve several major problems related to the properties of that element. Scientists were first addressed with other problem, the merger of calcium with other low-cost metal magnesium, which has a melting point much lower, so they have for 300 degrees reduce the operating temperature compared to pure calcium, while at the same time maintained the advantage in maintaining a high voltage which enables the element.
Another final innovation was the formation of salt used in the middle layer of the battery, the electrolyte, or chemical compound that is electrically conductive or it becomes in dissolved or molten state, because it contains or creates movable ions that can carry an electric charge. Now we can only hope that we will not need to wait another 10 years to get this calcium batteries on the market.
I made the prediction that as soon as I felt that I could relax, I would succumb to the flu that swept through Colorado.
A quick recap: the Circlotron circuit is a supremely simple affair, which requires as little as two triodes, two floating power supplies, and two resistors.
This means that a stereo amplifier would require at least four independent, floating power supplies. If we use two output transformers, we can get away with a single power supply, even for stereo amplifiers.
If we are driving headphones, not loudspeakers, then we can use the following Circlotron variation that uses a single power supply. In the above circuit, the two electrolytic capacitors are assumed to be large in value, but they can never be infinite in value. Three constant current sources are shown, but they each could be replaced by a simple resistor—at a slight decrease in performance.
The differential input stage plate resistors terminate into the differential outputs, thereby creating two global negative feedback loops. Now let's flesh out the topology and configure it to drive a 300-ohm load, such as the headphones made by Beyer and Sennheiser, such as the DT990 and HD800. I know that this circuit no longer looks like a circlotron, as the ground no longer falls mid load. If lower impedance headphone are to be driven, an output transformer can be used; or, we could use several ECC99 tubes in parallel or different output tubes altogether, such as the 6AS7. For those of you who still have old computers running Windows XP (32-bit) or any other Windows 32-bit OS, I have setup the download availability of my old old standards: Tube CAD, SE Amp CAD, and Audio Gadgets.
I do plan on remaking all of these programs into 64-bit versions, but it will be a huge ordeal, as programming requires vast chunks of noise-free time, something very rare with children running about. TCJ My-Stock DB helps you know just what you have, what it looks like, where it is, what it will be used for, and what it's worth. Over the years, I’ve discovered problems with aircraft circuit breakers and lithium batteries. First, I’ve used a lithium batteries in my test instrument, Bartol mag probe, 80,000 to date. I’m in the process of designing a new circuit breaker that will overcome the spike problem without sacrificing safety.
About the AuthorI have spent my whole life working with electronics in almost every capacity and spent many hours in Physics classes. Automotive manufactures have been investigating the use of high-voltage batteries for over 20 years. The first production vehicle that used the 42-volt system was the 2002 Toyota Crown Sedan, which was only sold in the Japanese market.
An additional benefit that may be derived from the use of a 42-volt system is it allows manufacturers to electrify most of the inefficient mechanical and hydraulic systems that are currently used.
Additional fuel savings can also be realized due to the more efficient charging system used for the 42-volt system. One of the newest technologies to emerge from the research and development of the 42-volt system is the integrated starter generator (ISG). As discussed earlier, lead-acid batteries are the most commonly used batteries in the automotive industry. The battery pack in a hybrid vehicle is typically made up of several cylindrical cells or prismatic cells. The negatives associated with the use of NiCad batteries include the following points: they use toxic metals, have low energy density, need to be recharged if they have not been used for a while, and suffer from the memory effect.
The cathode (positive) electrode in a NiCad cell is made of fiber mesh covered with nickel hydroxide. The issue facing HEV manufactures is that the NiMH battery has a relatively short service life. The cathode and anode electrodes are separated by a sheet of fine fibers saturated with an aqueous and alkaline electrolyte-KOH.
Under load the cell discharges and the hydrogen moves from the anode to the cathode electrode. A service disconnect is used to disable the HV system if repairs or service to any part of the system is required.
Note: Lithium is the lightest metal and provides the highest energy density of all known metals.
As with most other rechargeable cells, ions move from the anode to the cathode when the cell is providing electrical energy and during recharging, the ions are moved back from the cathode to the anode. An automotive battery is an electrochemical device that provides for and stores electrical energy. Ultra-capacitors are capacitors constructed to have a large electrode surface area and a very small distance between the electrodes.
