Lead batteries work worksheet,replaced battery car still wont start 1.7.10,how to check car battery is bad juju - Easy Way

17.05.2014
A car battery is a rechargeable electrochemical device that stores chemical energy and releases it as electrical energy upon demand. With a 5% compounded annual growth rate, worldwide sales of SLI batteries represent 63% of the $27 billion annually spent on batteries. After the "curing" of the plates, they are made up into cells, and the cells are inserted into a high-density tough polypropylene or hard rubber case [#1 in the diagram above].
In cold climates, normally a battery "ages" as the active positive plate material sheds (or flakes off) due to the expansion and contraction that occurs during the discharge and recharge cycles.
Most of the "defective" batteries returned to manufacturers during free placement warranty periods are good. Lead Acid batteries have changed little since the 1880's although improvements in materials and manufacturing methods continue to bring improvements in energy density, life and reliability. Lead acid batteries used in the RV and Marine Industries usually consist of two 6-volt batteries in series, or a single 12-volt battery.
A battery cell consists of two lead plates a positive plate covered with a paste of lead dioxide and a negative made of sponge lead, with an insulating material (separator) in between. Build your own Accurate LC Meter (Capacitance Inductance Meter) and start making your own coils and inductors.
1Hz - 2MHz XR2206 Function Generator produces high quality sine, square and triangle waveforms of high-stability and accuracy. Having the ability to control various appliances inside or outside of your house wirelessly is a huge convenience, and can make your life much easier and fun.
Portable USB Charger is a device that will charge things like Ipods, PDAs, that accepts charge from a USB port. Automatic battery charger automatically starts the charging procedure when battery voltage drops below a certain predefined value and stops after the voltage has risen above the maximum allowed value. Lipoly batteries are great power source for our AEGs, they offer high current capacities and are available in different shapes and sizes that can fit virtually any AEG. New development in AEG electronics protect the battery from going too low by either cutting the power or an audible warning that indicates low battery voltage.
The presented battery saver or TL431 LiPo Saver is designed to prevent deep discharge of lithium polymer batteries. Solar panels should be well adapted to the battery to be charged or the battery may be overcharged.
Since this is a simple solar battery charger that does not automatically turn off when the battery is full.
An LM317T voltage regulator chip that can be used with a suitable resistor to regulate current. Since the MCP73831 charge-management controller includes a pass transistor, current sense and reverse-discharge protection on a single chip, it reduces the number of system components needed for battery-charger designs, which, added Microchip, lowers overall system costs.
As per manufacturer's data sheets, a 12V rechargeable lead-acid battery should be operated within 10.
It is therefore necessary for all concerned to monitor the charge level of their batteries continuously. The following automatic battery-charger design is created with a circuit that could qualify as the simplest window comparator ever built around a single transistor. With the help of a precise variable voltage supply, the upper and lower voltage levels were set. Here is a lead acid battery charger circuit using IC LM317.The IC here provides the correct charging voltage for the battery. It takes an input voltage from 8 to 16 volts and can run from anything from a 9 volt battery to a car battery. This battery charger charges a NIMH 5-pack battery used in the BiPed robot in less than 1 hour, and charges the 10-pack NiCd used in the Snuf robot in about 30 minutes. The electric model aircraft and car industries have produced a bewildering array of field chargers for NiCd motor battery packs. This is a charger for lithium ion batteries which takes its power from the USB port of a computer. This instructable will show you how to make your own solar battery charger from very simple components.
This is a MAX1811 based USB charger that can handle both Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer 3.7V battery.
The ASUS Eee is a fantastic ultra-portable notebook with almost everything required for geeks (and nothing that isn’t). Anyway, being so small I thought it would be nice to be able to carry this around in the car. I thought at this stage it would be worth noting that a commercial car charger is now available for less than it cost me to build this from Expansys and is available in most countries (select your location on their site). I’d actually recommend it over the design here is it seems to perform better at lower voltages (that one works down to 10V).
I decided to design the charger around the LM2576 “Simple Switcher” IC from National Semiconductor. When the battery voltage is greater than the cutoff voltage +1v, the Green LED will be on solid.
The MAX1551 and MAX1555 charge a single-cell 3.7V lithium-ion LiPo battery from both USB and AC adapter sources. On-chip thermal limiting simplifies PC board layout and allows optimum charging rate without the thermal limits imposed by worst-case battery and input voltage.
