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22.12.2013
Stationary storage developers, hit by tumult in the grid storage market, will achieve supply-demand balance in the decade as they carve out an $896 million niche in 2020Boston, MA – October 22, 2013 – Led by Lithium-ion, emerging battery technologies used in the backup and UPS markets will grow six-fold from $143 million this year to $896 million in 2020, as storage developers shift focus in the face of tumult and uncertainty in the emerging grid storage market, according to Lux Research. Cyclocross started in Europe more than one hundred years ago when cyclist were looking for a way to stay fit in winter.
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Li-ion batteries will account for a bulk of this market, reaching $553 million in 2020, and additionally restoring demand-supply balance in the Li-ion market.
ACDelco, ACDelco Emblem and the ACDelco related graphics are General Motors Trademarks used under license to Mobiletron Electronics Co., Ltd. The medical, commercial and datacenter operators are the major users of the conventional backup and UPS markets, which have a global installation base of 800 GW, or 15% of global peak consumption.
This market growth carries an additional payoff in bringing the global demand for stationary Li-ion systems in line with forecasted supply, ending years of glut, he added.
Lux Research analysts studied the broader impact of the battery technologies on the global stationary storage market. As lithium-ion developers struggle to find large-volume customers, the UPS and backup markets offer a chance for modest, steady growth. If the energy can be restored, the battery is considered a secondary or rechargeable battery. The Li-ion developers, in return, offer a modest 4% to 11% reduction in total cost of ownership over competing lead acid. Nickelmetal- hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are common in portable applications. Compared to NiMH batteries, Li-ion batteries offer a higher nominal voltage per cell, lower self-discharge rate, and energy density in mass and volume that make them attractive for powering lightweight and space-sensitive applications (Table 1). The sodium nickel chloride battery, which offers significant cost benefits for high-use applications on account of its low capital cost and significant energy capacity, will grow to $116 million in the backup market in 2020.
On the other hand, power-dense technologies including flywheels and ultracapacitors will not find a home in UPS because of their low energy density and prohibitive cost. Of the 14 GWh of forecasted Li-ion production in 2017, only 5 GWh will target stationary applications, thanks to demand from the consumer and mobile sectors. This will help strike a delicate balance between global supply and demand, ending years of oversupply and eroding margins.


Single- and dual-cell applications comprise approximately 70% of the Li-ion battery market. The report, titled “Backup and UPS: Stable Growth in the Unstable Stationary Storage Markets,” is part of the Lux Research Grid Storage Intelligence service. Recent trends in space, cost, and weight reduction when designing small tools, digital camcorders, and similar devices are driving some dual-cell applications to become single-cell.
About Lux ResearchLux Research provides strategic advice and ongoing intelligence for emerging technologies. Leaders in business, finance and government rely on us to help them make informed strategic decisions.
Through our unique research approach focused on primary research and our extensive global network, we deliver insight, connections and competitive advantage to our clients. A nominal voltage of 5 V makes the USB protocol attractive for single Li-ion cell applications.
When a charge voltage of 4.2 V per cell is met, the charger maintains a constant voltage until the termination condition is satisfied.
The USB voltage range is well suited for simple step-down charger designs with a typical Li-ion voltage-regulation value of 4.2 V. Thus, the efficiency of an LDO-based Li-ion battery charger can be simplified to the ratio of VOUT to VIN: During a typical constant-current (CC) charging mode, the efficiency moves from 60% to 84%.
Thus, an LDO topology works well in single-cell Li-ion battery-charger designs when the input voltage is about 5 V. But, if a fast-charging current above 1 A is required, a switching topology should be considered.
Equation 4 presents a powerdissipation calculation that illustrates this: In this example, a battery-charging current of 2 A and a battery voltage of 3 V are selected to show the worst condition in CC mode.
When designing a system, the worst condition that’s based on a given tolerance should be considered. A junction temperature of 169°C is over the thermal-shutdown threshold of a typical die temperature. Well-designed Li-ion charging-management ICs should include thermal feedback that reduces the charge current when temperature begins to rise to threshold levels. With the maturation of semiconductor technology, most baseline linear battery chargers are fully integrated. Additional pins may be available for functions such as extra status indicators, power-good indicators, battery temperature monitoring, timer, and logic current control. Connecting devices and peripherals through USB ports to a computer has become the most popular method.


This method usually ends up below the absolute maximum current of a low-speed USB port, which is 100 mA.
Due to the resistor’s tolerance, charge current, and supply current, this charge current is typically under 90 mA. A high-speed USB port allows an absolute maximum current of 500 mA, but a port should always start at low speed until verification is complete.
Figure 2 shows an example that offers three different charge-current settings and can seamlessly switch between a wall wart (ac-dc adapter) and a USB port. Some designs require only one input-power rail, but a different input type can be set by communication between interfaces. Proper design methods should also limit the amount of input current drawn from the USB port for safety, as well as to meet USB specifications. In spaceconstrained applications, highly integrated power-rail controls advance a designer’s experience.
Each power rail must be well managed for seamless switching among the input power path, system load, and battery cell.
One advantage to using this design instead of a traditional method is that each power rail is managed and the battery is in support mode when the input voltage is insufficient to keep the output voltage steady.
Sometimes, additional features such as low-power indicators or controls, as well as power-source selection, offer functionality beyond just restoring energy back to batteries. Common functions include timers for each charging stage, input overvoltage protection, communication protocols, multiple channels of regulated outputs, and battery authentication.
The output-charge current terminates when the input voltage passes the protection threshold, and it resumes once the input voltage falls back to the designed range (Fig. Since December 2006, this technique has been recommended for mobile devices as a technical requirement and test method of charger interfaces for mobile telecommunication terminal equipment. Recall Equation 4: Assuming the charge current is 1 A, if the input and output voltages (battery voltage) increase, power dissipation grows. Li-ion batteries can be designed with fuel cells, photovoltaic solar cells, hydro power, and wind power as storage, backup, or supportive power.
Highly integrated linear solutions may overcome hurdles in low-power designs, such as compactness and simplicity.
When designing with batteries or any power systems, safety is always the first priority.



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