Sealed lead acid battery voltage vs state of charge ucs,12v 100ah battery means,how to replace a laptop battery dell - Downloads 2016

01.05.2016
Finns ett intelligent skiljerela 12V Voltage Sensitive Relay (VSR) som prioriterar laddning till startbatteriet forst samt forhindrar att startstrom dras fran bodelsbatteriet. Med husvagn blir dels elledningarna valdigt langa sa man far spanningsfall, dels blir det latt lite spanningsfall i elkontakten vid draget. Boostern klarar ofta att arbeta med en inspanning pa 9-14V och hojer upp laddspanningen vid forbrukningsbatteriet i husvagnen till 14,4V. Charge On The Move With CTEK’s New D250S Dual med boost-laddning fran bil och MPPT-laddning fran solpanel. Med "CTEK D250S DUAL" far man aven laddstrom till startbatteriet fran solfangaren, nar val fritidsbatteriet ar helt uppladdat, vilket mest har nagon betydelse for husbilsagare nar deras fordon inte anvands under en langre tid.
Min solpanel har en tomgangsspanning pa 25V, vilket da ar for hogt for CTEK D250S DUAL - lite markligt tycker jag! Hittade en bra redogorelse for hur olika kabelareor ihop med en Leab1412 booster paverkar vilken laddstrom boostern kan ge i husvagnen.
Man kan anvanda sig av laddning fran bilen utan booster aven for husvagn, om man inte har behov av sa snabb eller mycket laddning samt har tillrackligt grov ledningsarea mellan bilens batteri via slapvagnskontakten fram till husvagnens batteri. Det kan dock vara problem i moderna bilar att dra egna kraftiga kablar till slapvagnskontakten da dagens bilelsystem ar komplicerade och ibland overvakade av bilens styrdator! Jag tycker aven man bor ha ett skiljerela som bryter strommen fran bilen nar inte generatorn laddar, sa man inte riskerar ladda ur bilens startbatteri. VSR-skiljerelaet ar framst tankt for nar man kopplar in laddningen av bodelsbatteriet direkt via grova kablar fran bilen (husbilsgeneratorn, batmotorns generator), och inte via en laddbooster.
Tunnfilmssolpaneler ar billigare och miljovanligare att tillverka da dess materialforbrukning ar lag.
Kristallin kiselsolpanel har hogre verkningsgrad och tar darmed upp mindre yta for samma effekt.
Under 2012 sjonk priserna drastiskt pa kiselsolceller och fortsatte sa under 2013, da man effektiviserat tillverkningsprocessen och det startades riktigt storskalig produktion, bl.a. Blir en enda kiselplatta pa en kristallin solpanel skuggad sa minskar stromproduktionen som om hela solpanelen var skuggad, da alla kiselplattorna ar seriekopplade och den maximala strommen som kan ga igenom bestams av den kiselplatta som ar svagast belyst!
Polykristallina och Monokristallina kisel-solceller ar lika kansliga for partiell skuggning, da det ar samma teknik men tillverkade pa lite olika satt bara. De Polykristallina och Monokristallina kisel-solceller byggs upp av oftast 36st stora kristallina kiselsolceller som seriekopplas till en 12Volts solpanel (med spanningen 16-17V), och da alla ligger i serie samt strommen genom varje kisel-solcell styrs av ljuset pa den sa ar det den av dessa 36 kisel-solceller som har lagst ljus som styr hur mycket strom som hela solpanelen kan leverera. Pa marknaden har det nu borjat komma kisel-solcellspaneler som ar uppbyggda av tva mindre 12Volts solpaneler med da 2x36 kiselsolceller som bildar tva parallellkopplade 12Volts solpaneler intill varandra, ihopbyggda sa det bildar en enhetlig solpanel som en solpanelmodul. Exempelvis kan min 50W CIS tunnfilmssolpanel ge ca 2,5A som absolut max en klar solig sommardag med hela solpanelen belyst mitt pa dagen (utan MPPT-funktion).
Vid latt skuggning i lovskog en i ovrig solklar dag kan jag ocksa fa upp till 0,2A - 0,5A laddstrom, men i mer morkt skuggad lovskog blir det ingen strom alls ens en solklar dag.
Jag upplever att jag kan fa hyfsat med strom fran solpanelen under 6 - 8 manaderna over sommarhalvaret, om jag ej star i skuggigt lage. Det ar den mangd sol som fangas upp av solpanelen sett vinkelratt mot solstralningen, som genererar strom. Den laga solhojden pa vinterhalvaret gor ocksa att aven avlagsna trad, kullar, berg eller byggnader latt skuggar solpanelen. Solpanel ger ju valdigt mycket mer strom dagar med helt klart solljus och utan skugga for solpanelen.
Ju mer batterikapacitet man har ju fler dagar klarar man med riktigt daligt solljus dvs ju fler dagar kan man sla ut solpanelens medelstromgenerering over i forhallande till vadret. Men aven de dagar solpanelen kanske bara ger 50% av ens stromforbrukning sa har man ju dubblat tiden som strommen i batteriet racker.
Det viktiga for att klara sig bra med stormforsorjning fran solpanel ar att halla nere stromforbrukningen och dar ar LED-belysning en valdigt viktig faktor! En annan stor fordel med solpanel ar, om man som jag ej har tillgang till 230V for batteriladdning dar jag parkerar min husvagn mellan turerna, att solpanelen laddar upp och haller husvagnsbatteriet fulladdat mellan husvagnsturerna! Under de morkaste vintermanaderna klarar solpanel bara precis att underhallsladda batteriet om man bor i Skane, och har i Norrkopingstrakten har jag ca 2 vintermanader da det inte ens riktigt racker till underhallsladdning (men ar sa kallt att ett fulladdat batteri klarar sig bra anda den tiden). Detta galler min horisontellt placerade solpanel - pa vintern ar detta en valdigt dalig placering! Jag ar inne pa min tredje sasong nu (2009) dar jag klarar alla 12V stromforsorjning fran bara solpanelen! Och jag ligger i princip aldrig med 230V anslutning pa nagon campingplats, da jag klarar mig bra med min solpanel. Pa kvalitetssolpaneler verkar det vara en minsta maximal utspanning pa ca 16,6V som galler, vad jag sett.
Vintertid skulle effekten bli an storre med en MPPT-regulator, da solpanelens utspanning okar vid lagre temperaturer. Som summering tycker jag att tekniken med solpanel till husvagnen ar helt fantastisk bra, speciellt for oss som fricampar en del. Fortfarande nu i mitten av Oktober ger min horisontellt placerad 50W tunnfilms CIS solpanel drygt 1A i klart solsken mitt pa dagen utan MPPT-laddning, som referns till de som vill bilda sig en uppfattning! Webbsidan ger aven dimensionering for arets olika manader samt hur manga dagar i strack man anvander strom (campar) samt for horisontell och 45° lutande solpanel. Den kalkylator hos SolarLab tar lite hansyn till vadervariationer genom att raknar med en sakerhetsmarginal pa ca 1,4ggr mot den statistiska vaderdatans medelstromutbyte fran solpanelerna, utifran flera ars vaderstatistik, vilket ger en hyfsat rimligt trygg solelforsorjning. FrittLiv har nu (2013-02-06) tagit fram en egen dimensioneringsmodell for solelsystem baserat pa EU-soldata som ger en mer verklighetsanpassad dimensionering for en rimligt trygg solelforsorjning. Sa har kan man i SolarLabs kalkylator berakna for lang sommartur (= 7 dagar i veckan) samt kanske bara helgcampande pa hosten (varje helg = 2 dagar i veckan, varannan helg = 1 dag i veckan), genom att andra antal dagar i berakningen!
Pa sa satt kan man se om det ar sommarcampandet eller hostcampandet som styr den effekt man behover pa solpanelen samt vilken batterikapacitet som ar rekommenderad!
Men sedan ar det ju anda lite av en chansning, da vadret varierar och darmed hur mycket man far ut ur solpanelen under sitt campande. Och dar tycker jag en Ah-matare ar ovarderlig, for att veta hur man ligger till med strommen i batterierna. Vill man fa sin strom fran solpanel sa innebar det samtidigt att man maste forsoka stalla sin husvagn val solbelyst och undvika svalkande skugga, for att verkligen fa sol pa solpanelen! Nyhet: Nu finns FrittLiv´s egna dimensioneringsmodell for solelsystem baserat pa EU-soldata!