The MAX1551 and MAX1555 are available in 5-pin thin SOT23 packages and operate over a -40°C to +85°C range. Lead Acid batteries have changed little since the 1880's although improvements in materials and manufacturing methods continue to bring improvements in energy density, life and reliability. Lead acid batteries used in the RV and Marine Industries usually consist of two 6-volt batteries in series, or a single 12-volt battery. A battery cell consists of two lead plates a positive plate covered with a paste of lead dioxide and a negative made of sponge lead, with an insulating material (separator) in between. In figure # 3, above a fully charged battery is connected to a load (light bulb) and the chemical reaction between sulfuric acid and the lead plates produces the electricity to light the bulb.
In figure # 5 the battery is now fully discharged, the plates are almost completely covered with lead sulfate (sulfation) and voltage has dropped to 10.5-volts. NOTE: Discharging a lead acid battery below 10.5 volts will severely damage it!
Lead sulfate (sulfation) now coats most of the battery plates. NOTE: Always recharge your RV or Marine battery as soon as possible to prevent loss of battery capacity due to the build-up of hard lead sulfate crystals! During the recharging process as electricity flows through the water portion of the electrolyte and water, (H2O) is converted into its original elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The battery shown in figure # 7 above has been fully recharged using a fixed charging voltage of 13.6-volts.
Since most RV and Marine craft owners seldom remember to perform this function, Progressive Dynamics has developed the microprocessor controlled Charge Wizard. One disadvantage of recharging a lead acid battery at a fixed voltage of 13.6-volts is the recharge time is very long.
This higher concentration of acid at the bottom of the battery causes additional build-up of lead sulfate (sulfation), which reduces battery storage capacity and battery life.
As you have learned, in order to properly charge and maintain a lead acid battery you must use an intelligent charging system. No, in fact you should never discharge your lead acid battery below 80% of its rated capacity. Equalizing should be performed when a battery is first purchased (called a freshening charge) and on a regular basis (every 10 discharge cycles or at least once a month).
An equalizing charge for a 12 volt battery requires that it be charged with a voltage of at least 14.4 volts for a period of at least one hour once a month, or every 10 discharge cycles.
How often you use and recharge your batteries will determine the frequency of watering. Battery electrolyte levels should be just below the bottom of the vent well, about A? - A? inch above the tops of the separators.
If your battery is partially discharged, the electrolyte in a lead acid battery may freeze. Undercharging - Generally caused by not allowing the charger to restore the battery to full charge after use. Overcharging - Continuous-charging causes accelerated corrosion of the positive plates, excessive water consumption and in some cases, damaging temperatures within the battery. Under-watering - In lead acid batteries water is lost during the charging process. Over-watering - Excessive watering of a battery results in additional dilution of the electrolyte, resulting in reduced battery performance. Can I reduce the need to add water to my battery by lowering the charging voltage to 13 volts or less? Lowering the charging voltage will reduce the need to add water, but this will cause a condition known as battery stratification. This increased concentration of acid increases the formation of lead sulfate (sulfation). Brown sediment, called sludge or "mud," builds up in the bottom of the case andcan short the cell out. These batteries are constructed of several single cells connected in series each cell produces approximately 2.1 volts. The plates are enclosed in a plastic battery case and then submersed in an electrolyte consisting of water and sulfuric acid (see figure # 1).
This LC Meter allows to measure incredibly small inductances making it perfect tool for making all types of RF coils and inductors.
The meter is a perfect addition to any power supply, battery chargers and other electronic projects where voltage and current must be monitored. It is a very useful bench test equipment for testing and finding out the frequency of various devices with unknown frequency such as oscillators, radio receivers, transmitters, function generators, crystals, etc.
BA1404 HI-FI Stereo FM Transmitter broadcasts high quality stereo signal in 88MHz - 108MHz FM band. It is an irreplaceable tool for troubleshooting and repairing electronic equipment by determining performance and health of electrolytic capacitors. 8-DIP machined IC socket allows to swap OPA2134 with many other dual opamp chips such as OPA2132, OPA2227, OPA2228, dual OPA132, OPA627, etc. It's breadboard compatible so it can be plugged into a breadboard for quick prototyping, and it has VCC & GND power pins available on both sides of PCB.
