Lead acid battery used in automobile components,rechargeable car battery jumper terminal,12v car battery electromagnet 12v,automotive battery 6 volt - 2016 Feature

The prime source of scrap Lead for reprocessing in the US and also around the world is lead acid batteries, since the biggest consumer of the metal is the battery industry. In fact Lead-acid batteries are considered as the most recycled consumer product in the recent time.
Consumes Less Energy: The process of recycling of the used Lead products consumes only around one third of the energy required in producing the metal from virgin ore. Benefits Environment and Human Health: Lead battery scarp is hazardous for human health and improper disposal of the product have adverse environmental effects. Reduces Load on Landfills: A high rate of scrap metal recycling implies that less number of the lead manufactured products will end up in the waste stream. Thus, it is found that scrap metal lead recycling is undoubtedly a valuable contribution to sustainability. Recycled lead is a valuable commodity and for many people in the developing world the recovery of car and similar batteries (ULABs) can be a viable and profitable business.
As urban centers in the Global South become more populated the confluence of high unemployment rates, with increased car ownership, have led to a proliferation of informal ULAB reconditioning and recovery activities.
Soil containing lead compounds can turn to dust and become airborne, enabling the lead compounds to be easily inhaled or ingested in a variety of ways. Acute lead poisoning can occur when people are directly exposed to large amounts of lead through inhaling dust, fumes or vapors dispersed in the air. The challenges of ULABs are recognized by the industry and by the Basel Secretariat, who administers the relevant Convention.
Since it is corrosion resistant, this metal scrap is available for reprocessing decades or even centuries after it has been produced. According to estimation, today around 80% of the metal is used in manufacturing lead acid batteries, all of which are highly recoverable and recyclable. The commonly found impurities in Lead are arsenic, antimony, bismuth, nickel, copper, tin, silver and zinc. In recent times, the amount of the scrap material ending up in the landfills has reduced dramatically. Moreover, the process of recycling scrap metal is considered as the least expensive waste management options in cities and towns. Therefore, the market for reclaiming secondary lead has been growing, especially in developing countries.

These are often conducted by economically marginalized members of society, needing an additional source of income, but without any understanding of the risks involved. Most often the battery acid, which contains lead particulates, is haphazardly dumped on the ground, waste pile or into the nearest water body.
However, chronic poisoning from absorbing low amounts of lead over long periods of time is a much more common and pervasive problem. In some countries, the recycling systems have become formalized and are more or less well regulated. Fundamental properties, good design and the ways in which it is used – all make Lead products easily identifiable and cost-effective to collect and reprocess. It has been found that used automobile batteries accounts for about 85% of the scrap metal. Many developing countries have entered the business of buying ULABs in bulk in order to recycle them for lead recovery. The informal process of recovering secondary lead from the ULABs includes breaking the batteries manually with an axe.
As the lead plates are melted, lead ash falls into the surrounding environment, collects on clothing, or is directly inhaled by people in close proximity. Children, in particular are often exposed to lead when playing on the waste furnace slag and handling rocks or dirt containing lead, while engaging in typical hand-to-mouth activity, as well as by bringing objects covered with lead dust back into the home. Lead can enter the body through the lungs or the mouth, and over long periods can accumulate in the bones. However, in many poorer countries, there is a large informal component alongside the established, larger recyclers. The amount of the metal reprocessed as a proportion of its total production is fairly high around the world. A further 6% of the material is used by the building industry mainly in the form of lead sheet. The major point of distinction in the Lead grades is that recyclers do not generally remove the silver and bismuth during the process of refining.
These ULABs are often shipped over long distances for recycling, typically from the industrialized countries that produce, use, and then collect the spent batteries for reprocessing.3 Currently ULAB recycling occurs in almost every city in the developing world, and even in some countries in rapid transition. In many cases, informal battery melting is a subsistence activity, and undertaken in homes (even in the kitchen), using archaic melting operations to recover and sell the secondary lead to the larger processers.

The most common route of exposure for children is ingestion, as lead dust often covers clothing, food, soil and toys. Health risks include impaired physical growth, kidney damage, retardation, and in extreme cases even death. It has been estimated that over 50% of the Lead consumed is produced from re-used material. The metal also found its application in smaller volume in different other products that includes cable sheathing, radiation shielding and many other specialized applications like earthquake dampers. ULAB recycling and smelting operations are often located in densely populated urban areas with few (if any) pollution controls. Despite efforts by government agencies and the industry to bring safer and more efficient practices into this stage of the recycling process, ignorance of the risks of lead contamination combined with a lack of viable economic alternatives has led to the systemic poisoning of many poor populations throughout the developing world. Lead poisoning can lead to tiredness, headache, aching bones and muscles, forgetfulness, loss of appetite and sleep disturbance.
The project focuses on ending endemic exposure to lead from improper ULAB recycling through education, remediation of legacy contaminated soils, developing new responsible policies on appropriate management of ULAB, and either formalizing the ULAB collection or providing other sources of income for the informal sector operators.
Moreover, the recycling rate of the product is estimated to be much higher in comparison to other metals.
And most of them can be recycled to manufacture new products, conserving the precious natural ore. This is often followed by constipation and attacks of intense pain in the abdomen, called lead colic.5 Extreme cases of lead poisoning, can cause convulsions, coma, delirium and possibly death. The best thing is that the process of recycling does not change the property of the metal and it remains similar to the virgin ore extracted from mining. Children are more susceptible to lead poisoning than adults and may suffer permanent neurological damage. Women that are pregnant and become exposed to lead can result in damage to the fetus and birth defects.

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