Lead acid float charge,restore flat battery jokes,how to fix portable battery charger,battery operated cars for sale in pakistan - Easy Way

1986,A  uses a novel diode thermistor combination to provide a non-linear charging profile for a sealed lead acid battery float charger that varies the output voltage with temperature. This design is intended to address charging of external batteries that may experience extremes of temperature variation i.e. Of course these days you would use a microcontroller with stored profiles to adjust the voltage - but this design shows how to address the problem with simple standard components that don't require programming. It also includes the power supply circuit and an over voltage protection circuit so it could be useful in your designs (bearing in mind the you can probably get IC that do much of the same job - however it is instructive to follow the circuit operation described here). A power supply is provided with a predetermined nonlinear temperature coefficient for float charging sealed lead-acid batteries and providing power to a load.
Additionally, an over-voltage protection circuit, to disable the power supply should the output voltage exceed a predetermined value, is disclosed having a second temperature compensation network to compensate for the output voltage variation with temperature of the power supply. This design relates to combination battery chargers and power supplies, and more particularly to battery chargers which vary the output voltage with temperature.
While this battery allows operation of the electronic equipment at low temperatures, a widely varying charge (float) voltage is needed to recharge the battery.
To overcome the nonlinear float voltage variation with temperature characteristics, two approaches are used in the prior art: constant current charging and "gear shift" charging.
Although the temperature dependence of the float voltage is overcome with this approach, very long periods are required to recharge a depleted battery.
In addition, constant current and "gear shift" type power supplies are unsuitable for powering loads with widely varying power requirements due to wide voltage fluctuations across the load. It is therefore an object of this design to provide a means for optimally charging a battery by determining the float voltage required versus temperature over the operating temperature range of the battery. A further object of this design is to provide a power supply having an output voltage which changes with temperature to match the required float voltage of the battery and to have the power supply shutdown if the output voltage exceeds a predetermined value, that predetermined value tracking the float voltage of the battery. These objects and other objects are achieved by having a power supply with an internal voltage regulator being responsive to a temperature compensation network which varies the power supply output voltage with temperature. This network combines a linear temperature coefficient of a forward biased silicon diode and a nonlinear temperature coefficient of a thermistor to match the temperature coefficient of the sealed lead-acid batteries.
The AC power converter 100 also provides power to battery 104 via diode 105 to charge the battery 104. Output from inductor 129 is filtered by capacitor 131, inductor 132 and capacitor 133 to provide a smooth DC output voltage to negative output line 134.
Resistor 136, having a very low resistance, is used to determine output current from the AC power converter 100.
The pulse width of the pulses is varied by the width control input to the pulse generator 142.
If the sense voltage on line 155 is too low, the pulse width is increased and if the sense voltage is too high, the pulse width is reduced.
Over-temperature circuit 160 raises the reference voltage on node 145 if the temperature of the power amplifier 125 exceeds a predetermined temperature. Thermistor 161, thermally coupled to power amplifier 125, lowers its resistance with increasing temperature causing the voltage on node 163 to increase.
This in effect reduces the input to pulse generator 142 to thereby reduce the pulse width of the pulses generated therein protecting the power amplifier 125 from damage by overheating. These smaller pulse widths reduce (make less negative) the output voltage so that the output voltage is held constant. This increase causes pulse generator 142 to increase the pulse width of pulses amplified by pulse amplifier 125, which in turn causes the sense voltage on line 155 to become more negative as does the output voltage on line 134. Over-current circuit 156 limits the output of AC power converter 100 to protect the converter 100 from damage in case of excessive current consumption (short circuit, etc.).
With I1 constant and I3 =I1 -I2, I3 will decrease, lowering the voltage drop across resistor 152 and potentiometer 153. Over-voltage protect circuit 185 shuts down the AC power converter 100 should the sense voltage on line 155 exceed a predetermined voltage.