It runs off a 9-V battery, and through the simple circuit, out comes a regulated 5-V perfect for a USB port. Setup can't be easier, just connect two alligator clips to battery terminals and plug the device in mains. While saving up for the "Panther" or "Cheetah" SW-COMP, here is a cheap and easy to construct 11.1V lipoly lo-batt indicator. It consists of a TLV3012 comparator with onboard reference, an voltage divider, load resistors, indicator LED and a transistor.
The diode represents the onboard reference in the comparator, eagle didn't have the device in its library. Decreases the cell voltage of a LiPo batteries below 2.4 volts will permanently damage the cell.
If you want to charge batteries with different capacities, then you need to change the solar panels. So we need to maintain the charging current is low enough that will not damage the battery even when they are fully charged. It features adjustable current charging from 15mA up to 500mA for single cell lipo batteries. Includes integrated pass transistor, current sense and reverse-discharge protection, the MCP73831 charger reduces the number of components needed for battery-charger designs. But, in practice, many of the battery users are unable to do so because of non-availability of reasonably-priced monitoring equipment. It starts charging when the battery voltage drops beyond a preset value, and it stops when an upper preset voltage is attained.


The normally connected (NC) lead of the relay isn't joined to the 15-V dc supply, which blocks this voltage from passing to the battery leads.
It uses a high efficiency switching regulator that runs at 85 - 94% efficiency depending on input voltage and load. To prevent overheating of the battery, the charging current is turned off when the slope of the battery-voltage turns from positive into negative. These range from simple 6 or 7 cell chargers consisting of a resistor and mechanical timer, to more complex chargers with peak detection, cycling, and the ability to handle 36 cell packs. It is taken from my documentation provided with a kit I supply - you should easily be able to source the same components yourself of course.
It periodically measures the charge current and battery voltage, and shows them by blinking two LEDs. Proper chargers are usually expensive and cheap chargers supplied with the original equipment often incorrectly charge the cells and dramatically shorten their life.
Initially developed for a sailing boat, the target to reach was to control the level of charge and discharge and to protect a 12 volts lead battery connected to a 32 watts solar panel. With its performance it is very close to the many of the commercial products available on the market. Unfortunately I couldn’t find a car charger available anywhere at the time so I decided to tackle the problem myself. There isn’t a fixed voltage regulator available for this exact voltage, so the circuit needed to be designed around an adjustable regulator.
There are tons of ICs like this available, many of which are a bit more efficient, however I selected this one because it is readily available and relatively cheap.
They operate with no external FETs or diodes, and accept operating input voltages up to 7V. When the MAX1551 and MAX1555 thermal limits are reached, the chargers do not shut down, but progressively reduce charging current. This allows charging from both powered and unpowered USB hubs with no port communication required.
They cannot be used as a direct substitute (even if they look like other AA's) since they run at about 3.6 (or so) volts.
All lead acid batteries consist of flat lead plates immersed in a pool of electrolyte. These batteries are constructed of several single cells connected in series each cell produces approximately 2.1 volts. Lead acid batteries do not generate voltage on their own; they only store a charge from another source.
This chemical reaction also begins to coat both positive and negative plates with a substance called lead sulfate also known as sulfation (shown as a yellow build-up on plates). Lead sulfate is a soft material, which can is reconverted back into lead and sulfuric acid, provided the discharged battery is immediately connected to a battery charger.
Proper recharging and maintenance requires an intelligent charging system that can vary the charging voltage based on the state of charge and use of your RV or Marine battery. These gasses are very flammable and the reason your RV or Marine batteries must be vented outside.
Notice that some lead sulfate (sulfation) still remains on the plates. A typical 125-AH RV or Marine battery will take approximately 80 hours to recharge at 13.6 volts.
To prevent this from occurring the charging voltage must be reduced to 13.2-volts.
However, this lower voltage does not provide enough gassing to prevent a battery condition called Battery Stratification.
In order to prevent Battery Stratification, an Equalization Charge (increasing charging voltage to 14.4-volts) must be applied periodically. The rate of self-discharge for lead acid batteries depends on the storage or operating temperature.
Reduced performance can also be an indicator that an equalizing charge is needed. An equalizing charge prevents battery stratification and reduces sulfation, the leading cause of battery failure.
Only distilled or deionized water should be added to achieve the recommended electrolyte levels.
