Rechargeable lithium batteries and beyond progress challenges and future directions,backup battery in car,car battery service in bangalore airport,deep cycle lead acid battery discharge curve supercapacitor - Test Out

24.10.2015
Lithium-ion batteries are an extremely common form of rechargeable battery often found in consumer electronics such as laptops and cell-phones. The electrolyte component in the batteries is typically liquid and quite flammable, and the batteries as a whole are prone to shorts, overheating and catching fire.
Improvements in larger lithium-ion batteries would be a big step forward for technologies such as electric cars or electrical grids, and thus for sustainable transportation and energy. The ORNL researchers, in work published in the current issue of the Journal of the American Chemistry Society, have an easy method for making a nanostructured form of one solid electrolyte. The solid electrolyte isn’t as conductive as liquid electrolytes, but the researchers say they can compensate for this by making the electrolyte very thin, among other measures. The solid electrolyte not only makes batteries safer, it could also enable the use of higher energy electrode materials. The team restructured the solid electrolyte to be porous at the nanoscale, which yielded the far higher level of conductivity. Just to put a finer point on lithium-ion batteries, the chemistry in the battery cells on board the grounded 787 were cobalt oxide(CoO2)from a Japanese company GS Yuasa. The batteries in the EV CODA for example, use lithium-iron phosphate(LiFePO4)chemistry, which is safer at high temperatures. It will be interesting to see when solid electrolyte batteries replace liquid chemistry batteries.
They’re now looking at the protection circuits for those failed 787 batteries, not the cells. FYI — the photo shows the box of high-voltage electronics of the MINI-E, not the battery pack. Batteries add a very large amount of material expense, weight, and recycling challenges to an electric fleet.
Why keep making millions of redundant systems, when those huge expenses could go toward electrical induction of roads?
Producing electricity and electric roadways should be a Federal project, so expenses can be minimized, and individual consumers needed be forced to bear the brunt of upfront costs (like $10,000 to $15,000 worth of battery pack per automobile). Far better to put it on the Federal debt ledger, and pay it off through equitable taxes, Federal bonds, and printing money. So why do we think this sort of economic model is appropriate for the most pressing national infrastructure challenge in the history of the world? And if 67you are wrong, as I surmise, how do you justify self-righteously touting such unadulterated bull***t in a serious discusion?
Somehow, I don’t think a Nissan Leaf requires 57 million watts of energy to drive one mile down the road. But perhaps you have an advanced degree in electrical engineering and can show me my error? In our previous discussions on future chemistries, we looked at three ways to increase energy density: (A) higher aggressiveness of the material (either anode as stronger electron giver or cathode as stronger electron acceptor), (B) reducing the weight of the material by picking elements from the top of the periodic table, and (C) using multiple electrons rather than one to increase overall charge capacity. To make the ultimate battery, we could pair it with the perfect cathode, which would be fluorine (exactly opposite on the periodic table, and is the strongest and lightest non-metal).
While above problems are relevant for both rechargeable and primary batteries, rechargeables have their own set of challenges. Order TI's new Fuel Tank Battery BoosterPack to get started designing with capacity and charging applications. Content on this site may contain or be subject to specific guidelines or limitations on use. Start-up ReVolt Technology is developing rechargeable zinc air batteries, a technology it says promises longer runtime for consumer electronics and plug-in vehicles. The Switzerland-based company, which was spun out of a Norwegian research institute five years ago, anticipates commercializing a rechargeable coin-size batteries next year. The components of ReVolt's current rechargeable battery technology include an air electrode, an interface below it in blue, and a zinc electrode. Zinc air batteries, which are already used in hearing aids, create an electrical current through a chemical reaction between zinc and the oxygen in air. ReVolt engineers are working on a new design in which a zinc slurry is pumped through tubes that act as an air electrode, causing the chemical reaction that produces a current, McDougall explained. The company has raised 24 million Euros in funding, including an investment from power generator RWE of Germany, which is looking at the zinc air for storage on the electricity grid. For vehicles, it makes sense to combine the relatively large energy storage of zinc air batteries with other storage technologies, McDougall said.
A NEW kind of chemistry could power lithium-air batteries over long-standing technological hurdles, leading toward a product that may one day be strong enough to replace gasoline in cars, researchers said Thursday. Rechargeable batteries have been around for decades – the lithium-ion battery that powers many mobile devices is marking its 25th anniversary next year – but scaling up the technology to the level of powering automobiles has proven difficult. Researchers have spent years looking into a kind of battery known as lithium-air, or lithium-oxygen, which could provide 10 times more power, and possibly enough energy density to compare with gasoline, but these too have been plagued by practical problems. While an ultimate lithium-air battery remains at least a decade away, researchers at the University of Cambridge say they have patented a technology that overcomes some of the major obstacles.