Once latch 194 is set, switch 195 closes shorting-out the output of pulse generator 142, thereby inhibiting pulses from the pulse generator 142 from reaching power amplifier 125 causing the output voltage to fall to zero. The currents I4 and I5 flowing through node 187 are equal (neglecting any small steady state currents flowing from node 187 to filter 188). Since I5 equals I4, variations in I4 with temperature causes the voltage drop across resistor 196 to vary opposite to variations in sense voltage on line 155.
This allows comparator 189 to compare the constant voltage on node 187 via filter 188 against the threshold voltage from potentiometer 191.
Resistors 173 and 174 scale the diode temperature coefficient to produce the voltage VCOMP on node 176. Current IC into node 180 is set by resistor 181 dropping the input voltage to the voltage on node 180. It is noted that any changes in current IC can be ignored since the voltage on node 180 is constant due to the voltage regulation by converter 100 in equilibrium holding node 146 (FIG. Therefore, with increasing temperature, the voltage on node 176 decreases linearly with temperature (in response to diode 171) and the combined resistance of thermistor 175 and resistors 178, 179 decreases nonlinearly as to increase IB, which causes IO to decrease. This change in output voltage with temperature on line 134 corresponds to the curve 110 (FIG. This allows a fixed threshold voltage (on negative input to comparator 189) to be used as the over-voltage threshold regardless of temperature. Having described a preferred embodiment of the design, it will now be apparent to one of skill in the art that other embodiments incorporating its concept may be used. Pothole Repair SystemPothole repair system : How to make a system that senses a pothole in a road an automatically repairs it.
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Invented by the French physician Gaston Plante in 1859, lead acid batteries were the first rechargeable batteries for commercial use.
Lead acid batteries should be charged in three stages, which are [1] constant-current charge, [2] topping charge and [3] float charge. The battery is fully charged when the current drops to a pre-determined level or levels out in stage 2. During the constant-current charge, the battery charges to 70 percent in 5–8 hours; the remaining 30 percent is filled with the slower topping charge that lasts another 7–10 hours. The switch from Stage 1 to 2 occurs seamlessly and happens when the battery reaches the set voltage limit.
Once fully charged through saturation, the battery should not dwell at the topping voltage for more than 48 hours and must be reduced to the float voltage level. LTspice® IV is a powerful, fast and free simulation tool, schematic capture and waveform viewer with enhancements and models for improving the simulation of switching regulators.
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A temperature compensation network in the power supply provides the predetermined nonlinear temperature coefficient by using a linear temperature coefficient element (forward biased silicon diode) and a nonlinear temperature coefficient element (thermistor) in combination.
These batteries must provide power to the installation over wide temperature extremes for a predetermined period of time, typically eight hours. For example, unsealed lead-acid (secondary) batteries only have 50% capacity at -20° C. Constant current "trickle" charging charges the batteries by keeping a low charging current flowing into the battery regardless of the temperature or battery float voltage.
Therefore, if the battery is called upon to provide power during this charging interval, full capacity would not be available and the installation may not be powered for the full predetermined period.
The "gear shift" charging approach switches from a high charge current to a low charge current if a predetermined rate of change of the battery voltage is exceeded regardless of temperature. The variation in the output voltage with temperature (temperature coefficient) matches the required float voltage of sealed lead-acid cells.
Further, an additional temperature compensation network is used to offset the output voltage variation with temperature of the output voltage to provide a constant voltage used for over-voltage shutdown of the power supply.
Once AC power is restored, battery 104 begins recharging and undervoltage protector 107 closes switch 106. 2 is a graph of the required float voltage curve 110 versus temperature of the battery 104 (FIG.
Amplified pulses from power amplifier 125 couple to transformer 127 to provide isolation and to step down the voltage of the amplified pulses from power amplifier 125 by a 14 to 9 ratio. The DC output voltage on line 134 is proportional to the pulse width of the pulses coupled to the power amplifier 125.
Voltage regulator circuit 140 provides pulses of variable width at a constant frequency, here 120 KHz, to the power amplifier 125. Subtractor 144 compares the reference voltage on node 145 to a control voltage on node 146 by subtracting the reference voltage from the control voltage.
