Lead acid battery fully discharged voltage,download laptop battery monitor full version free,battery life ipad 2 ios 8 - PDF 2016

03.09.2014
Most lead-acid batteries are constructed with the positive electrode (the anode) made from a lead-antimony alloy with lead (IV) oxide pressed into it, although batteries designed for maximum life use a lead-calcium alloy.
When the battery is discharged water is produced, diluting the acid and reducing its specific gravity. The chemical reactions that occur during charging and discharging are summarised in figures 1 and 2. If lead-acid batteries are over discharged or left standing in the discharged state for prolonged periods hardened lead sulphate coats the electrodes and will not be removed during recharging.
Starting Batteries – Used to start and run engines they can deliver a very large current so a very short time, discharging by about 2-5%. Marine Batteries – Usually a hybrid battery that falls between deep cycle and starting batteries although some are true deep cycle batteries. Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) Batteries – The electrolyte is held between the plates absorbed in a fine boron-silicate mat. WelcomeThis site is aimed at providing technical resources and information to assist Appropriate Technology (AT) specialists working in the following areas: drinking water supply, sanitation, electrical supply, construction, fuel-efficient cooking stoves and environmental education.
Our MissionITACA understands AT as technologies that are easy to construct and maintain, low cost, using local resources as far as possible, simple to replicate and adapt to different contexts, and both environmentally and economically sustainable in the long-term.
BienvenidoEste sitio esta dirigido a proporcionar los recursos tecnicos e informacion para ayudar a la Tecnologia Apropiada (AT) especialistas que trabajan en las areas siguientes: abastecimiento de agua potable, saneamiento, suministro electrico, construccion, bajo consumo de combustible de cocinas y educacion ambiental.
Lead Acid batteries have changed little since the 1880's although improvements in materials and manufacturing methods continue to bring improvements in energy density, life and reliability.
Lead acid batteries used in the RV and Marine Industries usually consist of two 6-volt batteries in series, or a single 12-volt battery. A battery cell consists of two lead plates a positive plate covered with a paste of lead dioxide and a negative made of sponge lead, with an insulating material (separator) in between.
Build your own Accurate LC Meter (Capacitance Inductance Meter) and start making your own coils and inductors. 1Hz - 2MHz XR2206 Function Generator produces high quality sine, square and triangle waveforms of high-stability and accuracy.
Having the ability to control various appliances inside or outside of your house wirelessly is a huge convenience, and can make your life much easier and fun. Many RV owners may not have the technical background to understand the operation of their battery charger. The following analogy uses the flow of water from a Charger Tank (battery charger) to fill (recharge) a Battery Tank (battery) to simulate a battery recharging cycle. As Battery Tank begins to approach the 90% Full Level the Charger Tank must be lowered to 13.6-Ft. In figure # 5 the Battery Tank is now full, but the Charger Tank continues to remain at 13.6-Ft. To reduce water loss even more, once the Battery Tank is fully charged the height of Charger Tank must lowered to 13.2-Ft. As you have seen filling a Battery Tank as fast as possible with minimum loss of water, requires several adjustments to the height of the Charger Tank.
Proper recharging of RV and Marine batteries also requires charger voltage adjustments during charging cycle to accomplish these same benefits. Now that you understand the requirements for properly filling a tank with water, it is time to learn more about the construction operation and recharge requirements of your RV and Marine lead acid batteries. The lead-acid battery shown below in Figure # 7 consists of a single cell composed of two lead plates.
In figure # 9 below, the battery is partially discharged and Lead Sulfate (sulfation) has begun to coat both lead plates. In figure # 10 below, the battery has now been discharged to 50% of its total capacity. Figure #11 below illustrates a fully discharged battery and the voltage has dropped to 10.5 volts. Now that the battery is completely discharged it is time to discuss the recharge cycle. In figure # 12 below, the battery is in the process of being recharged. In figure # 13, the battery has reached the 90% of full charge level.
When the battery reaches full charge (figure # 14), charging voltage must be reduced to 13.2 volts. IMPORTANT - WHEN STORING RV OR MARINE BATTERIES FOR THE WINTER, KEEP THEM ON A CONTINUOUS CHARGE AT 13.2 VOLTS.
When electrical current flows through water during the charging cycle, it breaks the water down into its original components, a mixture of Hydrogen & Oxygen.
Even after receiving a full charge, notice that near the bottom of the battery, some of the Lead Sulfate has not converted back into lead and sulfuric acid. To remove the remaining Lead Sulfate, the battery must receive an EQUALIZING CHARGE (i.e.