At a 40% state of charge, electrolyte will freeze if the temperature drops to approximately -16 degrees F. Continuously operating a battery in a partial state of charge, or storing the battery in the discharged state results in the formation of lead sulfate (sulfation) on the plates. Lead acid batteries should be charged after each discharge of more the 50% of its rated capacity and during or after prolonged storage of 30 days or more.
If the electrolyte level drops below the tops of the plates, irreparable damage may occur. Add water to your battery after it has been fully charged, never when the battery is partially discharged.
Battery stratification is caused when the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte mixture separates from the water and begins to concentrate at the bottom of the battery.
To prevent stratification, your battery should receive a periodic equalizing charge (increasing the charging voltage to 14.4 volts or above). Regular water addition is required for most types of lead acid batteries although low-maintenance types come with excess electrolyte calculated to compensate for water loss during a normal lifetime. A six-volt battery has three single cells, which when fully charged produce an output voltage of 6.3 volts.
It can be connected to any type of stereo audio source such as iPod, Computer, Laptop, CD Player, Walkman, Television, Satellite Receiver, Tape Deck or other stereo system to transmit stereo sound with excellent clarity throughout your home, office, yard or camp ground. Unlike other ESR Meters that only measure ESR value this one measures capacitor's ESR value as well as its capacitance all at the same time.
Headphone amplifier is small enough to fit in Altoids tin box, and thanks to low power consumption may be supplied from a single 9V battery. It's small, power efficient, yet customizable through onboard 2 x 7 perfboard that can be used for connecting various sensors and connectors.
You can control lights, fans, AC system, computer, printer, amplifier, robots, garage door, security systems, motor-driven curtains, motorized window blinds, door locks, sprinklers, motorized projection screens and anything else you can think of. Portable USB chargers will always be handy, lets face it these days every gadget around us has USB charging capabilities. I used the typical circuit from the datasheet and referred to the pin out to see which pin is what. When the battery is full, the regulator adjust its voltage output from 15 volts down to 5 volts automatically terminate the charging process. Building a solar AA battery charger only requires a few components and a simple construction.
The circuit idea presented here will fill this void by providing a circuit for monitoring the charge level of lead-acid batteries continuously.
This charging circuit is designed based on this fact.The charging current for the battery is controlled by Q1,R1,R4 and R5. High power density, low self-discharge, no memory effect and they can deliver quite an amount of current. A second termination-criterion of the charging process is provided for safety: the charge time is limited to about 1 hour.
I built this circuit into the plug of a VW solar charger panel that is used to prevent a discharge of the battery when a car is not used for some time.
You can select between either 100mA and 500mA current charging mode and LED provides the status of the charging.
This 'intelligent' charger was designed for high current and rapid charge applications such as cordless power tools and model racing cars.
If you live in New Zealand you can get them from DSE; at the time of writing they are the exclusive supplier. It also has a lower drop-out voltage (~2V) than many other chips I looked at which is important when powering the device from a car or 12v SLA battery.
The charger incorporates an automatic charge cut-off circuit based on cell temperature, and the cells can be left in the charger indefinitely after cut-off. A six-volt battery has three single cells, which when fully charged produce an output voltage of 6.3 volts. This is the reason lead acid batteries are called storage batteries, because they only store a charge.
Progressive Dynamics has developed intelligent charging systems that solve battery problems and reduce battery maintenance.
Gassing causes water loss and therefore lead acid batteries need to have water added periodically.
Increasing the charge voltage to 14.4-volts will reduce battery recharge time for a 125-AH battery to 3-4 hours.
The Charge Wizard will automatically select its STORAGE MODE of operation (13.2-volts) once the battery reaches full charge and remains unused for a period of 30 hours. Battery Stratification is caused by the fact that the electrolyte in the battery is a mixture of water and acid and, like all mixtures, one component, the acid, is heavier than water.
The Charge Wizard automatically selects its EQUALIZATION MODE (14.4 volts) every 21 hours for a period of 15 minutes. It is best to check your battery water level frequently and add distilled water when needed.
Adding water to a battery before charging may result in overflow of the electrolyte. When a battery is fully charged the electrolyte will not freeze until the temperature drops to approximately -92 degrees F. Sulfation reduces the performance of the battery and may cause premature battery failure. A twelve-volt battery has six single cells in series producing a fully charged output voltage of 12.6 volts. Lead acid batteries do not generate voltage on their own; they only store a charge from another source. The circuit includes an auto ranging as well as reset switch and produces very accurate and stable readings.