Tabellen ovan visar genomsnittlig elproduktion per dag for en 100W solpanel monterad med 45° vinkel mot soder respektive horisontellt monterad. Dessa siffror ar just genomsnittliga varden, en bra solig dag genererar solcellen mycket mer och en mork regning dag mycket mindre an dessa varden.
Vill du ha mojlighet att spara goda dagars skord till samre dagar behover du mer batterikapacitet. Den laga solhojden pa dagen vintertid gor det svart att undvika skuggning delar av dagen da.
Jag kommer aven ta fram vad man i snitt kan fa ur en solpanel i olika delar av landet under de olika arstiderna, ar min tanke idag. FrittLiv´s egna dimensioneringsmodell for solelsystem baserat pa EU-soldata - genomtankt! Berakna och dimensionera ditt solcellbehov - Solpaneleffekt & Batteribank (II) - mer manuellt. Hittade tva bra sidor dar man kan berakna vilken kabeldimension man behover, eller vilket spanningsfall man far med de kablar man har.
Steca Solar charge controllers verkar valdigt fina och bra, enligt min bedomning Juni 2010!
Steca ar marknadsledande regulatortillverkare i Tyskland, med sjalvlarande laddningsalgoritm i sina solladdregulatorer. Jag stryker ovan tips efter 16 manaders erfarenhet av min Steca SOLARIX MPPT 2010 som jag kopte och monterad in 2012-07-07!
Det medfor att batteriet overladdas i sommarvarme, men framforallt att batteriet laddas pa tok for daligt i vinterkyla da laddspanningen blir alldeles for lag for att batteriet ska ta emot laddningen bra i kyla!
Sa tydligen kan man inte ens lita pa en sa erkand tillverkare som Steca (men har en forfragan ute om detta, sa kanske kommer mer fakta kring saken)! Jag tycker inte heller Steca-regulator skott laddningen riktigt bra nu pa hosten nar jag bara lite glest helgcampar 2-3 dygn i strack i skuggig skogsmiljo som ger en lite djupare urladdning ur batterierna, som sedan ska laddas tillbaka pa parkeringen i soligt lage hemmavid.
Storre delen av aterladdningen har da skett vid den laga float-laddspanningen som begransat strommen och da har ju inte MPPT-tekniken gjort nagon nytta storre delen av tiden. Dessutom stangde djupurladdningsskyddet i mitt Steca SOLARIX MPPT 2010 exemplar ibland av strommen vid redan runt 50% SOC (ska vara 30% SOC enligt databladet)! Ska bli intressant att se om den enklare Solara SR340CX regulatorn med sin PWM-laddteknik som ger en "pulse conditioning" av batteriet kommer fa batteriet att indikera gront igen efter en tid, dvs atgarda sulfateringen (ihop med batteriaktivatorn jag haft sedan 2007). Jag bytte ju solladdregulator 2013-11-06 seneftermiddag till en Solara SR340CX med PWM-laddteknik pga erfarenheten ovan, sa sent pa eftermiddagen att solpanelerna inte gav mer strom for dagen da. Dagen efter, den 2013-11-07 vid 13:30-tiden, var jag och kollade upp hur det fungerade i det gramulna vadret. Min batteriaktivator PB500 aktiverade batterierna med urladdningsstrompulser pa 101A var 20:e sekund och mitt nyaste Tudor fritidsbatteri markerade redan gront = OK igen i sitt magiska oga! Sa tycks redan efter bara en formiddags inkoppling se positiva effekter av den PWM-laddteknikens pulsladdning under float-laddfasen! Sa pa ett satt kan man saga att den PWM-laddtekniken drar nytta av hur stor strom solpanelerna kan ge trots den laga floatladdstromen, da full solpanelstrom pulsas in i batteriet som korta strompulser som haller batterierna aktiva och motverkar sulfatering. Men jag vill ju aven ha den extra strommen som MPPT-laddtekniken ger, sa har borjat fundera pa att man skulle kunna ha en MPPT-enhet mellan solpanelerna och den PWM-laddregulatorn, med ett kondensatorpaket som anda bibehaller de stora PWM-laddpulserna under den spanningsreglerade laddningen da den arbetar med PWM-laddpulser.
Campade da i skogsskugga sa den mesta strommen lanades ur batterierna, vilket blev -71Ah ur den sammanlagda 150Ah batterikapacitet jag har.
Hade hunnit fa 10 dygns pulsad float-underhallsladdningen via den nya SR340CX PWM-regulatorn innan denna campingturen och det gjorde stor skillnad redan med runt +0,4V hogre urladdningsspanning fran batterierna.
Dock vad jag forstatt sa kraver det nog nagra manaders pulsladdning for full effekt i att gora blybatterierna fraschare. Nar jag kopte min husvagn i februari 2007 satt det ett gammalt slitet husvagnsbatteri i med valdigt dalig kapacitet kvar, vilket dock med min PWM-laddregulator till solpanelerna med sin pulsladdning och en batteriaktivator standigt blev battre (ganska snabbt i borjan) och aterfick mer kapacitet anda fram till att jag kopte ett nytt batteri 2009-05-07. Under 16 manader med MPPT-regulatorladdning (som inte har pulsladdning) tyckte jag (subjektivt) att batterierna hela tiden blev mindre aktiva och gav intryck av aldrande. Innebar att en solladdregulator pa 10A tillater aven bara 10A forbrukningsstrom ut till husvagnen.
Problemet ar att de flesta solladdregulatorer jag sett pa marknaden saljs utan nagon tydligt angiven dataspecifikation, datablad eller teknisk funktionsbeskrivning, sa man kan inte avgora om dess funktion verkar bra!
De ovan tipsade Steca och Solara laddregulatorerna for solpanel har en grov overvakning och visning av batteriets laddstatus (SOC, State Of Charge).Vill man ha en mer detaljerad och noggrann overvakning av batteriets laddstatus rekommenderar jag en NASA BM1 batteri monitor, se lanklistan for batteri monitor har nedan.
Men bor man sa man aven kan behova det som reservkraft hemma vid stromavbrott kan det vara motiverat, eller om man fricampar som barnfamilj sa kan det vara svart att klara sig pa bara solceller om barnen ska kunna spela datorspel, anvanda dator och titta pa TV och DVD-filmer etc.
De moderna inverterelverken med varvtalsstyrning efter effektbehov verkar da vara den overlagsna tekniken pa marknaden idag. Nu ar inte jag sa kunnig pa (eller intresserad av) elverk, sa finns sakert andra bra fabrikat pa marknaden ocksa av olika reservelverk! De billiga elverken baserade pa tvataktsmotor med oljeosande avgaser, hog bullerniva, hog bransleforbrukning och ofta dalig stromkvalitet borde inte fa saljas i var miljomedvetna tid, annser jag. Energimyndigheten - Checklista med funktionskrav pa generatoraggregat (pdf) - teknisk info. En branslecell omvandlar direkt den kemiska energin i ett bransle (vatgas-innehallet) till elektrisk energi. Dagens (2008) sma mobila 12V bransleceller anvander metanol som bransle, vilket ar bade brandfarligt och giftigt och darfor levereras i speciella kasseter till t.ex. En annan stor fordel med sma bransleceller for mobilt bruk ar den mycket laga ljudnivan (nast intill ljudlosa) och att de bara slapper ut vattenanga och koldioxid som sina "avgaser"! Ar 2009 kom en ny typ av branslecell ut pa marknaden, vilken anvander sig av det ogiftiga och obrannbara branslet Hydronit (NaBH4), en vatten-salt-losning. Blogg - Nyheter Bransleceller & Vatgas - Bloggar om Branslecellsutvecklingen jorden runt (Svensk). Dvs: Redan dagens (2008) branslecellsteknik ar billigare an ett Honda elverk, over dess livslangd! Simulering av metanolvandring i en direkt metanol branslecell - Artikel i tidningen Energi&Miljo. Blybatterier ar i dagslaget enda mojligheten for lagring av strom vid mobil 12V elforsorjning! Fritidsbatterier ar konstruerade for lagre stromuttag under lang tid och tal djupare urladdning an startbatterier.