Senior author Clare Grey, a chemistry professor at the University of Cambridge, said her team's "significant achievement" has been making strides toward high capacity "and the fact that we've taken the efficiency down into numbers that compete with current lithium-ion technology," she told reporters. Since the technology is still in the lab phases, it is not possible to directly compare it to currently available technologies, she said.
But the latest approach has shown increased energy efficiency of up to 93%, and does so by relying on a very different kind of chemistry than previous attempts, employing lithium hydroxide (LiOH) instead of lithium peroxide (Li2O2).


The "demonstrator relies on a highly porous, 'fluffy' carbon electrode made from graphene (comprising one-atom-thick sheets of carbon atoms), and additives that alter the chemical reactions at work in the battery, making it more stable and more efficient," said a statement from the University of Cambridge.
The result is another step on the path toward to a more practical, high-powered battery, said Grey.
LEAP is currently at the forefront of two important initiatives which have the potential of providing significant boost to the current state of the art. A paradigm shift in the current state of the art battery technology is required to enable progress in electric and plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles (EV and PHEV).
These lithium-ion battery systems will overcome the main drawbacks of fast recharge, safety hazards, cost and energy density that exist in the current battery technology.
AbstractEnergy production and storage have become key issues due to the ever increasing demand of electricity in modern days. We have been digging into the flight times of our crafts and trying to extend flight times,, recently this was published.
Ragone plot, comparing Li-CNT-F batteries with other batteries in terms of weight of cathode materials. Based on the 5-8 times Li-Ion type that was compared, Amazing to think of a 10-16 times longer flight time..
Journal Nature Scientific Reports - Rechargeable Batteries with High Energy Storage Activated by In-situ Induced Fluorination of Carbon Nanotube Cathode The advantages of using carbon are that it is cost-effective and safe to use, and the energy output is five to eight times higher than lithium-ion batteries currently on the market.
High performance rechargeable batteries are urgently demanded for future energy storage systems. Sounds very promising and if technologically feasible, like it has the potential to hugely impact battery powered uses like cars and other transport in addition to our needs. Keeping the fluorine mostly in the form of a salt is definitely a good idea, fluorine is a truly nasty substance otherwise. Is activation a 1 time process or does it need to be repeated frequently or at every charge - discharge cycle? We can only hope, I have attempted to see what we could get our hands on from LG through a few contacts we have in development, not expecting much. The 2C discharge is per cell I think, and the guy that does the my geek show did a episode so to see what the possibilities were.
At those smaller scales the batteries’ technology is reliable and well-understood, but at larger sizes there have been challenges. Boeing’s new Dreamliner 787 fleet was recently grounded worldwide after two separate incidents in which the on-board lithium-ion battery, which supplies the planes with auxiliary and back-up power, caught fire. To that end, a group of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have just published preliminary work on a new form of battery that relies on a solid electrolyte.
The nanostructure improves the material’s conductivity 1,000 times, enough to make it useful in lithium-ion batteries. Even then, the batteries might not charge as quickly or provide the same boost of power possible with liquid electrolytes, but this would be okay in many applications, such as in electric cars, where the sheer number of battery cells makes it easy to deliver adequate bursts of power. As a result, while the rate at which these batteries deliver power may be less than today’s lithium-ion batteries, the total amount of energy they can store would be far higher. The solid electrolyte also helps prevent shorts, and unlike the liquid counterparts won’t degrade electrodes. Lithium is the best possible representative of criteria A and B, because it is one of the most aggressive metals, and it is located on the top of periodic table -- second only to hydrogen (which is a much weaker non-metal, so it loses out to point A). For a battery to deliver sufficient power, it has to access active materials quickly, passing large number of electrons.
First, lithium peroxide formed in the reaction is an excellent insulator, so passing electrons to it requires nano-structures that bring conductive material within nanometers to the peroxide.
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But the technology has the potential to be a cheaper and more energy-dense alternative to lithium ion batteries in consumer electronics,grid storage, and transportation, according to CEO James McDougall. Researchers have pursued rechargeable zinc air batteries for many years because zinc is relatively abundant and the internal chemistry, safe. After multiple charge-discharge cycle, the anode in zinc air batteries can become damaged and stop working. He expects it will take four or five years to commercialize the technology for large-scale applications, such as grid storage. ReVolt has applied for an ARPA-E grantaimed at breakthrough energy technologies but was not chosen in the first round of awards.
Power-dense lithium ion batteries could be used for boosts of acceleration and ultracapacitorscould capture energy from regenerative braking. You could get three times the range, eliminate the safety concerns, and cut the cost of the system," he said. It is recognized that only a Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is capable of providing the all electric driving range of EV and PHEV (see Fig.
This disruptive technology will unseat the current standard lithium cobalt oxide cathode material due to its safety features (Fig 2), while still improving the power and energy storage, unlike the current state of the art lithium iron phosphate, which only addressed the safety and rate capability.