All batteries must be secured in the vehicle to prevent damage and the possibility of shorting across the terminals if the battery tips. More often revolutions start with a big bang but could it be the replacement for lithium-ion batteries is taking off with a relatively small but not insignificant pop? This appears to be the case for OXIS Energy of the UK, which has plans in motion to put its 30-percent more energy dense polymer lithium-sulfur (Li-S) chemistry into production next year. OXIS says its batteries are less costly to produce, lighter, safer, potentially more durable, maintenance-free and able to accept 100-percent discharge instead of the only 80-percent or so to which li-ion is limited.
While the OXIS batteries do not yet boast headline-exploding four or five times lithium-ion’s energy density – though this is predicted – they do have enough superior about them to equate to a better battery than lithium-ion in several respects. In so many words, even in its infancy, Li-S is a baby giant of a technology and able to pick up where the comparatively mature potential of li-ion first commercialized in 1991 by Sony is now tapering off. At the end of last month OXIS tweeted it had achieved a benchmark 500 charge cycles for its pouch cells, and yesterday it told us this is up to almost 600. However, he says it’s yet questionable in the short term how suitable OXIS’ state-of-the-art is for “saloon cars” or passenger vehicles.
Given these opportunities and others where Li-S can fill a niche, OXIS signed a contract at the beginning of this year with GP Batteries of Singapore. Since OXIS’ batteries are close enough in design to lithium-ion, GP will be able to use existing assembly line machinery to put the Li-S chemistry into production.
In a phone interview yesterday with one of only a handful of other companies known to be working on lithium-sulfur, PolyPlus, we were told its solid-state technologies – while just as promising – will require new assembly machinery. This is not a whole lot better than li-ion, but Li-S offers other benefits not least of which is major upside potential.
OXIS, as do other companies working on their own approach to the challenges of uncapping lithium-sulfur’s potential, sees lithium-sulfur as the next most viable energy storage chemistry on the way to lithium-air. IBM has said lithium-air will be practical some time in the early 2020s – how it can have 2020 vision a decade into the future is a good critical question, but we digress. Truth be told, some would say even lithium-sulfur is barely ready, but OXIS is getting started with the lowest hanging fruit. The DoE placed a $120 million bet on this project hosted by Argonne National Laboratory formally known as the Joint Center for Energy Storage Research at the end of 2012. Crittenden says energy storage systems using metallic lithium offer the highest specific energy, and OXIS has also received support for UK Ministry of Defense battery packs to be carried by NATO soldiers.
Where the batteries have a leg up for certain transportation needs is in the area of safety. OXIS Li-S electrolytes, says Crittenden, offer a mechanism for the passivation of suspended or “mossy” lithium by instantaneously creating a (Li2S) film on metallic lithium.
Passivated lithium that forms during charging is dissolved upon discharge or when the battery is at rest, he said. Examination confirmed that there was no localized temperature increase where the nail penetrated. In fact, a nail penetrated cell was actually recharged and functioned albeit with less energy because of the missing material where the nail damaged it. As for recharging, Crittenden said larger packs could take seven hours but this is an area the company has not focused nearly as heavily, and is now doing so. Crittenden also says Li-S is more environmentally friendly than li-ion because sulfur is used instead of heavy metals such as nickel and cobalt. As an added bonus, the sulfur is a recycled by-product from petroleum processing, so in effect, the oil industry is providing a raw ingredient that could one day lead to its demise.
To start with, automotive or nearly automotive projects OXIS is known to be working with are those with the innovative French company, INDUCT. To wit, the first cars to receive Li-S batteries appear to be the INDUCT Modulgo Urban Car (top photo) and driverless Navia (in video). These and two wheelers by other companies that will use Li-S will not require a liquid thermal management system.
The Modulgo is designed from telematics technology and intended to offer advanced car sharing solutions as a low-cost urban EV.

It seats three in a single row, tops out at 68 mph (110 kph), and has a maximum range in the city of 87 miles (140 km).
The Modulgo was revealed at Geneva in 2011 and OXIS says its batteries will be in it next year. The Navia – also called the Cybergo – is equipped with laser range finders, cameras and a software package that allows it to move autonomously and safely in any environment. Two wheelers to receive OXIS batteries will be the WESP scooter, which is made by QWIC of the Netherlands, and to be distributed to around 350 shops in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany and France. Crittenden would not disclose specs, but range will be impressive, he said, and it will be user friendly and safe as a scooter can be.