Startbatteri ar tillverkade for stort stromuttag under kort tid och tal djupurladdning samre. Fritidsbatteri ger langre livslangd, battre stromforsorjning och bast ekonomi for mobilt boende och AGM-batterier ger bast ekonomi for off-grid fritidshus samt normalt lang problemfri drift.
I framtiden kan vi troligen rakna med Litiumjon-batterier (Li-ion), vilka skulle vara mycket effektivare och battre, bl.a.
Grunden for att fa lang livslangd ar att anvanda en valutvecklad modern elektronisk batteriladdare, som styr laddningen efter batteriets olika laddfaser (4-6 faser).
Under langvarig Storage-laddfas gor man en gang i veckan en Battery-Refresh da laddspanningen far stiga till Absorptionsspanningen en kort stund for att garantera full laddning.
With operational ranges of 20-30 miles, electric bicycles (eBikes) are a fun, inexpensive alternative to fossil-fueled vehicles for many urban and suburban applications.
Most of the challenges involved with measuring a battery’s state of charge (SOC) lie in the complex processes that enable a two-way exchange between chemical and electrical energy.
The most obvious downside to using only a lookup-based OCV methodology is that it cannot tell you how much energy is actually available from the battery. Devices such as Maxim’s DS2788 stand-alone fuel gauge use these basic techniques to estimate available capacity for rechargeable lithium-ion (Li+) and Li+ polymer batteries.
While some devices can use these relatively simple techniques to deliver battery capacity estimates with accuracies approaching 90 percent, this may not be sufficient for drivers who want to squeeze the last possible mile out of their vehicles’ batteries.
Texas Instruments has developed its own enhanced battery modeling technique called Impedance Track, which supplements coulomb counting with measurement techniques that determine the actual physical condition of the battery. The Impedance Track methodology is used by most of Texas Instruments’ recently-released battery fuel gauges, including its bq20Z70 battery gas gauges (Figure 4).
Estimating how much battery energy is left is a key factor in determining the range of an e-Bike. Since the primary function of a battery is to store electrical energy rather than electrical charge, the energy storage of a battery is also an essential parameter. The battery voltage described by the Nernst Equation and battery capacity assumes that the battery is in equilibrium.
The polarization is comprised of three basic mechanisms, relating to resistive drops in the battery, and to two effects relating to the rates at which a reaction can proceed.
The equilibrium electrochemical potentials only take into account the initial and final potentials of the materials in the reaction, without considering the rates or kinetics of the reactions themselves.
A single chemical reaction is typically composed of multiple steps, and each of these steps has a particular rate. In addition to the transport of the reactant species to the site of the reaction, a second possible rate limiting step for the reaction is the rate at which the chemical reaction proceeds due to the kinetics of the chemical reaction. Another way to decrease the activation energy may be reduced for some reactions by the use of a catalyst. The mass transport overvoltage has a significant impact on batteries, particularly at high rates of charge and discharge. During charging, a similar process occurs, except that charging increases the concentration surrounding the electrode.
The kinetic or activation overvoltage of the reduction and oxidation reactions of the battery should be as small as possible, since during charging the voltage required will greater than the equilibrium voltage by activation energy.
If there are secondary or side reactions in the battery, then the kinetic overpotential has different effects between charging and discharging. Consequently, if a voltage of more than 1.23V is applied to a battery which has water as a component of the electrolyte, then the electrolysis of water occurs, producing hydrogen and oxygen instead of the charging reaction for the battery. A final contribution to the overvoltage in a battery is the resistive drops that occur in a battery. In addition to the central reduction and oxidation reaction which comprise a battery, secondary or side reactions may occur.
The physical state of the electrodes plays an important part in the practical operation of a battery. During charging and discharging, several processes can occur that change the structure or shape of the electrode.
Other effects that relate to the physical changes experienced by the electrode or electrolyte are that the reactant products seldom have the identical density as the reactants, and hence the electrode undergoes physical changes in its size.
Finally, as the electrode material is re-formed during charging, the electrode may change its shape. The use of batteries in photovoltaic systems differs from the use of batteries in other common battery applications.
The voltage of a battery is a fundamental characteristic of a battery, which is determined by the chemical reactions in the battery, the concentrations of the battery components, and the polarization of the battery. Since the electric potential (voltage) from most chemical reactions is on the order of 2V while the voltage required by loads is typically larger, in most batteries, numerous individual battery cells are connected in series.
Due to the polarization effects, the battery voltage under current flow may differ substantially from the equilibrium or open circuit voltage.
Figure: Variation of voltage with state of charge for several different types of batteries. In many battery types, including lead acid batteries, the battery cannot be discharged below a certain level or permanent damage may be done to the battery. While the reduction of battery voltage with discharge is a negative aspect of batteries which reduces their efficiency, one practical aspect of such a reduction, if it is approximately linear, is that at a given temperature, the battery may be used to approximate the state of charge of the battery. Battery voltage will increase with the temperature of the system, and can be calculated by the Nernst Equation for the equilibrium battery votlage. The key function of a battery in a PV system is to provide power when other generating sourced are unavailable, and hence batteries in PV systems will experience continual charging and discharging cycles. Battery state of charge (BSOC or SOC) gives the ratio of the amount of energy presently stored in the battery to the nominal rated capacity. In many types of batteries, the full energy stored in the battery cannot be withdrawn (in other words, the battery cannot be fully discharged) without causing serious, and often irreparable damage to the battery.
Nearly all batteries, particularly for renewable energy applications, are rated in terms of their capacity. In addition to specifying the overall depth of discharge, a battery manufacturer will also typically specify a daily depth of discharge. A common way of specifying battery capacity is to provide the battery capacity as a function of the time in which it takes to fully discharge the battery (note that in practice the battery often cannot be fully discharged). Each battery type has a particular set of restraints and conditions related to its charging and discharging regime, and many types of batteries require specific charging regimes or charge controllers. The energy stored in a battery, called the battery capacity, is measured in either watt-hours (Wh), kilowatt-hours (kWh), or ampere-hours (Ahr). As with any other component in a PV system, efficiency is an important issue in component selection due to the relatively high cost of power generated by PV modules. The columbic efficiency of battery the ratio of the number of charges that enter the battery during charging compared to the number that can be extracted from the battery during discharging. The voltage efficiency is determined largely be the voltage difference between the charging voltage and voltage of the battery during discharging.
Energy density is a parameter used chiefly to compare one type of battery system to another.
The power density of a battery is related to its energy density, as well as the ability of the battery to discharge quickly.
The internal series resistance of a battery determines the maximum discharge current of the battery. Self-discharge refers to the fact that even in the absence of a connected load, the discharge reaction will proceed to a limited extent and the battery will therefore discharge itself over time.
The maximum amount of current a battery can provide for a short period of time is called the cranking current. The lifetime of a battery may be specified in several different way depending on the application and hence on which mechanism are most significant. Since batteries inherently involve chemical reactions that are reactive, the materials used in batteries are suseptible to alternate reactions that degrade battery performamce.
Battery life is defines either in years (if it remains fully charged or in # of cycles under a given set of conditions (including temperature and DOD).
The type of battery used will also have an important impact on the maintenance requirements of the battery. Most battery systems, including those used in renewable energy systems, contain corrosive or dangerous chemicals and the safety regulations for each type of battery should be carefully checked. As the above equations show, discharging a battery causes the formation of lead sulfate crystals at both the negative and positive terminals, as well as the release of electrons due to the change in valence charge of the lead. In between the fully discharged and charged states, a lead acid battery will experience a gradual reduction in the voltage.
Lead sulphate is an insulator, and therefore the way in which lead sulfate forms on the electrodes determined how easily the battery can be discharged. For most renewable energy systems, the most important battery characteristics are the battery lifetime, the depth of discharge and the maintenance requirements of the battery. The depth of discharge in conjunction with the battery capacity is a fundamental parameter in the design of a battery bank for a PV system, as the energy which can be extracted from the battery is found by multiplying the battery capacity by the depth of discharge. In addition to the depth of discharge and rated battery capacity, the instantaneous or available battery capacity is strongly affected by the discharge rate of the battery and the operating temperature of the battery. Over time, battery capacity degrades due to sulfation of the battery and shedding of active material.
