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If you were to mix zinc metal and copper ions in a container, this reaction would proceed by itself; we say that this reaction is spontaneous.
Suppose, however, we set up this reaction in a way depicted in Figure 14.1 "A Redox Reaction in Which the Two Half Reactions Are Physically Separated".
Even though the two half reactions are physically separated, a spontaneous redox reaction still occurs. Each individual system that contains a half reaction is called a half cellA part of a voltaic cell that contains one half reaction.. The tendency for electrons to go from one half cell to another is called the voltageThe tendency for electrons to go from one half cell to another. Table 14.1 "Standard Reduction Potentials of Half Reactions" lists only reduction reactions, but a redox reaction has a reduction and an oxidation. To determine the overall voltage of a particular voltaic cell, simply combine the voltages of the oxidation and reduction half reactions. Alkaline batteries have the advantage of being longer lasting and holding their voltage bettera€”about 1.54A Va€”throughout their lifetime. A common type of battery, especially with the increased popularity of personal electronic devices, is the button battery (Figure 14.3 "Button Batteries").
The actual redox reaction depends on the composition of the cathode and is variable depending on voltage. Button batteries like those seen here can be used for a variety of portable electronics, from watches and hearing aids to handheld gaming devices.
An important secondary battery is the lead storage battery, shown in Figure 14.4 "Lead Storage Batteries".
The redox reaction produces about 2 V, but it is typical to tie several individual batteries together to generate a larger voltage.
A fuel cell is a type of battery in which reactants flow continuously into a specialized reaction chamber, and products flow out continuously while electrons are extracted from the reaction. Hydrogen-based fuel cells were and are used to provide electricity for manned space vehicles, partly because their only chemical product is water, which could be used for drinking. Several current barriers to fuel cell use in electric cars include capacity, cost, and overall energy efficiency. The voltage of a voltaic cell can be determined by the reduction potentials of the half reactions.
Draw the voltaic cell represented by this reaction and label the cathode, the anode, the salt bridge, the oxidation half cell, the reduction half cell, the positive electrode, and the negative electrode. What species is being oxidized and what species is being reduced in a silver oxide button battery? What species is being oxidized and what species is being reduced in a lead storage battery? Based on the data in Table 14.1 "Standard Reduction Potentials of Half Reactions", what is the highest voltage battery you can construct?

Based on the data in Table 14.1 "Standard Reduction Potentials of Half Reactions", what is the lowest voltage battery you can construct? We are a company specializing in sealed lead -acid storage batteries, scooters, ATV, and electrical bicycles. The weight of a lithium ion battery is approximately one half compared to a nickel-cadmium or nickel-metal hydride battery of similar capacity.
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See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Zinc and zinc ions are on one side of the system, while copper and copper ions are on the other side of the system. However, in this case, the electrons transfer through the wire connecting the two half reactions; that is, this setup becomes a source of electricity. If the voltage of the reaction as written is negative, it is not spontaneous in that direction. Unfortunately, it was messy, requiring quantities of copper and zinc salts dissolved in water. While common and useful, dry cells have relatively short lifetimes and contain acidic components. A button battery is a small battery that can power small electronic devices; the batteries can be as small as 5 mm across. Lithium batteries can also be used for applications that require more energy, such as portable computers and electric vehicles. The lead storage battery has the distinction that the product of both half reactions is PbSO4, which as a solid accumulates on the many plates within each cell (Figure 14.4 "Lead Storage Batteries").
Because all reactions in a fuel cell consist of a fuel and an oxidizer undergoing a redox reaction, an introduction of fuel cells is at home in a discussion of redox chemistry. In this fuel cell, the only two products are water and electricity, so the fuel cell not only does not create pollution but also makes a by-product that in some environments is a valuable commodity (water). However, there has been a recent resurgence in interest in fuel cells because of their potential use in electric cars. The 2008 Honda FCX, the first production model of a vehicle powered with a fuel cell, can hold 4.1 kg (just under 9A lb) of highly pressured H2 gas and has a range of 450 km (280 mi). Nonetheless, the car is in very limited service because of its need for relatively large quantities of elemental hydrogen as fuel. If ways can be found to circumvent their current limitations, fuel cells may become more and more common as power sources. Use Figure 14.1 "A Redox Reaction in Which the Two Half Reactions Are Physically Separated" as a guide.
You may also download a PDF copy of this book (40 MB) or just this chapter (3 MB), suitable for printing or most e-readers, or a .zip file containing this book's HTML files (for use in a web browser offline). Useful work can be extracted from the electrons as they transfer from one side to the othera€”for example, a light bulb can be lit, or a motor can be operated.
The cathode and anode collectively are the electrodesThe cathode or anode of a voltaic cell.

Note that all half reactions are listed as reduction reactions, so these values are called the standard reduction potentialsThe voltage of a reduction half reaction relative to the hydrogen half reaction. If the reduction potential is negative, make the voltage for the oxidation positive; if the reduction potential is positive, make the voltage for the oxidation negative.
Use the values directly as is from Table 14.1 "Standard Reduction Potentials of Half Reactions". A portable voltaic cell that generates electricity to power devices for our convenience is called a batteryA portable voltaic cell that generates electricity to power devices for our convenience.. Alkaline batteries are similar to dry cells, but they use a basic moist paste rather than an acidic one. The lead storage battery is a secondary battery, as it can be recharged and reused many times.
Other fuels can be used besides hydrogen; fuel cells have been developed that work on methane, methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, carbon-rich materials, and even magnesium metal. Most electric cars run on conventional batteries, which can be very heavy and expensive to replace.
It costs about $120,000a€“$140,000 to build, making the vehicle beyond the ability of most people to own. The apparatus as a whole, which allows useful electrical work to be extracted from a redox reaction, is called a voltaic (galvanic) cellAn apparatus that allows for useful electrical work to be extracted from a redox reaction..
Batteries that can be used only once are called primary batteriesA battery that cannot be recharged.. It is thought that fuel cells, rather than conventional batteries, might be better sources of electricity for automobiles. Finally, it always requires more energy to produce elemental hydrogen as a fuel than can be extracted from hydrogen as a fuel. Because electrons are coming from the anode, the anode is considered the negative electrode of the cell, while the cathode is considered the positive electrode of the cell. They should also be recycled when replaced so that potentially dangerous lead does not escape into the environment. As such, hydrogen is described as an energy carrier (like electricity) rather than an energy source (like oil and gas). Finally, because electrons are moving from one half cell to the other, a charge imbalance builds up as the reaction proceeds. Because the voltage of a redox reaction is determined by the difference of the tendencies of the individual half reactions, absolute voltages are unnecessary; only relative voltages of each half reaction are needed.
The other reactants are combined into a moist paste that minimizes free liquid, so the battery is less messy (hence the name dry cell). Because of their characteristics, lead storage batteries are used to start large engines in automobiles, boats, and airplanes. This distinction points out a fundamental argument against fuel cells as a a€?bettera€? power source. To counter that, a salt bridgeA part of a voltaic cell that contains a solution of some ionic compound whose ions migrate to either side of the voltaic cell to maintain the charge balance.

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