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The lead acid battery uses lead as the anode and lead dioxide as the cathode, with an acid electrolyte. During the charging process, the reactions at each electrode are reversed; the anode becomes the cathode and the cathode becomes the anode. During charging, given the high voltage, water is dissociated at the two electrodes, and gaseous hydrogen and oxygen products are readily formed leading to the loss of the electrolyte and a potentially explosive situation. Under certain circumstances the lead sulphate products at both the electrodes achieve an irreversible state, making the recharging process very difficult. Pure lead is too soft to use as a grid material so in general the lead is hardened by the addition of 4 – 6% antimony. The function of the grid is to hold the active material and to conduct electricity between the active material and the battery terminals. Ball milling: Pieces of lead are put into a rotary mechanical mill, forming fine lead flakes, which are then oxidised in air and removed. Red lead (Pb3O4) can also be added to the PbO formed by these methods, as it is more conductive. The oxide is mixed with water, sulphuric acid and a mixer, and then mixed to form a paste. The simplest cell would consist of one cathode plate, one anode plate and a separator between them. Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. The principal consumption of Lead is for the Lead-Acid storage battery in which grid or plate is made of Lead or Lead with other metal more commonly with antimony. Lead Sheet is used in the building industry for flashings or weathering to prevent water penetration & for roofing and cladding. Lead pipes due to its corrosion resistant properties are used for carriage of corrosive chemicals at chemical plants.
Used extensively in paints, although recently the use of Lead in paints has been drastically curtailed to eliminate or reduce health hazards. Because of its high ductility, good extrusion ability, relatively low temperature & excellent proven corrosion resistance when in contact with a wide range of industrial and marine environments, soils and chemicals, Lead Alloys are used extensively as sheathing materials for high voltage power cables. Soft solders are largely Lead-tin alloys with or without antimony while fusible alloys are various combinations of Lead, tin, bismuth, cadmium and other low melting point metals. UStudy aims to provide Educational Content for Polytechnic College students based on the latest K Scheme syllabus of Tamil Nadu. A lead-acid battery is a electrical storage device that uses a reversible chemical reaction to store energy. A lead-acid battery is composed of a series of plates immerse in a solution of sulfuric acid. When the battery is discharged (when it is subjected to an electrical load), acid from the elecrolyte combines with the active plate material. When a battery is recharged, the opposite occurs: the lead sulfate reverts back to active material, and the electrolyte becomes more acidic with a higher specific gravity. During discharge, the lead dioxide (positive plate) and lead (negative plate) react with the electrolyte of sulfuric acid to create lead sulfate, water and energy.
Many new competitive cell chemistries are being developed to meet the requirements of the auto industry for EV and HEV applications. Even after 140 years since its invention, improvements are still being made to the lead acid battery and despite its shortcomings and the competition from newer cell chemistries the lead acid battery still retains the lion's share of the high power battery market.
Copyright © 2008 Lakshmi Anand K, Director of MSPVL Polytechnic College, Pavoorchatram.

Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere efforts, intelligent direction and wise choice of alternatives and skillful execution. The most common is the SLI battery used for motor vehicles for engine Starting, vehicle Lighting and engine Ignition, however it has many other applications (such as communications devices, emergency lighting systems and power tools) due to its cheapness and good performance. Strips of lead foil with coarse cloth in between were rolled into a spiral and immersed in a 10% solution of sulphuric acid. These act as grain refiners, decreasing the grain size of the lead and thereby increasing its hardness and strength. This is often used for telephone applications, and for no maintenance automotive batteries, since a more stable battery is required. Each droplet reacts with the air to form an oxide layer, giving 70 – 85% lead oxide. By virtue of its resistance to chemical corrosion, Lead Sheet also finds use for the lining of chemical treatment baths, acid plants and storage vessels. Also Lead pipe of appropriate composition is still extruded for cutting into short length 'sleeves' for use in the jointing of Lead sheathed cables. Alloys formed with tin, copper, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, and sodium are all of industrial importance.
With all the alternative sources of energy being explored and implemented; we are seeing a rising trend in demand of Lead acid batteries. It uses a combination of lead plates or grids and an electrolyte consisting of a diluted sulphuric acid to convert electrical energy into potential chemical energy and back again. Each plate consists of a grid upon which is attached the active material (lead dioxide on the negative plates, pure lead on the positive plates.) All of the negative plates are connected together, as are all of the positive plates. The cell was further developed by initially coating the lead with oxides, then by forming plates of lead oxide by coating an oxide paste onto grids. The molds are closed and filled with sufficient molten lead to fill the mold, leaving some excess to form a sprue, which is then removed by cutting or stamping. The separators are usually cellulose, PVC, rubber, microporous polyethylene or non-woven polypropylene. The high density of Lead Sheet makes it a very effective material for sound insulation purpose.
However, these batteries have a high cost and you will need to spend quite some money to replace them (average life of commercially available deep cycle batteries is 1.5-2 years) when they die out on you.
The electrolyte of lead-acid batteries is hazardous to your health and may produce burns and other permanent damage if you come into contact with it. The electrolyte become less acidic in the process, and the specific gravity of the solution drops.
This is where we come in with our guide on how to rebuild a battery from your dead battery. The tabs that are fixed to the plates are cast, then punched on between the layers and welded together. The battery is normally mounted on racks and is continuously charged except for intermittent discharging intervals of varying times and power.
The plates are suspended inside the case, which is filled with electrolyte in order to activate it. Alright, so how do you build a battery from an existing dead battery and more importantly why does the battery die?
In the next few paragraphs the types of plates and grid alloys for the lead acid and alkaline (Ni­Cad), the electrolyte properties, battery charging, battery safety and finally battery maintenance will be covered.
Lead-acid battery constructionFor the lead acid battery, the positive plates a vailable are: the pasted (F aure) plate which comprises of a latticework metallic grid with the openings filled with lead oxide paste.

The grid may be made up of lead antimony or lead calcium, the properties of which will be given later .The second type is the multitubular plates, which use porous plates to contain the lead o xide. The grid (lead antimony) is basically a row of spines extending from the top bar to the bottom cap bar. This results in a decrease in battery’s capacity and consequently failure.You can recover the oxides (covered later in the article) from the positive plates that have fallen victim to the anodic corrosion and use it to make paste for the new plates. The positive plate consists of a grid (lead antimony) of large area with thin layers of lead oxide.
So; we will be using the negative plates to make a new cell with the paste that comes from oxides.
The grid of alloys, antimony or calcium, serves both purposes gives physical support and strength to the soft lead and acts as an electric conductor.The grid achieves and retains a physical shape and conducts the current to all parts of the material. This means that you’ll be building a 3 cell battery from 6 cell battery.Advertisement Now to get to the job’ remove the positive plates and have them placed in a metal container, which can take some beating. Pasted plates with lead calcium alloy grids are used in sealed maintenance free lead acid cells due to the fact that this type does not require watering during its life time.Lead antimony is preferred for installations where elevated temperature and frequent cycling is encountered. Use a hammer or anything that is hard that can transfer impact to turn these plates into powder. Lead calcium is also used for installations requiring longer intervals between maintenance watering.
Once you have crushed the plates, remove small pieces of lead and grid from the mixture by sieving the contents.
Mix this powder with sulfuric acid and water to form a paste which will be placed into the plate’s grid structure and cured. Mix the fiberglass and glass fibers that have been recovered from the separators to strengthen the paste. Once the paste has been applied you will need to cure the plates, which is usually done at 30 degree Celsius in high humidity for about 48 hours.
At home, just put them in a pot that is filled with water into the oven and keep an eye on the water level. First off, cut the top off the battery and leave about 5 mm of plastic around the terminals.
Now you need to cut the interconnection between the cells and remove the cells from the case.Now you need to perform the process of forming in which, active materials are formed on the new plates.
The idea is to pass electric current and then reverse the direction and continue the same procedure for about say 30 times. If you continue indefinitely you’ll destroy the plate.Let’s make some electrolyte, shall we?
Alternatively, you can buy a sulphuric acid solution with 1250 sp gravity from a battery shop to use as a battery electrolyte.
Now all that is left is placing the plates back into the case, sealing the top and filling it with electrolyte. If you still decide to do it, make sure to work very safe as the lead-acid is very dangerous. Required fields are marked *CommentName * Email * Website Notify me of follow-up comments by email. We publish, we share and we spread the knowledge.You're welcome to read, write and contribute to EEP in any way!

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