The following graph shows the evolution of battery function as number of cycles and depth of discharge for a shallow-cycle lead acid battery. Figure: Relationship between battery capacity, depth of discharge and cycle life for a shallow-cycle battery. In addition to the DOD, the charging regime also plays an important part in determining battery lifetime. Figure: Relationship between battery capacity, temperature and lifetime for a deep-cycle battery. Constant current discharge curves for a 550 Ah lead acid battery at different discharge rates, with a limiting voltage of 1.85V per cell (Mack, 1979). The production and escape of hydrogen and oxygen gas from a battery causes water loss and water must be regularly replaced in lead acid batteries. Lead acid batteries typically have coulombic efficiencies of 85% and energy efficiencies in the order of 70%. Depending on which one of the above problems is of most concern for a particular application, appropriate modifications to the basic battery configuration improve battery performance. Boost or equalization charging involves short periodic overcharging, which releases gas and mixes the electrolyte, thus preventing stratification of the electrolyte in the battery.


A flooded battery is subject to water loss from the electrolyte due to the evolution of hydrogen and oxygen gas. However, these batteries typically require a more precise and lower voltage charging regime. The battery for a PV system will be rated as a certain number of cycles at a particular DOD, charging regime and temperature.
The gradual decline in capacity may be worsened by inappropriate operation, particularly by degrading the DOD. Battery installation should be conducted in accordance with the relevant standard in the country in which they are being installed. Among other factors to be considered in the installation of a battery system are the ventilation required for a particular type of battery bank, the grounding conditions on which the battery bank is to be placed, and provisions taken to insure the safety of those who may have access to the battery bank. Batteries are potentially dangerous and users should be aware of three main hazards: The sulfuric acid in the electrolyte is corrosive.
The lead in a lead acid battery presents an environmental hazard if it is not properly disposed of. The materials from which the electrodes are made have a major affect on the battery chemistry, and hence affect the battery voltage and its charging and discharging characteristics. The basic anode and cathode materials in a lead acid battery are lead and lead dixodie (PbO2). Adding antimony as well as calcium to the electrodes provides some of the advantages of both antimony and lead, but at an increased cost.
In addition to the material used to make the electrode plates, the physical configuration of the electrodes also has an impact on the charging and discharging rates and on the lifetime. In an open, flooded battery, any gas which is generated can escape to the atmosphere, causing both safety and maintenance problems. Valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries are similar in concept to sealed lead acid (SLA) batteries except that the valves are expected to release some hydrogen near full charge.
Despite the range in battery types and applications, the characteristics particularly important in PV applications are the maintenance requirements of the battery and the ability to deep charge a battery while maintaining a long lifetime. The stringent requirements for batteries used in photovoltaic systems have prompted several manufacturers to make batteries specifically designed for PV or other remote power systems.
Several other types of specific purpose batteries are available and these are described below. Starting, lighting ignition batteries (SLI).These batteries are used in automotive applications and have high discharge and charge rates. A lead acid battery consists of electrodes of lead oxide and lead are immersed in a solution of weak sulfuric acid. An ideal set of chemical reactions for a battery would be one in which there is a large chemical potential which releases a large number of electrons, has a low overvotlage, spontaneously proceeds in only one direction and is the only chemical reaction which can occur. While undergoing chemical reactions, many materials undergo a change either in phase, or if they stay in the same phase, the volume, density of the material may be altered by the chemical reaction.
Changes in the volume of the electrolyte can be used to improve the robustness of a battery. I husbil klarar man sig troligen bra med direkt laddning fran generatorn via ett skiljerela.
Det gor att man inte nar upp till 14,4V laddspanning vid husvagnsbatteriet och darmed far dalig laddning. Hos 24volt.eu finns en Kabelarea- och spanningsfallskalkylator - bara att mata in siffrorna.
Dock ar det hela tiden en liten osakerhet om vilket spanningsfall man far i slapvagnskontakten.
Aven for att det inte ar riktigt bra att ha tva olika blybatterier sammankopplad nar de inte laddas, da de kan vara av olika typ, olika alder samt ha olika kapacitet. VSR-relaet ser till att startbatteriet forst laddas till ca 90% innan bodelsbatteriet kopplas in och far laddning. Kristallin kisel solpanel - kannetecknas av dess uppbyggnad av (oftast) 36st separata kiselplattor. Har visas att en CIS solpanel tappar ca 6% effekt vid partiell (delvis) skuggning av ett stort lonnlov pa panelen medan en motsvarande kristallin kisel solpanel tappar mellan 46 - 65% vid samma skuggning! Ar solpanelen riktad vinkelratt mot solen motsvarar det 100% av dess yta, lyser solen langs med panelen (som nar solen star lagt vid horisonten) sa blir det 0% solpanelsyta sett vinkelratt mot solen som ger strom fran den direkta solstralningen.
I mitt tycke ar det dock lite lagt samt kalkylatorn ger aven lite lagt rekommenderad batterikapacitet enligt mina erfarenheter.
Notera att dessa ar genomsnittliga varden baserade pa vaderstatistik under 30 ar (1961-1991). Steca har utforlig teknisk information (Technical Manual) och data om sina solladdregulatorer, ratt laddspanningar vid flerstegs laddning samt bra skyddsfunktioner och djupurladdningsskydd!
Steca SOLARIX MPPT 2010 har en jattebra MPPT-funktion som ger mellan +15% till +30% extra med strom, ibland anda upp till +40% extra, vanligast runt +20% till +25% extra i min husvagn!
Jag hade tidigare en Solara SR170CX (10A) mellan 2007 och 2012 och den skotte laddningen mycket bra! Det visade svart idag nar jag bytte regulator, trots att batterierna enligt min batterimonitor ar fulladdade sedan nagon vecka.
Att fritidsbatteriets magiska oga redan visade gront = OK beror sannolikt pa att den lag valdigt nara det tillstandet, men anda en snabb forandring med tanke pa att bara 2Ah laddats in i de 2x75Ah blybatterierna.
Blev samma urladdningspanning som under lite langre sommarfricampingtur dar batterierna blir anvant aktivt da kylskapet laddar ur 10-15Ah varje natt, vilket i stort aterladdas varje dag pa sommaren! Bytte batteriet efter att jag fatt det gamla belastningstestat hos batteriverkstad och utdomt som helt slut, men nu vet jag att sadana belastningstester ar inte relevanta for de laga stromfobrukningar man har i en husvagn ur batterierna dar. Men da hade ju inte heller den MPPT-regulatorn korrekt temperaturkompensering av laddspanningen, sa ar lite osakert att dra nagon helt saker slutsats. De ovan tipsade Steca och Solara solladdregulatorerna maste valjas utifran bade max strom fran solpanelen och max strom ut till forbrukarna i husvagnen! De jag tipsar om har ar utifran egna erfarenheter (Solara SR170CX) respektive last dataspecifikation (Steca), teoretiskt utvarderad mot min kunskap som jag aven redovisar pa den har webbsidan.
Branslecellen behover darmed inte ga omvagen via forbranning i en motor och far pa sa satt mycket hogre verkningsgrad an t.ex. Men blir anda mycket strom ur branslet med branslecell da dels branslecellen har hog verkningsgrad i sig sjalv, dels da branslecellen bara forbrukar bransle nar el forbrukas.
Den langlivade robusta konstruktionen gor dem bade tyngre och dyrare, och just tyngden gor att de ofta inte passar for mobila tillampningar som typ husvagn.
However, since the load, battery condition, and terrain all dramatically affect an eBike’s range, it can be difficult to estimate whether you will make it home without having to pedal your grocery-laden vehicle up that last hill.
Among the phenomena common to all these processes is that a battery cell’s open-circuit voltage (OCV) drops as it discharges, a behavior that can be used to infer its state of charge. The simplest solution for these applications is interpreting the voltage readings against a hardware or software lookup table that contains a set of chemistry-specific battery profiles which correlate a cell’s DoD with output voltage. This is because a battery’s charge capacity decreases as a function of age and the number of discharge cycles it experiences. The cell-specific characteristics and application parameters are stored in the DS2788’s on-chip EEPROM and used to calculate conservative estimate of the amount of useable charge, given the present temperature, discharge rate, stored charge, and application parameters.
