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An accurate, simple-to-use gas gauge IC monitors lead-acid batteries used in mobile and stationary applications like medical instruments, wireless base stations and telecom shelters, e-bikes, inverters, and uninterruptible power supplies (UPS).
Texas Instruments' bq34z110 gas gauge IC provides accurate operating data for multi-cell, lead-acid battery packs with battery voltages of 4 V, 12 V, 24 V, 48 V and higher. The bq34z110 gas gauge IC from Texas Instruments provides accurate operating data for lead- acid batteries, a capability not available from other sources.
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The bq34z110 is shipped with factory configuration for the default case of 2-series lead-acid cell.
It is critical to continuously monitor and report the battery’s state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH).
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Additionally, the bq34z110 provides support for an external port expander for more than four LEDs. This can be changed by setting the number of series cells in the data flash configuration section. This article discusses in depth why accurate monitoring of these battery parameters is essential and how that monitoring will benefit end users. 1) is the industry’s only scalable gas gauge device that supports multi-cell lead-acid battery packs with battery voltages of 4 V, 12 V, 24 V, 48 V and higher. Lead-acid batteries have been in vogue since 1859 and are still popular due to their rugged design, lower cost and better recycling infrastructure [1]. The actual gain function is determined by a calibration process and the resulting voltage calibration factor is stored in the data flash location Voltage Divider. They have been the battery of choice for automotive application such as starting-lighting-ignition (SLI) and for motive applications such as boats, forklifts and golf carts that involve deep discharge.

This could frustrate the end user, and require more batteries to ensure an adequate output load.
With the proliferation of data servers and remote wireless base stations, battery backup has become indispensable — and again lead-acid batteries have been the preferred choice. In all of these applications, it is essential to monitor and report the battery’s state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH) instead of just monitoring the battery terminal voltage.
For battery backup applications, it is critical to know whether the battery can deliver the required power when called upon for service since the impact from loss of mission-critical data or wireless coverage would be significant.
This internal divider network is enabled by clearing the VOLTSEL bit in the Pack Configuration register.
State of charge and state of health State of charge (SoC) of a lead-acid battery, expressed in %, is the ratio of the remaining capacity (RC) to the full charge capacity (FCC) (see Fig. This ratio is optimum for directly measuring a dual cell lead-acid cell where charge voltage is limited to 5 V max. FCC is derived from battery full chemical capacity (QMAX) and battery impedance (RBAT) (See Fig.
The quality of the divider resistors is very important to avoid gauging errors over time and temperature. For example, for a new lead-acid battery of 100 Ah design capacity, when it is fully charged, the SoC is 100% since the FCC is 100 Ah and RC is also 100 Ah. Alternately, a matched network could be used that tracks its dividing ratio with temperature and age due to the similar geometry of each element. As the battery ages, its full chemical capacity (QMAX) tends to be lower than the design capacity due to chemical degradation. SoH monitors this chemical degradation and is reported in % as the ratio of the FCCH to the design capacity, where FCCH is FCC at 25°C for design charge or discharge rate (Fig.
It subtracts the resulting offset error from normal sense resistor voltage, VSR, for maximum measurement accuracy. For example, if the battery with design capacity of 100 Ah has a FCCH of only 85 Ah after one year in use, then its SoH is 85%. In short, SoC indicates how much charge is left before a recharge is needed, while SoH indicates when a battery will have to be replaced.
The bq34z110 can act as a SHA-1 and HMAC authentication slave by using its internal engine. Sending a 160-bit SHA-1 challenge message to the bq34z110 causes the IC to return a 160-bit digest, based upon the challenge message and hidden plain-text authentication keys. This information prevenqts premature shutdown and increases longevity of the battery and end equipment. When this digest matches an identical one, generated by a host or dedicated authentication master (operating on the same challenge message and using the same plain text keys), the authentication process is successful.
An associated host processor can interrogate the gas gauge to obtain cell information, such as remaining capacity, full charge capacity, and average current.

The biggest impact comes from the chemical kinetics during charge and discharge of the battery. To get a reasonable estimate of the SoC from voltage measurement, the battery needs to rest for at least few hours (for example, four hours) to attain equilibrium before the open circuit voltage (OCV), in other words, no-load voltage, can be measured. See Table 1 for the Battery Council International (BCI) recommended values for a 12-V lead-acid starter battery [2]. While an approximate SoC can be assessed at rest state, it is not possible to continuously assess it during charge and discharge by voltage measurement. Both sets of commands are used to read and write information contained within the IC’s control and status registers, as well as its data flash locations. Also, it is not possible to assess SoH with just terminal voltage measurement since it does not fully reflect the impact from battery aging.
Commands are sent from the host to the fuel gauge IC using HDQ or I2C serial communications engines that can execute during application development, pack manufacture, or end-equipment operation. Measuring specific gravity (SG) of the battery electrolyte is another approximation method that is applicable to the flooded lead-acid battery type.
But this method also suffers from lack of SoH information, from limitations due to temperature effects, stratified electrolyte concentration, and from the need for the electrolyte to stabilize before taking the SG reading.
Two consecutive HDQ or I2C transmissions must be executed to initiate the command function and to read or write the corresponding two bytes of data. TI’s bq34z110, the latest lead-acid gas gauge, uses Impedance Track gauging technology to accurately monitor and report SoC and SoH of the battery [3]. The data flash memory contains initialization, default, cell status, calibration, configuration, and user information. When the battery is in rest mode and when the current is below a user chosen threshold, the SoC is determined using the measured battery voltage and a predefined OCV to SoC relationship table that is temperature compensated and unique to that battery type and chemistry [4].
During charge and discharge, the SoC is continuously calculated using FCC and RC while the SoH is calculated using FCCH and design capacity. Many of these data flash locations are accessible during application development and pack manufacture. Both the SoC and SoH calculations depend on an accurate estimate of QMAX and battery impedance (RBAT). Access to these locations is achieved by either use of companion evaluation software, through individual commands, or through a sequence of data-flash-access commands. With nearly two decades of engineering experience, he has been awarded nine patents, with another six in review.

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Comments Lead acid gas gauge empty

  1. Ispanec
    Anti-lock brake module (ABM) with.
  2. Hooligan
    Day to use it and this kinda pulse pulse charger should the laptop bag for you.
  3. 4irtanka
    Jump larger heavy duty and using this.