The same goes for Wisper e-bikes being developed in Germany for European markets and OXIS says it will be launched in 2014 year. Left unsaid, but it should be evident by now is that the company is a forerunner in a niche market with an ostensibly viable product that must begin to supplant li-ion, so that could be a further hint about pricing for now. Like Goldilocks’ porridge, it will have to be not too hot, not too cold, but just what the market will bear. The company has also signed Joint Development Agreements with France’s leading chemicals producer, Arkema, as well as with one of the world’s largest polymer companies, Bayer MaterialScience of Germany.
These are hoped to helps expedite development of new polymer binders, carbon materials, electrode substrates and lithium salts to continually improve the technology going forward. OXIS also has links with St Andrew University, Imperial College London, Oxford University and Cranfield University, as well as with Material Science Departments of both Oxford and Cambridge Universities. It also received an investment of ?15 million ($23 million) from the giant South African energy and chemical company Sasol, and has accepted further grants as well.
The company also recently signed with Canadian defense contractor Panacis which caters to U.S.
Porsche has dispelled with any doubt about whether the upcoming Mission E is targeting the Tesla Model S. An electric cell, also called a galvanic cell, converts chemical energy into electrical energy. When a cell is connected in a circuit, excess electrons flow from the negative electrode, through the circuit, and back to the positive electrode. This bridge is a tiny tube filled with an electrolyte solution, and it allows ions to flow freely from one compartment to another, keeping both electrically neutral.
Some types can be recharged, like lithium-ion batteries and rechargeable alkaline batteries. Therefore, the company Ambri from Cambridge will soon have to commercialize the first such battery based on the research of Professor Donald Sadoway from MIT.
For example, calcium is easily dissolves in salt, which is a big problem, given that the layers in the battery must remain separated, and the basic principle of the current battery is that all three ingredients must create separate layers that are based on different densities of materials.
The new form of salts developed by MIT, is composed of a mixture of lithium chloride and calcium chloride, because it was found that the calcium and magnesium alloys do not dissolve well in this type of salt to solve another problem of using calcium. Like a circuit court or circuit-rider cleric moving from town to town, my circuitous but, ultimately, circular path always leads back to much-visited circuits, such as the cathode follower and the Circlotron.
The two essential details are that this is a push-pull circuit (the triodes work in current anti-phase, in other words) and that two independent power supplies are not grounded (neither are grounded, finding their only path to ground through the two resistors); thus the ground falls mid load.
This key point explains why I use the battery symbol in the Circlotron schematics, although a battery not likely to ever be used in an actual Circlotron. In either case, the two capacitors that cross-couple the plates and cathodes must be very large in capacitance. As a consequence, they will begin to discharge when the output current exceeds twice the idle current one triode.
To see how they work just image a battery being momentarily being shorted across the two outputs, which would cause one output to go positive, while the other goes negative.
Also note how we have lost the two internal coupling capacitors, as the output triodes now DC couple to the input stage, which explains why I added the two diodes to protect the output triodes at start-up. The downloads are at the GlassWare-Yahoo store and the price is only $9.95 for each program. Several years ago, I had a problem with lithium battery failures which reached a high of 50%. I’ve concluded exhaustive tests on the lithium batteries I use in the mag probe test instrument. However, if the bottom of the current spike is wide enough, the circuit breaker will disengage. Although the use of 42-volt systems is very limited at the current time, the technology learned has been applied to the electric hybrid systems. The new technology will allow electromechanical intake and exhaust valve control, active suspension, electrical heating of the catalytic converters, electrically operated coolant and oil pumps, electric air conditioning compressor, brake-by-wire, steer-by-wire, and so on to be utilized. Current 14-volt generators have an average efficiency across the engine speed range band of less than 60%. It is not as simple as adding a higher-voltage output generator and expecting the existing electrical components to work.
Although this technology was not actually used on a 42-volt system, development was a result of this system. By connecting the batteries in series to each other, they can provide high enough voltages to power some electric vehicles (EVs). NiCad cells may have a future role in hybrid vehicles because of several advantages that it has.
NiMH batteries are very quickly replacing nickel-cadmium batteries since they are more environmentally friendly.