In addition, it can be highly desirable to have a battery fuel gauge that can give accurate predictions of run time at a particular discharge rate, which then can be used to produce reliable estimates of how far the vehicle’s remaining charge will carry it. The self-learning mechanism produces a more accurate model of the battery by monitoring the increases in impedance a lithium battery experiences as it ages. It monitors capacity change, battery impedance, open-circuit voltage, and other critical parameters of the battery pack, and reports the information to the system host controller over a serial-communication bus. Since a battery under load is not in equilibrium, the measured voltage and battery capacity may differ significantly from the equilibrium values, and the further from equilibrium (ie the high the charge or discharge currents), the larger the deviation between the battery voltage and capacity equilibrium and the realistic battery voltage may be. These two effects are due to kinetic effects caused by the inherent rates of the chemical reaction (called kinetic overvoltage or activation overvoltage), and by the effects related to the movement of reactants to the electrode (called mass transport overvoltage). The chemical reaction rates play an important role in determining the operation of a battery and in the processes that control battery behavior.
In many chemical reactions, the reacting species form short-lived intermediate products, and then these intermediate products react to form the final products. In some chemical reactions, the reactant atoms must interact or collide in a particular way, such that a new material forms.
As the battery discharges, it depletes the region around the electrode of some of the reactants. Consequently, a higher voltage is required to charge the battery than expected by equilibrium calculations. During discharging, the battery voltage is lower, and therefore there is less possibility that the voltage is sufficient to overcome the activation energy of secondary battery reactions. Since most batteries operate at about 2V, this would then make water-based electrolytes unsuitable for batteries. If the mechanical stresses are too large, the electrode material may flake off, hence permanently reducing capacity.
In lead acid batteries, this is circumvented by the fact that the solubility of the lead ion Pb2+ is very low, and hence Pb2+ is rapidly converted to Pb in the close physical proximity to where it was dissolved, thus preventing significant changes of shape of the electrode.
For photovoltaic systems, the key technical considerations are that the battery experience a long lifetime under nearly full discharge conditions. The voltage calculated from equilibrium conditions is typically known as the nominal battery voltage. A key characteristic of a battery technology is how the battery voltage changes due under discharge conditions, both due to equilibrium concentration effects and due polarization. In systems where the battery voltage is not linear over some range of state of charge of the battery or in which there are rapid variations in the voltage with the BSOC will be more difficult to determine the BSOC and therefore will be more difficult to charge. The BSOC is defined as the fraction of the total energy or battery capacity that has been used over the total available from the battery. For example, for a battery at 80% SOC and with a 500 Ah capacity, the energy stored in the battery is 400 Ah. The Depth of Discharge (DOD) of a battery determines the fraction of power that can be withdrawn from the battery.
However, the actual energy that can be extracted from the battery is often (particularly for lead acid batteries) significantly less than the rated capacity.
The daily depth of discharge determined the maximum amount of energy that can be extracted from the battery in a 24 hour period.
The notation to specify battery capacity in this way is written as Cx, where x is the time in hours that it takes to discharge the battery. For example, nickel cadmium batteries should be nearly completely discharged before charging, while lead acid batteries should never be fully discharged. The battery capacity represents the maximum amount of energy that can be extracted from the battery under certain specified conditions. The most common measure of battery capacity is Ah, defined as the number of hours for which a battery can provide a current equal to the discharge rate at the nominal voltage of the battery. At higher temperatures, the battery capacity is typically higher than at lower temperatures.
The overall battery efficiency is specified by two efficiencies: the columbic efficiency and the voltage efficiency. The losses that reduce columbic efficiency are primarily due to the loss in charge due to secondary reaction, such as the electrolysis of water or other redox reactions in the battery.
While the power density is important in some applications, particularly transport, it is typically not critical in photovoltaic systems. Consequently, for applications in which the batteries are required to provide high instantaneous power, the internal series resistance should be low. This parameter is often specified for transport applications, in which the battery must provide enough current to start a large engine. Some types of battery reactions evolve gasses and other products which change the volume of the components in the battery. Depending on which application the battery is used for, some parameters are more important than others. Although lead acid batteries have a low energy density, only moderate efficiency and high maintenance requirements, they also have a long lifetime and low costs compared to other battery types. The formation of this lead sulfate uses sulfate from the sulfuric acid electrolyte surrounding the battery. This set of parameters and their inter-relationship with charging regimes, temperature and age are described below. A deep-cycle lead acid battery should be able to maintain a cycle life of more than 1,000 even at DOD over 50%.
Overcharging or undercharging the battery results in either the shedding of active material or the sulfation of the battery, thus greatly reducing battery life. Although the capacity of a lead acid battery is reduced at low temperature operation, high temperature operation increases the aging rate of the battery. Other components of a battery system do not require maintenance as regularly, so water loss can be a significant problem.
For renewable energy applications, the above problems will impact the depth of discharge, the battery lifetime and the maintenance requirements. The specific gravity of the electrolyte, which can be measured with a hydrometer, will indicate the need to add water to the batteries if the batteries are fully charged.
The lower voltage charging regime is due to the use of lead-calcium electrodes to minimise gassing, but a more precise charging regime is required to minimise gassing from the battery.
However, batteries may experience either a premature loss in capacity or a sudden failure for a variety of reasons. However, the operation of one part of the battery bank under different conditions to another will also lead to a reduction in overall capacity and an increase in the likelihood of battery failure.
In addition, when installing the battery bank care must be taken to ensure that the battery temperature will fall within the allowable operating conditions of the battery and that the temperature of the batteries in a larger battery bank are at the same temperatures. Protective clothing in addition to foot and eye protection are essential when working with batteries. If a metal object is accidentally placed across the terminals of a battery, high currents can flow through this object. During charging, particularly overcharging, some batteries, including most batteries used in PV systems, may evolve a potentially explosive mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gas. For flooded batteries, the level of electrolyte and the specific gravity of the electrolyte for each battery needs to be checked regularly. Lead acid batteries should be recycled so that the lead can be recovered without causing environmental damage. The geometry of the electrode determines the internal series resistance and the charging and discharging rate. Like antimony, calcium also adds strength to the lead of the negative electrode, but unlike antimony, the addition of calcium reduces the gassing of the battery and also produces a lower self-discharge rate. Thin plates will allow faster charging and discharging, but are less robust and more prone to shedding of material from the plates.
A sealed lead acid (SLA), valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA) or recombining lead acid battery prevent the loss of water from the electrolyte by preventing or minimizing the escape of hydrogen gas from the battery.
SLA or VRLA batteries typically have additional design features such as the use of gelled electrolytes and the use of lead calcium plates to keep the evolution of hydrogen gas to a minimum. To promote long cycle life with deep discharge, deep cycle batteries may be either of the open-flooded type with an excess of electrolytic solution and thick plates, or of the immobilized electrolytic type. The batteries most commonly used in stand-alone photovoltaic systems are either deep-cycle lead acid types, or shallower cycle maintenance-free batteries. Most often they use electrode plates strengthened with either lead antimony in a flooded configuration, or lead calcium in a sealed configuration. Traction or motive batteries are used to provide electric power for small transport vehicles such as golf carts. These batteries are typically a compromise between SLI batteries, traction batteries and true deep-cycle batteries. Stationary batteries are often used for emergency power or uninterruptable power supply applications. Deep-cycle batteries should be able to maintain a cycle life of several thousand cycles under high DOD (80% or more).
The lead at the negative electrode is soft and easily damaged, particularly in applications in which the battery may experience continuous or vigorous movement.
At low states of charge, large lead sulfate crystals may grow on the lead electrode as opposed to the finely grained material which is normally produced on the electrodes. If the battery is at a low discharge level following the conversion of the whole electrolyte to water, then the freezing point of the electrolyte also drops.
In order for the reverse reaction to proceed, the reactants must gain enough energy to overcome the electrochemical difference between the reactants and the products and also the overvotlage. However, in practice there are several effects that degrade battery performance, due to unwanted chemical reactions, to effects such as the change in phase of volume of the reactants or products and also to the physical movement of reactants and products within the battery.
Finally, the materials used in the battery, primarily the anode and cathode, may change their crystallinity or surface structure, which will in turn affect the reactions in the battery.