At normal operating temperatures of the power amplifier 125 and resistors 149 being of equal value, the reference voltage on node 145 is one-half the voltage of temperature invariant reference voltage source 148. This protects the power amplifier 125 from damage by reducing the pulse width of pulses fed to the power amplifier 125 and hence reducing the output power of power amplifier 125. Once that voltage exceeds the reference voltage on node 145 (one-half the voltage from voltage source 148) by the turn-on voltage of diode 164, the voltage on node 145 increases, increasing the voltage on the negative input of the subtractor 144. Since the algebraic sum of the currents entering node 146 is zero and neglecting any small current flowing into the positive input of the subtractor 144 from node 146, then I1 =I3 +I2. Current I3 is set by resistor 152 and potentiometer 153 dropping the sense voltage on line 155 to the control voltage on node 146. As the sense voltage on line 155 goes more negative (as does negative output line 134), the control voltage on node 146 becomes more negative so that the output of subtractor 144 decreases, causing the pulse generator 142 to decrease the pulse width of the pulses amplified by power amplifier 125. Conversely, if the voltage on line 155 should become less negative, the control voltage on node 146 becomes less negative and, hence, the output of subtractor 144 increases.
Equilibrium occurs when the control voltage on node 146 equals the reference voltage on node 145.
At low output current from the AC power converter 100, the voltage drop across resistor 136 is essentially zero and the output of amplifier 157 is essentially zero. Should the output current exceed a predetermined value, a positive voltage will occur across resistor 136 causing the output of amplifier 157 to exceed the voltage on node 146 by the forward voltage drop of diode 158 and current I2 begins to increase. Therefore, the control voltage becomes more negative as if the sense voltage on line 155 went too negative, causing the converter 100 to reduce the output voltage on line 134 below the desired voltage in an effort to reduce current consumption. The voltage on node 187, proportional to the sense voltage on lead 155, passes through low pass filter 188 to the positive input on comparator 189. Current I4, from temperature compensation network 170b, varies with temperature, as described below, but it is sufficient to state here that the network 170b operates essentially the same as the network 170a and the current I4 tracks the current I1 with temperature.
This nulls out the sense voltage variation on line 155 with temperature caused by temperature compensation network 170a to provide a constant voltage (with temperature) on node 187.
2, curve 112 plots the output voltage of the converter 100 in response to the linear temperature coefficient of the diode 171 (FIG.
Since the algebraic sum of the currents into node 180 is zero, then the output current IO =IC -IB, wherein the output current IO corresponds to current I1 in the voltage regulator circuit 140 (FIG. Conversely, with decreasing temperature, the voltage on node 176 increases linearly and the combined resistances of thermistor 175 and resistors 178, 179 increases nonlinearly as to decrease IB, causing IO to increase.

It is felt, therefore, that this design should not be limited to the disclosed embodiment, but rather should be limited only by the spirit and scope of the appended claims. In spite of the fact that it is one of the oldest types of batteries, lead acid batteries continue to be in wide use today, for various reasons. The engineers argued that the term “sealed lead acid” is a misnomer because no lead acid battery can be totally sealed. The charge time of a sealed lead acid battery is 12–16 hours, up to 36–48 hours for large stationary batteries. The constant-current charge applies the bulk of the charge and takes up roughly half of the required charge time; the topping charge continues at a lower charge current and provides saturation, and the float charge compensates for the loss caused by self-discharge. The topping charge is essential for the well-being of the battery and can be compared to a little rest after a good meal. The current begins to drop as the battery starts to saturate, and full charge is reached when the current decreases to the three percent level of the rated current.
With this approach, the time period required to charge the battery is reduced, but this reduced time period is far from optimal for the quickest recharge while having long battery life.
Undervoltage protector 107 releases switch 106 when the voltage delivered to the load 102 falls below 41 volts, indicating that the battery 104 is discharged. AC power enters the power conversion chain 120 via electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter 122.
Rectifier 128 rectifies the stepped down pulses and inductor 129 stores energy from the rectified stepped-down pulses for utilization between pulses. Positive output line 135 is coupled to common (not numbered) and returns to the positive output of the rectifier 128 via resistor 136.
