Principle of charging lead acid battery,battery for car door remote visor,12v 18ah batteries plus,hp laptop batteries price in india - Videos Download

10.10.2014
The lead acid battery uses lead as the anode and lead dioxide as the cathode, with an acid electrolyte.
During the charging process, the reactions at each electrode are reversed; the anode becomes the cathode and the cathode becomes the anode. During charging, given the high voltage, water is dissociated at the two electrodes, and gaseous hydrogen and oxygen products are readily formed leading to the loss of the electrolyte and a potentially explosive situation. Under certain circumstances the lead sulphate products at both the electrodes achieve an irreversible state, making the recharging process very difficult.
Pure lead is too soft to use as a grid material so in general the lead is hardened by the addition of 4 – 6% antimony. The function of the grid is to hold the active material and to conduct electricity between the active material and the battery terminals. Ball milling: Pieces of lead are put into a rotary mechanical mill, forming fine lead flakes, which are then oxidised in air and removed. Red lead (Pb3O4) can also be added to the PbO formed by these methods, as it is more conductive.
The oxide is mixed with water, sulphuric acid and a mixer, and then mixed to form a paste.
The simplest cell would consist of one cathode plate, one anode plate and a separator between them.
Most lead-acid batteries are constructed with the positive electrode (the anode) made from a lead-antimony alloy with lead (IV) oxide pressed into it, although batteries designed for maximum life use a lead-calcium alloy.
When the battery is discharged water is produced, diluting the acid and reducing its specific gravity. The chemical reactions that occur during charging and discharging are summarised in figures 1 and 2. If lead-acid batteries are over discharged or left standing in the discharged state for prolonged periods hardened lead sulphate coats the electrodes and will not be removed during recharging. Starting Batteries – Used to start and run engines they can deliver a very large current so a very short time, discharging by about 2-5%. Marine Batteries – Usually a hybrid battery that falls between deep cycle and starting batteries although some are true deep cycle batteries. Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) Batteries – The electrolyte is held between the plates absorbed in a fine boron-silicate mat. WelcomeThis site is aimed at providing technical resources and information to assist Appropriate Technology (AT) specialists working in the following areas: drinking water supply, sanitation, electrical supply, construction, fuel-efficient cooking stoves and environmental education. Our MissionITACA understands AT as technologies that are easy to construct and maintain, low cost, using local resources as far as possible, simple to replicate and adapt to different contexts, and both environmentally and economically sustainable in the long-term.
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Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. The most common is the SLI battery used for motor vehicles for engine Starting, vehicle Lighting and engine Ignition, however it has many other applications (such as communications devices, emergency lighting systems and power tools) due to its cheapness and good performance. Strips of lead foil with coarse cloth in between were rolled into a spiral and immersed in a 10% solution of sulphuric acid.
These act as grain refiners, decreasing the grain size of the lead and thereby increasing its hardness and strength.
This is often used for telephone applications, and for no maintenance automotive batteries, since a more stable battery is required.
Each droplet reacts with the air to form an oxide layer, giving 70 – 85% lead oxide. The negative electrode (the cathode) is made from pure lead and both electrodes are immersed in sulphuric acid. On charging sulphuric acid is produced and the specific gravity of the electrolyte increases. Lead (IV) oxide is formed at the anode, pure lead is formed at the cathode and sulphuric acid is liberated into the electrolyte causing the specific gravity to increase. Lead sulphate is formed at both electrodes and sulphuric acid is removed from the electrolyte causing the specific gravity to reduce. If deep cycled these batteries quickly degenerate and will fail after 30-150 cycles but should last for a very long time when used correctly.
Standard types have removable caps so that the electrolyte can be diluted and the specific gravity measured, such batteries are supplied dry and you add distilled water. The electrolyte can not be diluted so that over charging must be avoided and these batteries may only last for 2 or 3 years in hot climates although with good care they can last for 5 years. Like gelled electrolyte batteries they will not leak acid but they can withstand more careless treatment and are less sensitive to over charging since they are designed to retain vented gases.
We see AT as a tool to address the inequalities and injustices faced by millions of communities around the world who lack access to the basic resources required for a dignified life. Our experts are helping students in their studies and they offer instant tutoring assistance giving their best practiced knowledge and spreading their world class education services through e-Learning program. The cell was further developed by initially coating the lead with oxides, then by forming plates of lead oxide by coating an oxide paste onto grids. The molds are closed and filled with sufficient molten lead to fill the mold, leaving some excess to form a sprue, which is then removed by cutting or stamping. The separators are usually cellulose, PVC, rubber, microporous polyethylene or non-woven polypropylene.


These batteries are designed to discharge by as much as 80% of their capacity over thousands of charging and discharging cycles.
Standard flooded batteries are cheap and if they are kept topped up they are not overly sensitive to high charging voltages.
AGM batteries can also stand for 30 days in a totally discharged state and still be recharged successfully. The specific gravity also depends on the battery temperature and the above values or for a battery at 15°C. True deep cycle batteries have solid lead plates however many batteries that do not have solid plates are called semi-deep cycle.
Sealed batteries are supplied pre-flooded and have fixed valves to allow gases to vent during use however, they will still leak if inverted and the electrolyte can not be replenished so that over charging will cause damage. The major drawback to these batteries is that they cost between 2 or 3 times as much as flooded batteries. The tabs that are fixed to the plates are cast, then punched on between the layers and welded together. The plates are suspended inside the case, which is filled with electrolyte in order to activate it. Unlike gel cell batteries that use a gelled electrolyte, AGM batteries still use the common water/acid electrolyte mixture, just like regular flooded cell batteries (such as the one in your car). The difference is that AGM batteries have fiberglass matting sandwiched in between the lead plates. One is the matting prevents the electrolyte from sloshing around and spilling out in case the battery is inverted or put on its side.
Another is that the plates can be made with a purer lead (which is softer and needs extra support) that permits higher efficiency. A flooded cell battery does not have this feature and typically the hydrogen and oxygen simply vent into the atmosphere.
Over time this causes the electrolyte level to drop, thus preventing the battery from attaining full charge.
Contrary to common belief, you actually can maintain these types of batteries, it just is not very common and the manufacturers would rather you didn't for a number of reasons. It is actually very easy to do as long as you are not squeamish about partially tearing your batteries apart.



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