Several modifications to the electrolyte are used to improve battery performance in one of several areas. Increasing the volume of an electrolyte makes the battery less sensitive to water losses, and hence makes regular maintenance less critical. Manga ganger ar ett skiljerela inbyggt i boostern, for att skydda bilens startbatteri fran urladdning. Den bor darfor kombineras med en skonsam och vardande laddning fran en modern batteriladdare, tycker jag. Under laddning bor detta inte spela nagon direkt roll, da generatorns laddning i bilen inte har nagra installningar for olika batterityper. VSR-relaet ser aven till att ingen startstrom forbrukas fran bodelsbatteriet under motorstart.
Men kan aven vara uppbyggd av mindre tunnfilmsmoduler ihopkopllad, sa svart att sakert avgora.
Det har gjort att tunnfilmssolceller har haft svart att hanga med i prisutvecklingen och fatt en sjunkande marknadsandel.
Och all solriktning daremellan ger okande stromgenerering ju narmre solen lyser vinkelratt mot solpanelens yta.
Statistiken ar fran matningar i Jonkoping men galler hyfsad bra for sodra och mellersta Sverige. Hade ratt temperaturkompensering, de fyra viktiga laddfaserna Bulk-Absorption-Float samt Equalization och hanterade dessa laddfaser valdigt bra och effektivt!
Jag tyckte dock Steca verkar an battre och bytte varen 2012 till en Steca Solarix 2010 MPPT-regulator! Detta da all forbrukningsstrom till husvagnen ocksa gar genom regulatorn och dar blir elektroniskt avsakrad.
Dock tal AGM-batterier djupare urladdning an Fritidsbatterier, sa man kan spara in lite pa deras vikt genom att valja en lagre kapacitet for ett AGM-batteri. Storage-laddfasen med sin sankta laddspanning minskar korrosionen vid langvarigt inaktivt batteri for lang livslangd. Some battery chemistries, such as the lead-acid (PbA) gel cells used in most early eBikes, have a relatively linear voltage profile and a large voltage difference between their charged and discharged states (Figure 1). The relatively flat discharge curves of most modern battery chemistries require accurate, high-resolution (12 bits or more) voltage measurements to provide useful SOC data within their 20 percent and 80 percent charge region.
Without some sort of compensation, there will be a big difference between the distance delivered by a new battery and a year-old unit when they both show a 75 percent charge reading. The gauge’s capacity estimates can be displayed on a 5-segment LED, or made available to a host processor via a series of registers that report the remaining charge in terms of mAh remaining and percentage maximum capacity (Figure 3). Unlike traditional fuel gauges, the ModelGauge algorithm eliminates the need for battery relearn cycles and an external current-sense resistor.
Impedance Track does this by taking a series of voltage and current readings, when the battery is at rest and under load, and using them to calculate changes in the battery’s impedance and its total chemical capacity (Qmax).
The difference between the voltage under equilibrium and that with a current flow is termed polarization. The overvoltage causes a deviation of the voltage and capacity from the equilibrium values calculated earlier.
For example, if multiple reactions can occur, then a reaction with a reaction rate significantly lower than all other reaction rates will not proceed to a significant extend and may potentially be ignored. First, in order for the reaction to proceed, all the reactants must be physically present in one location, which for a battery is the electrode. If the rate of formation of the intermediate species is slower than the remaining steps, then these intermediate steps control the reaction rate. For example, the interaction may require that the reactants a physically oriented in a particular way, as shown in the figure below. The concentration gradient between the region surrounding the electrode and further away in the electrolyte causes reactants to diffuse towards the electrode.
The mass transport overvoltage has a significant effect on the battery parameters relevant to a photovoltaic system. During charging, the battery voltage is higher, and hence there is the possibility that additional reactions can occur. However, the overvoltage of the redox reactions in the electrolysis of water are high enough such that during discharging, gas evolution from the electrolysis of water (or either one of the half reaction involved in the electrolysis of water) is not a dominant consideration. Part of the overall resistance is due to resistance of the components in the path of the electron flow, including the electrode and the connections between the two electrodes.
This lowers the series resistance, increases the area over which the chemical reaction can take place (hence also reducing the mass transport overvotlage). The changes to the electrode, both physical changes as the original electrode material is re-formed and chemical changes of the materials on the electrodes give rise to numerous non-idealities.
The relative physical changes in size may be exacerbated at high or low temperatures, as density differences may increase as the temperate changes.
Alternately, either the products during discharging or the original battery material during charging may form so as isolate regions from charging or discharging, thus permanently reducing battery capacity. Common rechargeable battery applications do not experience both deep cycling and being left at low states of charge for extended periods of time. In practice the nominal battery voltage cannot be readily measured, but for practical battery systems (in which the overvoltages and non-ideal effects are low) the open circuit voltage is a good approximation to the nominal battery voltage. Battery discharge and charging curves are shown below for several different battery systems.
However, a battery system that maintains a more constant voltage with discharge rate will have a high voltage efficiency and will be more easily used to drive voltage sensitive loads. A common way to measure the BSOC is to measure the voltage of the battery and compare this to the voltage of a fully charged battery.
For example, if the DOD of a battery is given by the manufacturer as 25%, then only 25% of the battery capacity can be used by the load.
This occurs since, particularly for lead acid batteries, extracting the full battery capacity from the battery dramatically reduced battery lifetime.
Typically in a larger scale PV system (such as that for a remote house), the battery bank is inherently sized such that the daily depth of discharge is not an additional constraint.


C10 = Z (also written as C10 = xxx) means that the battery capacity is Z when the battery is discharged in 10 hours. Furthermore, the voltage and current during the charge cycle will be different for each type of battery. The unit of Ah is commonly used when working with battery systems as the battery voltage will vary throughout the charging or discharging cycle. This is due to the fact the necessary components for the reaction to occur do not necessarily have enough time to either move to their necessary positions. However, intentionally elevating battery temperature is not an effective method to increase battery capacity as this also decreases battery lifetime.
Other factors being equal, a battery in which the voltage varies linearly with BSOC will have a lower efficiency than one in which the voltage is essentially constant with BSOC.
A battery with a higher energy density will be lighter than a similar capacity battery with a lower energy density. In addition, the series resistance will effect the battery's efficiency but may change as the battery ages.
In cases in which the volume of a battery changes, it is more difficult to seal the battery, and the battery will need to have certain chemical components (usually simply water) added to compensate for the evolution of gasses. The following is a list of parameters that may be specified by a manufacturer for a given type of battery.
One of the singular advantages of lead acid batteries is that they are the most commonly used form of battery for most rechargeable battery applications (for example, in starting car engines), and therefore have a well-established established, mature technology base. A deep-cycle battery will have depth of discharge greater than 50%, and may go as high as 80%. However, high temperatures are not ideal for batteries either as these accelerate aging, self-discharge and electrolyte usage. For example, if one battery develops a higher internal series resistance than other batteries, then the lower SR battery will consistently be undercharged during a normal charging regime due to the voltage drop across the series resistance. Alternately, a hydrometer will accurately indicate the SOC of the battery if it is known that the water level is correct. In addition, these batteries may be more sensitive to temperature variations, particularly if the charging regime does not compensate for temperature or is not designed for these types of batteries. Sudden failure may be caused by the battery internally short-circuiting due to the failure of the electrical separator within the battery. Batteries may be unintentionally operated under different regimes due either to temperature variations or to the failure of a battery in one battery string leading to unequal charging and discharging in the string. There is also a draft standard for batteries for RAPS applications which will eventually become an Australian standard.
Batteries in very cold conditions are subject to freezing at low states of charge, so that the battery will be more likely to be in a low state of charge in winter.
To reduce the risk of explosion, ventilation is used to prevent the buildup of these gasses and potential ignition sources (i.e.
Checking the specific gravity of a battery by using a hydrometer should be carried out at least 15 minutes after an equalisation or boost charge. Sponge lead is desirable as it is very porous, and therefore the surface area between the lead and the sulfic acid electrolyte is very large.
Furthermore, trace amounts of other materials can be added to the electrodes to increase battery performance. As high charging or discharging currents are not typically a required feature of batteries for renewable energy systems, thicker plates can be used, which have lower charge and discharge times, but also have longer lifetimes.