Arduino Prototype uses all standard through-hole components for easy construction, two of which are hidden underneath IC socket. This comes very very handy when you have a scooter or a real motorcycle that you don't drive during the winter time.
I have built several of these for use as Tx alarm and they do SCREAM especially if you fit twin piezo sounders. I also used adapter board so that I could prototype the LiPo battery charger on a breadboard.
A single event of overcharge or deep discharge can bring down the charge-holding capacity of a battery by 15 to 20 per cent.
A modern car contains a large amount of electronics, and a quiescent current of 40-50mA (about 1Ah per day!) is considered "normal". I worked out it’s the same cost as importing one once you include all the duties and tax, plus you get the advantage of a proper NZ-style mains charger. The size of the battery plates and amount of electrolyte determines the amount of charge lead acid batteries can store.
As the battery continues to discharge, lead sulfate coats more and more of the plates and battery voltage begins to decrease from fully charged state of 12.6-volts (figure # 4). Our 2000 Series of Marine Battery Chargers have the Charge Wizard feature built-in. This feature is standard on all of Progressive Dynamics Marine Battery Chargers. This is the reason lead acid batteries are called storage batteries, because they only store a charge. USB IO Board is self-powered by USB port and can provide up to 500mA for electronic projects. Board features 28-PIN DIP IC socket, user replaceable ATmega328 microcontroller flashed with Arduino bootloader, 16MHz crystal resonator and a reset switch.


Because we all know what happens to a battery when not used and especially during the winter.
The barrel plug towards the top goes into an LM7805 that can take 7-16V and regulates it down to 5V. This charger uses the cell manufacturer's recommended charge method, to safely and quickly charge batteries. The size of this storage capacity is described as the amp hour (AH) rating of a battery. During the battery recharge cycle lead sulfate (sulfation) begins to reconvert to lead and sulfuric acid.
Lead sulfate build up is reduced if battery is given an Equalizing Charge once every 10 discharge cycles or at least once a month. The optional Charge Wizard automatically senses when a battery has a very low state of charge and automatically selects its BOOST MODE of operation. Tap water contains minerals that will reduce battery capacity and increase their self-discharge rate. The size of the battery plates and amount of electrolyte determines the amount of charge lead acid batteries can store. If the battery is overcharged pressure from these gasses will cause relief caps to open and vent, resulting in some water loss. An Equalizing Charge increases charging voltage to 14.4 volts or higher for a short period.
Arduino sketches are uploaded through any USB-Serial adapter connected to 6-PIN ICSP female header.
Most sealed batteries have extra electrolyte added during the manufacturing process to compensate for some water loss. This higher voltage causes gassing that equalizes (re-mixes) the electrolyte solution.
When the battery reaches the 90% charge level, the Charge Wizard automatically reduces the charge voltage down to 13.6 volts to complete the charge. Keeping this in mind if a 125 AH battery is stored for four months (16 weeks) winter without being charged, it will loose 80 amps of its 125-amp capacity. Board is supplied by 2-5V voltage and may be powered by a battery such as Lithium Ion cell, two AA cells, external power supply or USB power adapter. This chemical reaction also begins to coat both positive and negative plates with a substance called lead sulfate also known as sulfation (shown as a yellow build-up on plates). Lead acid batteries can be connected in parallel to increase the total AH capacity. Lead sulfate is a soft material, which can is reconverted back into lead and sulfuric acid, provided the discharged battery is immediately connected to a battery charger.
Proper recharging and maintenance requires an intelligent charging system that can vary the charging voltage based on the state of charge and use of your RV or Marine battery. In order to recharge a 12-volt lead acid battery with a fully charged terminal voltage of 12.6-volts, the charger voltage must be set at a higher voltage. During the battery recharge cycle lead sulfate (sulfation) begins to reconvert to lead and sulfuric acid. During the recharging process as electricity flows through the water portion of the electrolyte and water, (H2O) is converted into its original elements, hydrogen and oxygen.
These gasses are very flammable and the reason your RV or Marine batteries must be vented outside. Gassing causes water loss and therefore lead acid batteries need to have water added periodically. Sealed lead acid batteries contain most of these gasses allowing them to recombine into the electrolyte. If the battery is overcharged pressure from these gasses will cause relief caps to open and vent, resulting in some water loss.
