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28.07.2014
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Do not incinerate or expose external laptop battery to excessive heat, which may result in an exposure. It is normal for a Replacement Battery to become warm to the touch during charging and discharging. While details are yet scarce, yesterday Phinergy CEO and Founder, Aviv Tzidon confirmed talks with Renault-Nissan are tentatively set for a proposed series production electric car due in 2017 using its range-extending aluminum-air battery. In any case, Phinergy is ready for this customer and all others, and initially, Tzidon divulged, he did not even expect an automaker would be first to adopt aluminum-air. Thus, if things go according to plan, Phinergy hopes its aluminum-air battery may prove to be the greatest thing for transportation – and other industries – since sliced bread.
But unlike bread slices you would eat, the company has developed a carbon-neutral electric car battery which slowly consumes slices of aluminum and yields several-times more energy density than the best lithium-ion batteries. Based on work begun in Israel in 2008, the company is collaborating with Alcoa on this cost-effective and safe energy source.
Almost that amazing, Phinergy’s aluminum-air battery combines de-ionized (drinkable) water into an alkaline electrolyte solution and breathes in air to create a chemical reaction that dissolves aluminum plates to produce electricity.
Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust and Phinergy’s durable technology reliably extracts 8.1 kilowatt-hours of energy – half of which is electricity, and half byproduct heat – per kilogram. The notion of aluminum-air and other metal-air batteries is not new, but Phinergy has worked out the bugs and is ready to put it into production – not just for cars, but consumer electronics, stationary energy storage, defense, industrial – all sorts of applications. While aluminum is normally thought of as a structural material, it contains much electrical potential. What’s more, after the aluminum-air battery chemically extracts stored electrical energy from the ever-diminishing aluminum plates, it leaves a recyclable byproduct in liquid that can be easily processed back into fresh aluminum. Technically, consumers would only be buying the energy stored in aluminum, not so much the aluminum itself which merely dissolves to a different form and is taken away as a valuable byproduct.
If any of this sounds unclear, we’ll explain how it works further below, but the takeaway is the company is past the “proof of concept” stage. In other words, its C1-based test mule operates a lot like an extended-range electric Chevy Volt, albeit without gas engine. Thus, Phinergy’s prototype car is primarily powered by a rather ordinary lithium-ion battery and motor and its aluminum-air pack can recharge it on the go.
As its aluminum “cartridges” or plates slowly dissolve away over months to eventually nothing, the plan is they’ll be replaced by service personnel. The exact composition of the aluminum is proprietary, and Alcoa’s alliance with Phinergy puts it in line to profit from the exclusive arrangement. According to Alcoa Project Manager Hasso Wieland, the well-to-wheel analysis is actually better than carbon neutral because of valuable byproducts of the battery’s process of oxidizing aluminum.
As great as it sounds, this means Phinergy is not proposing its new technology replace lithium-ion, but rather, says Aviv Tzidon, it’s a complement. However, lithium-ion battery packs are useful to create powerful, quick cars that recharge from plugging into the grid or by regenerative braking. Citing statistics once used to make a case for the Chevy Volt, Tzidon said that a driver who travels 12,000 miles per year on average only drives 33 miles per day.
A 30-50 mile-range EV – more or less – would meet the daily need, but what about when the driver wants to go farther on the odd occasion? Unlike other batteries, aluminum can be stored for decades without degradation or needing maintenance charging. Phinergy’s ideal scenario is the driver use the regular lithium-ion batteries day to day, and when needed expend some aluminum and water.
A typical usage scenario would see the cartridges expended maybe once a year, more or less. In simplified terms, the cross-section of the battery (see graphics below) shows where a chemical reaction takes place to release electrons and thus generate electricity. The 10mm-thick aluminum plate is the battery’s anode, and the cathode is a semi-permeable membrane using the same technology as Gore-Tex. These plates can be added as needed, and each plate provides about enough energy for 20 miles. In general terms, one kilogram of aluminum requires one kilogram of oxygen and one liter of water for the reaction to take place. Sandwiched between the aluminum and air cathode is the water-based alkaline electrolyte containing potassium hydroxide. Several technologies make this long-known lab concept commercially viable, and Phinergy and its PhD-laden staff has applied for or received over 22 patents.