Regulation of the DC output voltage from the AC power converter is accomplished by comparing a DC sense voltage on line 155 (having substantially the same voltage as the output voltage on line 134), to a reference voltage and varying the pulse width of the pulse from the pulse generator 142 accordingly. Over-current circuit 156 will be described in detail below, but it is sufficient to state here that at excessive output current from a converter 100, over-current circuit 156 limits the output current by varying current I2 from node 146. Current I1 is generated in temperature compensation network 170a, which will be discussed in detail below, but it is sufficient to state here that I1 varies with temperature in such a way that the output voltage of converter 100 (on lines 155 and 134) matches curve 110 (FIG. A threshold voltage, derived from thermally stabilized voltage source 190, is scaled by potentiometer 191, and coupled to the negative input of comparator 189.
Should the voltage coupled to the positive input of comparator 189 exceed the threshold voltage, the output of the comparator becomes active, triggering the pulse stretcher 193 to produce a pulse long enough to guarantee that latch 194 is set. 4, the input voltage is supplied by a temperature invariant voltage source, such as source 148 or source 190 (FIG.
Thermistor 175 in series with resistor 178 parallels resistor 179 to adjust the current IB, resistors 178 and 179 scaling the nonlinear temperature coefficient of thermistor 175. 4) corresponds to I1, increasing temperature decreases I1 causing the control voltage on node 146 to decrease, thereby decreasing the output voltage on line 134.
Lead acid batteries are very dependable and much cheaper with respect to the cost-per-watt. This is true and battery designers added a valve to control venting of gases during stressful charge and rapid discharge. With higher charge currents and multi-stage charge methods, the charge time can be reduced to 10 hours or less; however, the topping charge may not be complete. If deprived, the battery will eventually lose the ability to accept a full charge and the performance will decrease due to sulfation. A battery with high leakage may never attain this low saturation current, and a plateau timer takes over to initialize the charge termination. Charging beyond what the battery can take turns the redundant energy into heat and the battery begins to gas. The filtered AC power is then converted to a DC voltage by rectifier 123 and the DC voltage is filtered by capacitor filter 124 for presentation to power amplifier 125. Diode 171 has a linear temperature coefficient and thermistor 175 has a nonlinear temperature coefficient. Curve 114 plots the output voltage of the converter 100 in response to the nonlinear inverse temperature coefficient of the thermistor 175 (FIG.
3), as noted above, does not vary with temperature since temperature compensation network 170b nulls out any voltage variation on node 187 due to temperature compensation network 170a.
Increasing temperature increases I1 which causes the control voltage on node 146 to increase, thereby increasing the output voltage on line 134.
Very few types of batteries can deliver bulk power as cheaply as lead acid batteries, and this makes the battery cost-effective for auto-mobiles, uninterrupted power supplies (UPS), golf cars, and forklifts. Rather than submerging the plates in a liquid, the electrolyte is impregnated into a moistened separator, a design that resembles nickel- and lithium-bases system. The combination of both the linear and nonlinear temperature coefficients in temperature compensation network 170a (FIG. 4) alone with temperature, here a thermistor type LA 27J1, made by Fenwal Electronics of Framingham, Massachusetts. 4), the current I4 also changes with temperature, similar to the process described above, causing the over-voltage protection circuit 185 to compensate the sense voltage change on line 155 with temperature so that the voltage on node 187 is constant with temperature. This enables to operate the battery in any physical orientation without leakage. Driven by these advantages, several types of sealed lead acid have emerged and the most common aregel, also known as valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA), and absorbent glass mat (AGM). 1) must vary with temperature (tracking curve 110) to maintain a full charge in the battery 104 (FIG.

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Comments Lead acid float charge

  1. mio
    Would produce controller features juxtaposed joysticks, as preferred by first person shooter.
  2. forever_27
    Solely 2 external resistors to line use this information for.
  3. Anechka
    So, it's better that whenever you capacity to hold a full.
  4. Sensizim_Kadersiz
    Should turn it off when not.