In a sealed lead acid (SLA) battery, the hydrogen does not escape into the atmosphere but rather moves or migrates to the other electrode where it recombines (possibly assisted by a catalytic conversion process) to form water. Sealed gelled batteries may be rated as deep cycle batteries, but they will usually withstand fewer cycles and lower discharges than the specially designed flooded plate or AGM batteries. Deep-cycle batteries may be open flooded batteries (which are not maintenance-free) or captive electrolyte AGM batteries which are maintenance-free (but which do require care in regulator selection). These batteries have a good life under shallow-cycle conditions, but have very poor lifetime under deep cycling.
Compared to SLI batteries, they are designed to have a greater ability to be deep-cycled while still maintaining a long lifetime. Although they are not recommended, both motive and marine batteries are used in some small PV systems.
They are shallow-cycle batteries intended to remain close to fully charged for the majority of their lifetime with only occasional deep discharges.
Wide differences in cycle performance may be experienced with two types of deep cycle batteries and therefore the cycle life and DOD of various deep-cycle batteries should be compared.
The water loss increases the maintenance requirements of the battery since the water must periodically be checked and replaced.
As the battery discharges, the concentration of the sulfuric acid in the elecotrolyte is reduced, while during charging the sulfiric acid concentratin increases. Gelling or immobilizing the liquid sulfuric acid reduces the possibility of sulfuric acid spills. One process that can cause a permanent loss of capacity is the flaking off of the active material due to volumetric changes between xxx and lead sulphate. Usually in battery systems the probability of the reverse reaction occurring is small, since there are few molecules with a large enough energy. Many components in redox reactions undergo a change in phase during either oxidation or reduction. Adding to the volume of the battery will also increase its weigth and reduce the energy density of the battery.
Alternativt med en solpanel med solladdregulator som laddar skonsamt och vardande, som t.ex. VSR-skiljerelat ser naturligtvis aven till sa att startbatteriet inte laddas ur av stromforbrukning fran bodelsbatteriet. I den nordligaste delen av landet genererar solpanelen mer elektricitet under det ljusa halvaret och mindre under det morka halvaret.
Och under aktiv sommarcamping har den en jatteeffektiv hantering i att vaxla mellan laddfaserna Bulk-Absorption-Float for att halla batteriet fulladdat med kortast mojlig tid i Absorption-laddfasen (for skonsam laddning)!
Men ar en regulator med PWM-laddteknik och ger darmed inte den extra laddstrom som en MPPT-laddteknik ger. Dock har Steca en float-voltage pa 13,9V, vilket ar lite hogt, samt de har inte definierat hur de temperaturkompenserar laddspanningarna! Dessa regulatorer overvakar bade solladdstrom och forbrukningsstrom for att pa allra basta satt ladda batteriet effektivt och skonsamt pa lang sikt, samt for att kunna skydda batteriet.
In this case, a simple mechanical voltmeter can give the rider a useable, if imprecise, sense of the percentage of charge remaining. Since the OCV curves tend to shift as a function of temperature, even a simple lookup-based fuel gauge also needs to also factor the battery’s thermal status into its capacity calculations. Temperature compensation is possible in the application with minimal interaction between a µC and the device. It also accounts for the fact that battery impedance also varies significantly between cells and at different usage conditions, such as temperature and state-of-charge.
Polarization effects have a significant impact on battery operation, both beneficial and detrimental. As shown below, during discharging, the battery voltage is lower than that in equilibrium, while during charging, a higher voltage than the Nernst voltage is required. The processes which involve the transport of the reactants in their appropriate form to the site of the chemical reaction are called mass transport or concentration overpotential. Further, the energy required to form these intermediate products may be higher than the average energy of the reactants. For such reactions, the addition of other chemical species that tend to orient the molecules in a specific oreintation increase the probability of the reaction proceeding. However, if the discharge rate of the battery causes the reactants to be used at a greater rate than they can diffuse towards electrode, then the concentration near the electrode will continue to drop as the battery discharges. The lower voltages during discharge and higher voltages during charging reduce the battery efficiency.
However, during charging, the higher voltage experienced by the battery causes first the hydrogen and then the oxygen half reactions to proceed.
If the secondary reaction occurs during discharging, some of the charge (current that would normally flow to the load is used by the secondary reaction). In addition, a large surface area helps ensure that the reactants are not completely covered by the products of the chemical reaction. A key non-ideality is that the material may change its morphology, potentially during deposition of the reaction products on the electrode, but more commonly when the electrode material remains unchanged for long periods of time. For example, in batteries for starting cars or other engines, the battery experiences a large, short current drain, but is at full charge for most of its life. The discharge and charge curves are not necessarily symmetric due to the presence of additional reactions that may be present at the higher voltages encountered in charging.
However, as the battery voltage depends on temperature as well the state of charge of the battery, this measurement provides only a rough idea of battery state of charge. The depth of discharge (DOD) is the fraction of battery capacity that can be used from the battery and will be specified by the manufacturer.
However, in smaller systems that have relatively few days storage, the daily depth of discharge may need to be calculated. When the discharging rate is halved (and the time it takes to discharge the battery is doubled to 20 hours), the battery capacity rises to Y.
Typically, a battery charger or charge controller designed for one type of battery cannot be used with another type. The Wh capcity can be approximated from the Ahr capacity by multiplying the AH capcity by the nominal (or, if known, time average) battery voltage.
The only a fraction of the total reactants are converted to other forms, and therefore the energy available is reduced.
In portable systems, the energy density is a critical parameter but in conventional PV systems which provide power for a stationary object, the energy density may be less important. A hermetically sealed battery does not exchange any materials with its surrounding environment. For example, in a typical battery for a general car, the energy density is not relevant - a battery is a small fraction of the total battery weight and consequently this parameter would typically not be listed for a conventional car battery. Full discharge would result in both electrodes being covered with lead sulfate and water rather than sulfuric acid surrounding the electrodes. If the battery is left at low states of charge for extended periods of time, large lead sulfate crystals can grow, which permanently reduces battery capacity. During the first part of the charging cycle, the conversion of lead sulfate to lead and lead oxide is the dominant reaction. To achieve the same useable capacity, a shallow-cycle battery bank must have a larger capacity than a deep-cycle battery bank. The graph below shows the impact of battery temperature and discharge rate on the capacity of the battery. Maintenance-free batteries limit the need for regular attention by preventing or reducing the amount of gas which escapes the battery. However, if the batteries are charged at a higher voltage, then this allows all batteries to become fully charged. SG is periodically measured after boost charging to insure that the battery has sufficient water in the electrolyte. A short circuit in the battery will reduce the voltage and capacity from the overall battery bank, particularly if sections of the battery are connected in parallel, and will also lead to other potential problems such as overcharging of the remaining batteries. The addition of small amoints of other elements to the lead electrode to form lead alloys can reduce several of the disadvantages associated with the lead. Rather than being completely sealed, these batteries include a pressure vent to prevent the build-up of excess pressure in the battery. Shallow-cycle batteries typically use thinner plates made from lead calcium alloys and do not typically have a depth of discharge above 25%.
Special shallow-cycle maintenance-free batteries that withstand infrequent discharging may also be used in PV applications, and provided that the battery bank is appropriately designed, never require a DOD of more than 25%. SLI batteries should not be used in a PV system since their characteristics are not optimized for use in a renewable energy system because lifetime in a PV system is so low. Although this feature makes them more suited to a PV system than one which uses SLI batteries, motive power batteries should not be used in any PV systems since their self discharge rate is very high due to the use of lead antimony electrodes.
The lifetime of such batteries will be restricted to a few years at best, so that the economics of battery replacement mean that such batteries are typically not a long-term cost effective option. They may be used in PV systems if the battery bank is sized so that it never falls below a DOD of between 10% and 25%. This cyclicing of sulfuric acid concentration may lead to stratification of the electrolyte, where the heavier sulfuric acid remains at the bottom of the battery, while the less concentrated solution, water, remains near the top.
For example, in the lead acid battery, sulfate ions changes from being in solid form (as lead sulfate) to being in solutions (as sulfuric acid). AGM-batterier som vill ha nagot hogre laddspanning - med ett sadant i husvagnen blir det bara lite langsammare laddning men bor inte skada batteriet. When processed to account for charging losses, discharge losses (due to the battery’s internal impedance), temperature, and other effects, this current data can be used in conjunction with the SOC lookup table to provide a reasonable estimate of the actual charge remaining in the battery.