Rechargeable batteries are recognized as the primary power sources for applications from portable electronic devices to electric vehicles. The new battery technology also performs better than two other future technologies: lithium-sulfur batteries, currently in the prototype stage, and lithium-air batteries, now under development.


The researchers also showed that the new material is compatible with high-energy electrodes. A much smaller battery could then be used—saving space and weight on airplanes and greatly reducing the cost of electric vehicles. But you’d need to deliver roughly a million watts along about 90 feet of road, and this would need to be repeated every mile to sustain travel at ~60MPH. Unfortunately it is a gas that reacts with almost everything, even glass (hard to store!), and is extremely toxic, so nobody has managed to make a battery out of it yet. And catalysts are needed to make the peroxide grow in a nice thin amorphous form instead of large inaccessible crystals. This is much larger than any battery demonstrated so far, so it looks like even considering all the extra stuff needed, lithium air is already moving towards its position on the top at least for the primary cells and low rate applications like hearing aids. TI and its respective suppliers and providers of content make no representations about the suitability of these materials for any purpose and disclaim all warranties and conditions with respect to these materials.
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McDougall said ReVolt is trying to reach between 500 and 2,000 charge cycles, depending on whether the battery is used for consumer electronics or large-scale storage.
Another advantage of these materials over the lithium cobalt oxide based batteries is that they can be recharged and charged at very high rates. Recently, there has been a growing interest in investigating graphene nanocomposite materials for various energy storage applications, such as electrodes in lithium batteries. For example, the induced-fluorination technology could be used to produce cellphone batteries that would charge faster and last longer. Instead of using carbon materials as the surface provider for lithium-ion adsorption and desorption, we realized induced fluorination of carbon nanotube array (CNTA) paper cathodes, with the source of fluoride ions from electrolytes, by an in-situ electrochemical induction process. It forms dendrites when deposited, which can short the cell and cause ignition, which requires nano-porous separators between electrodes that give good ionic conductivity but doesn't allow dendrites to pass through. Another issue is that oxygen, once bound in the compound with Li (like Li2O2), is very reluctant to go back to a gas phase even if electrons are removed from it. However, today’s LIBs fall short in energy density, cost and safety to make electric vehicles attractive to average US consumers. The combined safety and high-rate capability features make for an excellent battery candidate for PHEV and EV applications. With its unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties, graphene can be a critical component in nanostructured electrode materials with improved capacity and cyclability, enabling the development of advanced batteries and new battery technologies. The research team developed the new battery technology for energy storage using carbon nanomaterials and a process called induced fluorination.
It is light (still top of the periodic table) and almost as aggressive, but it has an additional benefit – it takes 2 electrons instead of one. Luckily, many of these problems have been already solved during the last 20 years of Li-ion battery development, that has the same water-sensitivity and safety issues. Breaking the bounds fast enough for practical battery also requires development of sophisticated catalysts, which is a big focus of research at the moment. Use of the information on this site may require a license from a third party, or a license from TI. This paper reviews the recent achievements in graphene utilization in negative electrodes for Li-ion batteries and introduces the latest progress of flexible graphene-based Li-ion batteries.
The rechargeable battery with this dual-storage mechanism demonstrated a maximum discharging capacity of 2174 mAh gcarbon?1 and a specific energy of 4113 Wh kgcarbon?1 with good cycling performance.
However, a Li-air configuration battery has to be exposed to the outside environment by definition, which makes it difficult to prevent contamination with water and other bad things like CO2. One successful approach is to make the air absorbing cathode out of a conductive metal mesh loaded with less conductive, but much more porous, carbon black (as in Fig.1). All kind of materials are being tried, and MnO2 appears the most promising at the moment, because it is cheap and effective. Battery weight is also an issue for the 15-20 kWh PHEV batteries built with today’s LIB cells. A survey of the scientific advances achieved thanks to the use of graphene in the so called “beyond Li-ion” technologies, namely Li-sulphur and Li-O2 batteries, is also presented.
As an additional bonus, the photo-synthetic life forms that have lived on earth for 2 billon years before us accumulated the energy of the sun to provide us with a huge supply of this ingredient right there in our atmosphere. The improved discharge potential profile for Lithium vanadium phosphate has shown a 40% increase in stored energy over lithium iron phosphate.
Other methods involve separating Li from the cathode side by solid-state membrane instead of placing everything into the same solvent, or even making everything completely solid state. Such complex meso-structures only recently became possible, which explains difficulties with making Li-air batteries in the past.
It is time to take advantage of this gift (in addition to breathing it and using it for burning the other gift, the hydro-carbons) and make a battery out of it! Unfortunately solid state electrolytes have much worse conductivity compared to liquid electrolytes, so such batteries would be initially useful only for very low-rate applications, such as wireless sensors. But rapid progress has made the appearance of lithium air primary batteries a possibility in the next 5 years.



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