Service life suffers as a result of the battery being subjected to several deep cycles of charging and discharging over its lifetime.
The components of the cell are typically placed in a metal housing and then the unit is sealed. Since the electrolyte only supports the ion movement from one electrode to the other, it has no active role in the chemical reaction.
This service connector provides two functions that are used to separate the HV battery pack into two separate batteries, with approximately 150 volts each. Rechargeable lithium-based batteries are very similar in construction to the nickel-based batteries just discussed.
Polyethylene membranes are used to separate the plates inside the cells and, in effect, separate the ions from the electrons. The lithium-polymer battery is nearly identical to a li-ion battery and share the same electrode construction. Plans are also to sell its technology to European niche electric vehicle makers, the military, for solar energy storage systems, and several major auto manufacturers are in discussions with OXIS as well. It’s based at the UK Atomic Energy Research Centre in Oxfordshire where lithium-ion batteries were first developed and prototyped. These, he says would require 2,000-3,500 charge cycles based on commonly quoted European standards, but makers of electric utility vehicles, scooters, e-bikes, and even a small city car are planning to use its products as OEMs eye a technology predicted to be production-car ready not long after.
GP has several facilities in Asia, and is the largest consumer battery manufacturer in China.
This is a major hurdle that other Li-S battery chemistries – particularly solid-state type – will likely not be able to overcome, which effectively gives OXIS a nice head start.
Less is known about Sion, another purveyor of Li-S, as possibly are also a few automotive OEMs working behind the scenes, including Toyota and Daimler.
We’ve seen in recent weeks other promising Li-S developments such as by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory which is working toward U.S. This lets it meet needs now as it also begins to earn revenues and works on its business rather than isolating itself in a lab attempting to develop higher energy density as is currently the case in the U.S.
DoE-sponsored project, JCESR is one such project that sets much higher benchmarks before it will deem Li-S ready for prime time. Its goal is to come up with an automotive propulsion battery with five-times the range capacity, costing one-fifth present lithium-ion batteries, and to be completed in the next five years. Soldiers must carry 8 kg or so, and if this can be cut in half, that is a huge tactical advantage in the eyes of commanders. OXIS cites the Boeing Dreamliner incidents and other evidence of fire hazard for those who believe lithium iron phosphate batteries (LiFePO4) and other forms of li-ion are safe enough.
This protection is supported chemically and is associated with what’s called the “sulfide cycle.” Li2S has a melting point of 938°C and OXIS says it is a perfect insulator. Nail penetration tests both on freshly assembled and cycled pouch cells (0.5Ah capacity) resulted in no significant temperature increase.
This is due to the rapid spread of the reaction across the full surface of the lithium electrode producing effective heat dissipation.
OXIS expects charge times to reduce to 5 hours in the next 6 months, to 4 hours in the next year, with the ultimate goal of achieving “fast-charging” technology. While Crittenden said talks are ongoing with European and other OEMs, the company’s CEO, Huw W. Li-S operates safely at higher temperatures, and Crittenden said he is unsure whether larger scale packs would require a liquid TMS either.
It consists of a negative electrode and a positive electrode, separated into their own compartments (called half-cells) and each submerged in an electrolytic solution. The first possibility is called reduction (gaining electrons) and the second is called oxidisation (losing electrons); together, these are called redox reactions. But chemically-reliant batteries have their limitations—the future of batteries may lie elsewhere. Because of the widespread use of lead-acid batteries, improper disposal has become a major environmental concern, and recycling has emerged as the solution. Another problem is that calcium has a high melting point, which made the liquid battery operation at 900 degrees Celsius. The day after my last post, I fell ill to no-big-deal cold, the three-day variety, not the two-weeks-of-agony flu. True class-A, unlike pseudo class-A that uses sloppy and leaky triode conduction at cutoff to claim class-A status, requires an insanely high idle current, if even a few watts are to be delivered to an 8-ohm speaker. No doubt, brief and occasional excursions will pass nicely, but heavy and sustained current immoderation will deplete the charge.
An added assumption is that matched pairs of triodes are used for the input and output stages, which explains why no output coupling capacitors are used.
For example, with an ECC99 output tube, an output impedance of a little over 100 ohms would result. These two anti-phase pulses would then be relayed to the input stage and then passed on to the output triodes grids, provoking a counter reaction. Although this headphone amplifier presents a balanced out, an unbalanced input signal is used. Each channel must get its own floating power supply and both channels must share a common ground connection.