The air cathode uses a Teflon-based material that lets ambient air (thus oxygen) through from the environment, but it prevents the water-based electrode from seeping out. On the cathode side, three elements laminated into a thin layer are used to make the cathode effective.
Immediately in contact with the electrolyte is a nanoporous silver structure patented by Phinergy, and based on work done at Bar Ilan University in Israel.
Laminated to the nanoporous layer is a current collector to gather electrons – electrical energy – liberated in the chemical reaction between the alkaline electrolyte and bare aluminum. The air cathode uses Teflon (like Gore-Tex) to keep water in, and let air pass through as well. The chemical reaction involves oxidizing the bare aluminum which forms a layer of aluminum hydroxide – kind of like an aluminum rust. Here we see aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3 – oxidation – building on the aluminum’s surface. The trick is to oxidize the aluminum enough that electricity is given off but no so badly that the entire reaction stops.
This incredible difficulty of this process – and contamination of the air cathode in previous experimental attempts by carbon dioxide – has been what relegated aluminum-air batteries to a lab experiment until now. The controlled dissolving away of the aluminum is what makes the system viable, not to mention the recyclability of the electrolyte.


Maintenance would involve car owners needing to periodically refill the battery with tap water that’s been run through a simple de-ionizing process. Since releasing formerly confidential info last month, the company is gaining the attention of the public, as it has behind-the-scenes talks underway with European automakers. President Obama asked Tzidon whether Phinergy was talking with American companies and Tzidon asked in turn with a smile whether the president had any connection with GM or Ford?
At this, Obama laughed, saying he thought he did, as Phinergy continues to work toward further proving its tech, and bringing it toward production. RE: the headline, I’ve received no confirmation from Renault-Nissan, but am going on what the head of the company said on video to the President of the United States, and Prime Minister of Israel – and what he confirmed in a phone interview late last night! In in any case, Phinergy is ready for this customer and all others, and initially, Tzidon divulged, he did not even expect an automaker would be first to adopt aluminum-air. As for the “slice” of aluminum analogy, that’s an oversimplification, but it is more accurate than other reports that have said Phinergy’s 1,100-plus-mile range range-extended electric car runs merely on “air” or water. We were told very little about the 2017 European Renault-Nissan mentioned in a video not widely disseminated, but will explain the concept behind Phinergy’s vision for its technology.
As its aluminum “cartridges” or plates slowly whittle away over months to eventually nothing, the plan is they’ll be replaced by service personnel. In simplified terms, the cross-section of the battery shows where a chemical reaction takes place to release electrons and thus generate electricity.
The air cathode uses Teflon (like Gore Tex) to keep water in, and let air pass through as well.
The 10mm-thick aluminum plate is the battery’s anode, and the cathode is a semi-permeable membrane using the same technology as Gore Tex. The controlled whittling away of the aluminum is what makes the system viable, not to mention the recyclability of the electrolyte. For now a simple gas engine works well enough as a RE for the Volt because there is a gas station on every corner..
You have to consider the system a kind of fuel cell which uses the aluminum and water as fuel. Or, since we don’t like the F C words here, consider it a primary cell (which cannot be recharged within the battery pack). Its a great idea, only problem i see, well nothing big mind you but, last winter, when temperature dropped below the freezing point, water did just that, it freezes. When did the Volt engine start charging the battery, and how big of a charge does it give it? If this type of battery can come to market, we may see the end of the lead-acid battery in all our vehicles, since both lead and sulfuric acid are toxic materials, and most automotive batteries last less than five years.
At this point, most of us are resigned to this, and believe that much of the Press is lying deliberately. All gasoline vehicle use the engine with a belt-mounted alternator to recharge the onboard 12 VDC battery after the battery is used to start the engine and power its ignition and fuel system.
The thing that makes my eye brows raise is the idea that this is going to be a range extender- only proposition.
Performing preventive maintenance on wet batteries is easy and should occur at least once a month during the summer and every three months during the rest of the year, especially in hot climates.