This build-up will continue after each recharging cycle and gradually the battery will begin to loose capacity to store a full charge and eventually must be replaced.
Lead sulfate build up is reduced if battery is given an Equalizing Charge once every 10 discharge cycles or at least once a month. An Equalizing Charge increases charging voltage to 14.4 volts or higher for a short period. This higher voltage causes gassing that equalizes (re-mixes) the electrolyte solution. Since most RV and Marine craft owners seldom remember to perform this function, Progressive Dynamics has developed the microprocessor controlled Charge Wizard. The Charge Wizard will automatically provide an Equalizing Charge every 21 hours for a period of 15 minutes, when the battery is fully charged and not in use.
A typical 125-AH RV or Marine battery will take approximately 80 hours to recharge at 13.6 volts. Increasing the charge voltage to 14.4-volts will reduce battery recharge time for a 125-AH battery to 3-4 hours. The optional Charge Wizard automatically senses when a battery has a very low state of charge and automatically selects its BOOST MODE of operation.
When the battery reaches the 90% charge level, the Charge Wizard automatically reduces the charge voltage down to 13.6 volts to complete the charge.
The Charge Wizard will automatically select its STORAGE MODE of operation (13.2-volts) once the battery reaches full charge and remains unused for a period of 30 hours. However, this lower voltage does not provide enough gassing to prevent a battery condition called Battery Stratification. Battery Stratification is caused by the fact that the electrolyte in the battery is a mixture of water and acid and, like all mixtures, one component, the acid, is heavier than water. Therefore, acid will begin to settle and concentrate at the bottom of the battery (see figure #8). This higher concentration of acid at the bottom of the battery causes additional build-up of lead sulfate (sulfation), which reduces battery storage capacity and battery life. In order to prevent Battery Stratification, an Equalization Charge (increasing charging voltage to 14.4-volts) must be applied periodically. The Charge Wizard automatically selects its EQUALIZATION MODE (14.4 volts) every 21 hours for a period of 15 minutes. This Equalizing Charge feature is standard on our Marine chargers. As you have learned, in order to properly charge and maintain a lead acid battery you must use an intelligent charging system. Progressive Dynamics, Inteli-Power 9100 Series RV converters with a Charge Wizard installed, or one of our Inteli-Power Marine Battery Chargers will provide the intelligent charging system your battery needs for a long life, with low maintenance. Dry cells Batteries are split between dry cell and wet cell. The old original dry cells were the kind with a carbon rod down the middle, and they had little power and shelf life.
Current non-rechargeable dry cells have an excellent shelf life and generally provide 1.5VDC. Rechargeable dry cells have a shelf life of less than a year before needing to be charged again. NiCads have given rise to the idea of batteries having a memory.
Failing to fully discharge a NiCad before recharging it eventually led to a loss of battery life. There is no need to "condition" these batteries, and it is better to keep them on a float charge and fully charged than it is to cycle them by discharge then recharge. Cycling a battery makes it wear out faster. Wet cells Wet cells are the batteries we have in our cars - an acid and lead plates that generate electricity.
Sealed lead-acid batteries will not leak, although they may discharge gasses if not charged properly. Gel cells are said to work better than AGM batteries in conditions where they have long use and frequent cycling.
The batteries are more deeply discharged and are used frequently, then recharged. AGMs seem more efficient at uses where they are deeply discharged but only infrequently, being kept on a floating charge. The battery in a UPS is kept fully charged while the power is on, but when the power goes off, the computers, monitors, printers, and such pull a lot of current from the battery until they can be shut down properly. The differences between gel cells and AGMs may make no difference to non-critical users who need a big capacity, portable battery for occasional use.
This may include ham radio operators who need a big battery for a day or two in the field for an event or for campers who want a battery on camping trips to run lights or to recharge AAs. Discharge Using a charged battery discharges it. If the battery has a manual, it may have a chart showing different capacities based on different draws.
When the battery shows 10V at the terminal with no load, the manufacturer deems the battery fully discharged. Smaller amperages will take longer to charge and may not ever fully charge a big enough battery.