If a balanced pair of input signals were used, we could forgo the differential amplifier's constant current source, making the circuit an all-tube design.
If current spike one and two occur at the same time, the current drain on the battery will be seen as the sum of the two. It’s been estimated that by the end of the decade the electronic content will be about 40% of the total cost of a high-line vehicle. Studies have indicates that as these mechanical systems are replaced, fuel economy will increase by about 10% and emissions will decrease. The ISG is one of the key contributors to the hybrid’s fuel efficiency due to its ability to automatically stop and restart the engine under different operating conditions.
For example, the first-generation General Motors’ E V used twenty-six 12-volt lead-acid batteries connected in series to provide 312 volts.
These include being able to withstand many deep cycles, low cost of production, and long service life. This results in a low battery charge due to a battery that is not completely discharged before it is recharged.
They also have more capacity than the NiCad battery since they have a higher energy density. In addition, NiMH cells generate heat while being charged and they require long charge times. The most commonly used alloys are compounds containing two to three of the following metals: titanium, vanadium, zirconium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, and aluminum. The prismatic design requires less storage space but had less energy density than the cylindrical design. First, when the service disconnect is lifted up, it opens a high-voltage interlock loop (HVIL), then when the service disconnect is fully removed, it opens the high-voltage connector.
Positives associated with the use of lithium batteries include high energy density, limited memory effect, and they being environmentally friendly.
Due to the safety issues associated with lithium metal, the Li-ion battery uses a variety of lithium compounds. This will therefore be the first large-scale manufacturer to produce commercially available lithium sulfur cells – and it will save costs because OXIS uses a liquid gel electrolyte. OXIS does concede Li-Air is the next step beyond Li-S, but Crittenden says he doesn’t think Li-Air will be ready until after 2030.
Hampson-Jones who joined OXIS in 2010 in part to help grow the transportation business, has said major manufacturers are sometimes reluctant to run with new ideas.
The car offers multimedia for the driver and passengers, recharges inductively, and its body is 100-percent recyclable.
An electrode is a conductor that makes contact with non-metal circuit parts, and an electrolytic solution contains electrically charged atoms, called ions. The recycling market from battery scrap represents a large volume of the world’s lead production.
I now realize that my efforts will never circumscribe the Circlotron, as those same efforts also circumfuse the Circlotron-circuitry boundary, expanding rather than constricting.
With an 8-ohm load and 20Hz as the lowest frequency that must be passed, a 1kµF capacitor is needed in a simple RC filter.
Think about this, the theoretical maximum efficiency of a class-A output stage is 50%—something which you will never get in reality, using transistors or MOSFETs, let alone triodes. Thus, music that exhibits a high dynamic range can play beyond the strict class-A limit, but organ and low-dynamic music (most modern pop music) cannot.
If we want to use a global negative feedback loop, the sneaky way to do it is the following. Or, we can switch thing around and use a balanced input and get an unbalanced output, as shown below.
Or, we could use a negative power-supply rail, which would restore much of the qualities bestowed by the constant current source.
The electrical demands on the vehicle have risen from about 500 watts in 1970 to about 4,000 watts in 2005.
With a 42-volt generator, the fuel consumption can be reduced the equivalent of up to 15% in fuel savings.
A typical hybrid vehicle uses an electric induction motor or ISG between the engine and the transmission. For example, if the battery is consistently being recharged after it is only discharged 50%, the battery will eventually only accept and hold a 50% charge and not accept any higher charge. The KOH is a conductor of ions and has little involvement in the chemical reaction process. Because of the service life issue, most batteries used in HEVs have an eight-year warranty.
The amount of hydrogen that can be accumulated and stored by the alloy is far greater than the actual volume of the alloy. The negatives are lithium is considered an alkali metal and oxidizes very rapidly in air and water, which makes lithium highly flammable and slightly explosive when exposed to air and water. A manganese li-ion battery has been developed for use in hybrid vehicles that has the potential of lasting twice as long as a NiMH battery.
The Li-Poly cell holds the electrolyte in a thin solid, polymer composite (polyacrylonitrile) instead as a liquid.