To reduce the water consumption for wet batteries, there are battery caps, for example, Hydocaps, Water-Mizer, etc.
All laptop batteries are brand new in box, never used, highest quality premium Japanese Li-ion cells are used in the Latitude E6420 battery. Long enough battery life is essential to optimizing your productivity while in meetings or traveling. It’s being proposed as a range extender – not a primary propulsion battery – to automakers, including Renault-Nissan.
The car covered a several-hour-long demonstration drive without recharging – and actually the car can go 1,850-2,500 miles on 100 kg of aluminum. While this is a radical improvement over a 265-mile Tesla, as mentioned, Phinergy envisions the best use for its tech as a range extender – or actually an on-board recharging system.
In Phinergy’s case, the aluminum-air battery charges the lithium-ion battery and gives off heat that can be shed, or captured by a heat exchanger to warm the cabin as needed.
Tzidon, said Phinergy’s approach is “humble” enough to see the strengths and weaknesses of the aluminum-air battery. Here is where the driver could tap into the on-board aluminum in the supplemental aluminum-air battery system. Costs – while still fuzzy at this stage – are projected to be cheaper than present solutions. So, 50 plates – or aluminum-air battery cells – would offer 1,000 miles of extended-range driving. Air freely flows in, while aqueous alkaline electrolyte is retained despite pressure and heat. The fluid electrolyte in contact with it serves as a conductive layer, a solvent, and temperature evacuator as it extracts oxygen from the air cathode. The electrolyte bath can be flushed as needed by a pump, and in doing so, it wipes clean the oxidation exposing again a fresh surface of aluminum. So, the system flushes through the electrolyte solution as required at a rate that exposes aluminum just enough to repeat the oxidation, and not so aggressively as to prematurely erode the aluminum. The system’s electrolyte bath flushes upwards taking away the oxidized surface and exposing new to repeat the process. This would be as required – perhaps every month or two depending on usage – and the electrolyte would enable the chemical reaction. In Montreal this week it covered a several-hour-long demonstration drive without recharging – and actually the car can go 1,850-2,500 miles on 100 kg of aluminum. So, the system can flush through the electrolyte solution as required at a rate that exposes aluminum just enough to repeat the oxidation, and not so aggressively as to prematurely erode the aluminum. In the Volt, the engine is a range-extender which uses a clutch to power the second motor as a generator.
While working with car and deep cycle lead-acid batteries, please always wear safety goggles or glasses to protect your eyes in case of a battery explosion. Before you start the engine for the first time during the day, check the the State-of-Charge (SoC) of the battery. Checking electrolyte levels of non-sealed (with filler caps) wet batteries every three months is recommended. It prevents the battery from receiving a charge due to a high resistance connection, which eventually causes the battery to be drained or voltage loss. Tighten loose battery terminal clamps, lugs, terminals, connectors, and hold-down clamps to prevent excessive vibration.


Clean the battery top to eliminate conductive paths created by dried or wet electrolyte and to prevent corrosion. Clean the charging system to allow better heat transfer and check the alternator belts for cracks and correct tension.
Replace any battery cables (or cable terminals) that are corroding, swelling or damaged with an equal or larger diameter cable.
Replace the battery if the battery case is bulging, cracked or leaking, especially around "GM" style side terminals.
Periodically rotate batteries in a bank of deep cycle batteries because the lowest capacity batteries tend to fail first and to insure that the connections are clean and tight.
Phinergy’s controlled reaction releases the electricity in a process with the reverse effect of smelting. Its strength is vastly improved energy storage to make range limitations no longer a concern. Phinergy’s microcontroller and battery management system monitor temperature, chemical composition, and oxidation rate. Does the battery keep that water from freezing or is there an additive to prevent freezing? Now we have rechargeables that cost more at purchase, but saves money after many recharges.