Sealed batteries have one-way valves to vent the gas, but remember the gas is hydrogen, which is flammable. This means you will still be charging the battery as long as the charger is connected, and you will overcharge the battery. Battery life Battery life depends on many factors, and I'll cover only cycles.
A sealed lead-acid battery which is fully discharged (as defined above) has a life of about 200 cycles. If a battery is subject to "shallow" discharges (30% or 40% down from the voltage read when fully charged), then the life may be 800 or more cycles. It is better to keep a sealed lead-acid battery on a floating charge than to allow it to fully discharge by sitting a year between uses. The next best option is to fully recharge the battery monthly. People who use their batteries infrequently and then use them to full discharge (and beyond) will damage their batteries and shorten the battery's life substantially from any advertised life.
They don't recharge their batteries until a day or two before they leave, drain the batteries dead during the week, then bring the batteries home and put them away discharged until next year. If you have a 12 amp-hour battery and fully charge it, connect the lamp and volt meter to the battery, turn the lamp on, and note the time. When you notice the light fading, start watching the meter and note the time the voltmeter reads 10.5V. Its capacity will continue to degrade until you find the battery useless and recycle it. Answers to Common Questions about Batteries Do lead acid batteries discharge when not in use? All batteries, regardless of their chemistry, will self-discharge.
The rate of self-discharge for lead acid batteries depends on the storage or operating temperature. A battery with a 125-amp hour rating would self-discharge at a rate of approximately five amps per week. Keeping this in mind if a 125 AH battery is stored for four months (16 weeks) winter without being charged, it will loose 80 amps of its 125-amp capacity. An equalizing charge prevents battery stratification and reduces sulfation, the leading cause of battery failure. When should I add water to my batteries? How often you use and recharge your batteries will determine the frequency of watering. It is best to check your battery water level frequently and add distilled water when needed.
Tap water contains minerals that will reduce battery capacity and increase their self-discharge rate. Warning - A brand new battery may have a low electrolyte level. Adding water to a battery before charging may result in overflow of the electrolyte. What is the proper electrolyte level? Battery electrolyte levels should be just below the bottom of the vent well, about ? - ? inch above the tops of the separators. Never let the electrolyte level to drop below the top of the plates. Do I ever need to add acid to my battery? Under normal operating conditions, you never need to add acid. Only distilled or deionized water should be added to achieve the recommended electrolyte levels. Can my batteries freeze? If your battery is partially discharged, the electrolyte in a lead acid battery may freeze. At a 40% state of charge, electrolyte will freeze if the temperature drops to approximately -16 degrees F. When a battery is fully charged the electrolyte will not freeze until the temperature drops to approximately -92 degrees F. What are the most common mistakes made by owners of lead acid batteries? Undercharging - Generally caused by not allowing the charger to restore the battery to full charge after use. Continuously operating a battery in a partial state of charge, or storing the battery in the discharged state results in the formation of lead sulfate (sulfation) on the plates. Sulfation reduces the performance of the battery and may cause premature battery failure. Overcharging - Continuous-charging causes accelerated corrosion of the positive plates, excessive water consumption and in some cases, damaging temperatures within the battery. Lead acid batteries should be charged after each discharge of more the 50% of its rated capacity and during or after prolonged storage of 30 days or more. Under-watering - In lead acid batteries water is lost during the charging process.
Check your battery water level frequently. Over-watering - Excessive watering of a battery results in additional dilution of the electrolyte, resulting in reduced battery performance. Add water to your battery after it has been fully charged, never when the battery is partially discharged. Can I reduce the need to add water to my battery by lowering the charging voltage to 13 volts or less? Lowering the charging voltage will reduce the need to add water, but this will cause a condition known as battery stratification. Battery stratification is caused when the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte mixture separates from the water and begins to concentrate at the bottom of the battery. This increased concentration of acid increases the formation of lead sulfate (sulfation).
To prevent stratification, your battery should receive a periodic equalizing charge (increasing the charging voltage to 14.4 volts or above).



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Comments Lead batteries work worksheet

  1. BOKSYOR
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  2. H_A_C_L_I
    Rates and also check the cases, a malfunctioning converter will just cease charge, you.
  3. NIKO_375
    Weather, and are worse in the i would probably have last point, the.
  4. orik
    Chargers at An example of a switching type that, unlike the semiconductor industry.
  5. fb
    The best battery tester, this from anywhere, including laptops, stereos, phones acid.