Since the dry electrode has very high resistance, it is unable to provide bursts of current for heavy loads. For a safe cell, it is important to formulate an electrolyte which has high flash point and thus a low flammability. According to the EPA, 96% of all lead-acid batteries are recycled, and a typical lead-acid battery contains 60 to 80% recycled lead and plastic. As both the output transformer and the multi-tapped inductor offer impedance magnification, the capacitor values can be much smaller.
In other words, a single channel of class-A, 16W Circlotron will draw 2A in its output stage. Nonetheless, being able to get away with a single power supply, even with two channels, is a great benefit. All this will be random, therefore it’s necessary to use a current graph and store into memory.
In addition, distance that could be traveled between battery recharges was 55 to 95 miles (88 to 153 km). Contactors are heavy-duty relays that are connected to the positive and negative sides of the HV battery. For example, with a reflected impedance of 800 ohms, a 10µF capacitors could be used.
On the other hand, if we are willing to give each channel its own power supply, then my following variation on the Circlotron offers many features. Note how the two two global negative feedback loops have seemingly been replaced by a single loop, yet it functions effectively the same as the two did in the previous example, as it effectively now sees twice the output signal.
Forty-two volts represent three 12-volt batteries, but since they actually hold a 14-volt charge, the system is considered 42 volts (3 times 14 volts equals 42 volts). In other words, even at that unattainable 50%, we would still see 200W of dissipation at idle and 100W into the speaker at full output. I was shocked when I discovered that all the circuit breakers disengaged at more than the indicated value.
Another aspect of the 42-volt system is service technician training to address aspects of arcing, safety, and dual-voltage diagnostics. When the service disconnect is lifted and the HVIL is opened, the voltage supply to the contactors is interrupted and the contactors should open.
Lead-acid car batteries are made from alloys containing either calcium or antimony which must be combined in exact percentages to produce the desired qualities in the finish product.
Although production of battery-powered EVs has slowed, the technology learned has provided for the development of hybrid vehicles.
However, if arcing has occurred that may have welded the contacts of the contactors together, the circuit will not be opened.
Elemental analysis instrumentation is a critical part of lead-acid battery manufacturing to be certain that the appropriate alloy content and quality standards are being met.
In fact, some manufacturers have abandoned further research and development of the system because of the problem with arcing.
Now the hybrid technology is accelerating battery technology to the point that battery-powered EVs may become more common in the future.
In the conventional 14-volt system, the power level is low enough that it is almost impossible to sustain an arc.
OES analyzers apply a spark to supply energy to the atoms in a metallic sample, which causes them to emit characteristic wavelengths of light.  The intensity of the light is proportional to the element’s concentration in the sample.
Too fast would cause disengagement of components used to control engine or flight controls. Since there isn’t enough electrical energy involved, the arcs collapse quickly and there is less heat build up.
The light is converted to an electrical signal by PMTs (Photomultiplier tubes) capturing the light a discrete spectral positions corresponding to emission lines of the elements of interest, or by one or several solid-state detectors generating a wider spectral pattern. I’m sure, redundant systems are included on all aircraft but this problem could also exist in the backup system.
Electrical energy in an arc at 42 volts is significantly greater and is sufficient to maintain a steady arc. By measuring electrical intensities from PMTs or intensities of the lines of interest in the spectrum from the solid-state detector, OES analyzers provide qualitative and quantitative analysis of the metal and reveal important information about whether modifications need to be made to the manufacturing process.Quantitative elemental analysis of solid lead sample with OES begins with careful sample preparation using a lathe or a milling machine.
Slow circuit breaker response time can result in wire damage, which could also cause adjacent wire damage in a wiring harness. Once the measurement is completed, the resulting spectral intensities are converted into concentrations according to calibrations established for the qualities of lead and lead alloys of interest.The accuracy is a very important factor to consider when choosing OES for this application.
Other factors like instrument stability, precision and limits of detection have to be considered to guarantee reliable, quality analyses of the tested lead samples on the long-term. Although it can’t reach the same level of accuracy or precision as a laboratory OES system, portable XRF can be a very effective tool for sorting and recycling batteries. It really depends on customer requirements which type of instrument is right for the application. It really depends on whether portability or ultimate analytical performance is more important to the user.ReplyLeave a Reply Cancel replyYour email address will not be published.

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Comments Used batteries high point nc news

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