If the same cell can be produced in smaller cell sizes, then all these carbon and alkaline throwaways will be replaced, too! It does it differently, but it does recharge the traction battery, which then uses a DC-DC converter to charge the 12 VDC battery. For non-sealed (with filler caps) wet batteries, also check the electrolyte levels in each cell. In hot climates, checking the electrolyte levels at least once a month during the summer is recommended. To automatically water batteries, there are watering systems that will add water to each individual battery cell. Remove any corrosion, oxidation, paint or rust with a brass wire battery brush or with a "ScotchBrite" pad from the terminal's connecting surfaces on both ends of each battery cables, battery posts, lugs or terminals, and engine ground strap connections. To prevent terminal corrosion, thinly coat the terminals, posts, clamps, lugs and exposed metal around the battery with high temperature and water resistant wheel bearing grease.
If electrical problems are experienced in vehicles with GM's side terminal connectors, check for corrosion inside the positive terminal, lug or connector with the multiple cables.
This will fit your laptop perfectly.There is no battery "memory effect" with this rechargeable battery. The plates need to be covered at all times to prevent sulfation and reduce the possibility of an internal battery explosion. Bare metal to metal is necessary for very low electrical resistance and good current conductivity.
Larger cable and lugs, connectors or terminals are better because there is more surface area and less voltage drop. The Latitude E6420 battery is rigorously tested for capacity, voltage, compatibility and safety to exceed original equipment manufacturer specifications. If the battery is not fully charged (100% State-of-Charge), recharge it with a battery charger in a well ventilated area. For non-sealed wet car and small deep cycle batteries (less than 200 amp hours), allow the battery to cool to room temperature.
Petroleum jelly ("Vaseline") or Calcium grease is not recommended for use under the hood because it has a low melting point. All of our laptop batteries have passed stringent quality assurance procedures to achieve international standards such as ROHS, CE, UL, ISO9001, ISO9002 certification. Then add only distilled water to the level indicated by the battery manufacturer, UPPER LEVEL mark, or just to the bottom of the filler tubes (vent wells or splash barrels) as shown in the diagram below.
If a battery has dried out due to an overcharge, you can try to recovery it by refilling with distilled water and slowly recharging it. A stiff steel wire brush or sandpaper may damage protective lead plating on copper connectors or terminals.
Gluing a sacrificial anode, such as a solid piece of copper to the top of the battery between the posts or using sealed VRLA batteries will prevent or reduce terminal corrosion. Corrosion is normally a white powdery lead oxide substance, but could have other colors mixed in like gray, yellow or green from other chemicals or alloys. Please do not use the felt or metal washers between the mating conductive surfaces with General Motors-type side, "L" or threaded stud terminals as shown in Section 7.5. Some vehicle charging systems have been known to undercharge the battery causing an accumulation of lead sulfate, known as sulfation.
Avoid overfilling, especially in hot weather, because the heat will cause the electrolyte to expand and overflow.
Heavy corrosion can be neutralized by applying a paste from a mixture of baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) and warm water.
This is because a large cross section of conductive area is required to carry the heavy starting current. Some use diet cola to dissolve corrosion because it does not contain sugar which will leave a sticky surface. For batteries not subject to high temperatures, use "No Oxide A" (or the battery manufacturer's recommended coatings) on the terminal posts, clamps, lugs, or connectors. Do not use tap water or water from residential Reverse Osmosis (RO) systems to refill batteries because it could contain chlorine, calcium or magnesium and produce calcium or magnesium sulfate crystals. Some stainless steel alloys and other metal clamps, lugs, washers, nuts and bolts have also been known to cause problems with electrolysis and high resistance. Periodically fully recharging or "topping off" with a battery charger will restore most or all of the battery's capacity.
These crystals can gradually fill the pores or coat the plates which will reduce the battery's capacity.
At least every one to three months is recommended depending on temperature and driving habits.
State-of-Charge (SoC) readings will be inaccurate immediately after the addition of water, recharges or discharges.



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Comments Refill car battery tap water quality

  1. KOKAIN
    Just get a smart charger and hope.
  2. rizaja6
    Quotes for all iPhone Battery Replacements: iPhone 4 & iPhone lawn tractors will range.
  3. Turkiye_Seninleyik
    Test alternators to determine if they have failed.
  4. neman
    I am thinking about converting my old car battery die, but cable is connected to engine.