For example, polarization effects mean that under normal operation of lead acid batteries the electrolysis of water proceeds slowly and to first order can be neglected during discharge (but not charging since the voltage is higher).
Polarization effects have significant impact on the battery efficiency and how the battery can be charged and discharged.
The steps in getting the reactants to the electrode are shown below: all the reactants must be present in their appropriate form (ie in solution or as a solid), those in solution must diffuse to the site of the reaction, the reactant species must absorb on the surface of the electrode (if the electrode is part of the chemical reaction), and finally the electron transfer must occur. As the reactants have a distribution of kinetic energy, and only those with higher energy can form the intermediate products. This drop in concentration is greater than that expected voltage drop if the reactants were uniformly distributed through the electrolyte and therefore, according to the Nernst equation, the battery voltage decreases more rapidly than that calculated by equilibrium. Further, mass transport effects alter the available battery capacity, as the battery capacity is reduced under high discharge rates. The hydrolysis of water consists of the redox reaction shown below, which has a electrochemical potential of 1.23 V. Similarly, during charging, the secondary reactions use charge intended to drive the main battery reactions, thus reducing the couloumbic efficiency.
A complete, uniform coverage of the electrode by the product reaction would prevent the redox reactions from proceeding, since the reactant species could not longer reach the electrode. For example, in lead-acid batteries, lead sulfate, which forms as the battery is discharged, may form large, relatively insoluble crystals over time. Similarly, batteries in uninterruptible power supplies are kept at full charge for most of their life. The discharge rate when discharging the battery in 10 hours is found by dividing the capacity by the time. A more accurate approach takes into account the variation of voltage by integrating the AH capacity x V(t) over the the time of the charging cycle.
Alternately, is the battery is discharged at a very slow rate using a low current, more energy can be extracted from the battery and the battery capacity is higher. Nevertheless, the costs of transporting batteries to remote locations are considerably high, so a high energy density battery is typically an advantage. Improper use of the battery can greatly accelerate battery aging and further decrease the number of cycles over which a battery can be used. Such a battery will have lower maintenance requirements than a battery in which the various battery elements interact with the surroundings.
However, in electric vehicle applications, the battery weight is a significant fraction of the overall weight of the vehicle and so the energy densities will be given.
In case the electrodes come into contact with each other through physical movement of the battery or through changes in thickness of the electrodes, an electrically insulating, but chemically permeable membrane separates the two electrodes.
At full discharge the two electrodes are the same material, and there is no chemical potential or voltage between the two electrodes. These larger crystals are unlike the typical porous structure of the lead electrode, and are difficult to convert back into lead.
However, due to the corrosive nature the elecrolyte, all batteries to some extent introduce an additional maintenance component into a PV system. The battery may also fail as an open circuit (that is, there may be a gradual increase in the internal series resistance), and any batteries connected in series with this battery will also be affected. Batteries regularly exposed to high operating temperatures may also suffer a reduced lifetime.
Sealed batteries require stringent charging controls to prevent the build-up of hydrogen faster than it can recombine, but they require less maintenance than open batteries. A long-life battery in an appropriately designed PV system with correct maintenance can last up to 15 years, but the use of batteries which are not designed for long service life, or conditions in a PV system, or are part of a poor system design can lead to a battery bank which fails after only a few years. A high self discharge rate will effectively cause high power losses from the battery and make the overall PV system inefficient unless the batteries experience large DOD on a daily basis. The close proximity of the electrode plates within the battery means that physical shaking does not mix the sulfuric acid and water.
Improper charging conditions and gassing can cause shedding of active material from the electrodes, leading to a permanent loss in capacity. In a charged battery, a process exists by which the battery can be discharged even in the absence of a load connected to the battery.
If the lead sulfate recrystallizes anywhere but the anode or cathode, then this material is lost to the battery system. However, polarization effects also have detrimental effects on performance, by, for example, reducing efficiency and making the battery capacity sensitive to charging and discharging conditions. Applied to a lead acid battery, this means that both the lead metal and the lead ion must be present. In this case, only a fraction of the initial reactants have sufficient energy to allow the reaction to proceed, thus limiting the reaction rate.
This effect makes reaction rates sensitive to the presence of small number of other species, which do not appear in the formula of the chemical reaction. The more rapidly a battery is discharged, the more rapid the fall in voltage compared to that from equilibrium. Because of these effects, mass transport has a significant impact on the optimal use of a battery, limiting both the charge and discharge currents. In many battery configurations, gassing leads to numerous undesirable side-effects, including water loss from the electrolyte and physical damage to the electrolyte. Other components of the resistive polarization include the resistance of the surface of the electrode.
The electrolysis of water described in the activation overpotential is an example of an unwanted secondary reaction. Moreover, even in the reaction products allow the reactant species through, the reaction products are often not conductive, and therefore electrons evolved or required by the redox reactions could not pass through the reaction productions.
These large crystals are difficult to convert back into lead or lead oxide, and hence they reduce battery capacity if the battery is left in its discharged state.
For batteries in consumer electronics, the weight or size is often the most important consideration.
For example, a 12 volt battery with a capacity of 500 Ah battery allows energy storage of approximately 100 Ah x 12 V = 1,200 Wh or 1.2 KWh. Nearly all small common primary batteries are hermetically sealed and require no maintenance, but many secondary batteries, particularly lead acid batteries, require a strict maintenance schedule.
If current is being provided to the battery faster than lead sulfate can be converted, then gassing begins before all the lead sulfate is converted, that is, before the battery is fully charged.
Freezing the battery, depending on the type of lead acid battery used, may also cause irreversible failure of the battery.
The ability of these batteries to withstand deep cycling is also far below that of a true deep-cycle battery. However, controlled gassing of the electrolyte encourages water and sulfuric acid to mix, but must be carefully controlled to avoid problems of safety and water loss. During charging, only materials connected to the anode and cathode can participate in electron exchange, and therefore if the material is not touching the anode or cathode, then it can no longer be recharged. This involve the dissolution of the metallic ion (if it is present in solid form, as in the lead acid case shown below), the transport of the reactants from the electrolyte to the electrode surface, and the adsorption of the necessary components on the electrode surface. The higher energy of the intermediate species gives rise to an activation energy, as shown in the figure below. For example, in a lead acid battery, as the discharge reaction proceeds, lead sulfate builds up on the surface of the electrode, which is non-conductive. Secondary reactions give rise to several unwanted effects, such a gassing, self-discharge and corrosion of the electrodes.
However, because of the large impact from charging rates or temperatures, for practical or accurate analysis, additional information about the variation of battery capacity is provided by battery manufacturers. A common way of specifying battery capacity is to provide the battery capacity as a function of the time in which it takes to fully disscharge the battery (note that in practice the battery often cannot be fully discharged).
These problems (xx- check if both problems are caused by plating)) are caused by the dissolution ofantimony from one electrode and its deposition or plating on the other electrode.
Self-discharge increases as temperature increases because a greater fraction of products will have enough energy for the reaction to proceed in the reverse direction.
In order for the reaction to proceed at a rapid rate, the reactants must be given energy greater than the activation energy. Since the some of the reactants are not used in the reaction before the voltage drops below the minimum voltage, then the available battery capacity is also reduced.
The resistive overpolarization has several practical impacts on battery performance and operation. Not only does the gassing of the battery raise safety concerns, due to the explosive nature of the hydrogen produced, but gassing also reduces the water in the battery, which must be manually replaced, introducing a maintenance component into the system. First of all, the gaseous phase will usually have a larger volume that the initial reactants, thus giving rise to a change in pressure in the battery.
As the kinetic energy of the reactants is determined by their temperature, increasing the temperature of the reactants is a simple (but for batteries often impractical or accompanied by numerous other negative aspects) way to increase the reaction rate and decrease the overpotential. Similar to the concentration polarization, it reduces the efficiency and places limits on how much the battery can be charged or discharged.
Such relatively complicated notations may result when higher or lower charging rates are used for short periods of time.
In addition, gassing may cause the shedding of active material from the electrolyte, thereby permanently reducing battery capacity. Secondly, if the intended products are in the gaseous change, they must be confined to the anode and cathode, or they will not be able to be charged. For these reasons, the battery should not regularly be charged above the voltage which causes gassing.



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