Now that you have seen what the Charge Wizard can do to improve battery recharge time, adjust charge voltages to reduce water loss, and eliminate sulfation, its time to eliminate the last of the battery plaguesa€¦BATTERY STRATIFICATION! The way to prevent BATTERY STRATIFICATION is to apply an EQUALIZING CHARGE (i.e.
As you have learned, the Charge Wizard is a very valuable addition to your battery charging system and it will eliminate battery problems. Lead Acid batteries have changed little since the 1880's although improvements in materials and manufacturing methods continue to bring improvements in energy density, life and reliability.
Lead acid batteries used in the RV and Marine Industries usually consist of two 6-volt batteries in series, or a single 12-volt battery.
A battery cell consists of two lead plates a positive plate covered with a paste of lead dioxide and a negative made of sponge lead, with an insulating material (separator) in between. In figure # 3, above a fully charged battery is connected to a load (light bulb) and the chemical reaction between sulfuric acid and the lead plates produces the electricity to light the bulb. In figure # 5 the battery is now fully discharged, the plates are almost completely covered with lead sulfate (sulfation) and voltage has dropped to 10.5-volts.
NOTE: Discharging a lead acid battery below 10.5 volts will severely damage it! Lead sulfate (sulfation) now coats most of the battery plates.
NOTE: Always recharge your RV or Marine battery as soon as possible to prevent loss of battery capacity due to the build-up of hard lead sulfate crystals! During the recharging process as electricity flows through the water portion of the electrolyte and water, (H2O) is converted into its original elements, hydrogen and oxygen. The battery shown in figure # 7 above has been fully recharged using a fixed charging voltage of 13.6-volts. Since most RV and Marine craft owners seldom remember to perform this function, Progressive Dynamics has developed the microprocessor controlled Charge Wizard. One disadvantage of recharging a lead acid battery at a fixed voltage of 13.6-volts is the recharge time is very long.
This higher concentration of acid at the bottom of the battery causes additional build-up of lead sulfate (sulfation), which reduces battery storage capacity and battery life.
As you have learned, in order to properly charge and maintain a lead acid battery you must use an intelligent charging system.
No, in fact you should never discharge your lead acid battery below 80% of its rated capacity. Equalizing should be performed when a battery is first purchased (called a freshening charge) and on a regular basis (every 10 discharge cycles or at least once a month). An equalizing charge for a 12 volt battery requires that it be charged with a voltage of at least 14.4 volts for a period of at least one hour once a month, or every 10 discharge cycles. How often you use and recharge your batteries will determine the frequency of watering.
Battery electrolyte levels should be just below the bottom of the vent well, about A? - A? inch above the tops of the separators. If your battery is partially discharged, the electrolyte in a lead acid battery may freeze. Undercharging - Generally caused by not allowing the charger to restore the battery to full charge after use. Overcharging - Continuous-charging causes accelerated corrosion of the positive plates, excessive water consumption and in some cases, damaging temperatures within the battery. Under-watering - In lead acid batteries water is lost during the charging process. Over-watering - Excessive watering of a battery results in additional dilution of the electrolyte, resulting in reduced battery performance. Can I reduce the need to add water to my battery by lowering the charging voltage to 13 volts or less?
Lowering the charging voltage will reduce the need to add water, but this will cause a condition known as battery stratification. This increased concentration of acid increases the formation of lead sulfate (sulfation).
If you leave the car parked a long time, the loads that are powered directly will eventually discharge the 12 V battery completely. That same approach works if a 12 V lead-acid battery is used, though with some disadvantages. Alternatively, if a 12 V DC-DC converter is used (instead of a 12 V lead acid battery), the ignition switch can be installed between the traction battery end the DC-DC converter. If it is not acceptable to operate the ignition switch at high voltage, you may be tempted to drive a relay that powers the DC-DC converter from a 12 V ignition switch.
Lead acid batteries should be charged in three stages, which are [1] constant-current charge, [2] topping charge and [3] float charge.
The switch from Stage 1 to 2 occurs seamlessly and happens when the battery reaches the set voltage limit. Once fully charged through saturation, the battery should not dwell at the topping voltage for more than 48 hours and must be reduced to the float voltage level. These described voltage settings apply to flooded cells and batteries with a pressure relief valve of about 34kPa (5psi). Aging batteries pose a challenge when setting the float charge voltage because each cell has its own unique condition. Measuring the open circuit voltage (OCV) while in storage provides a reliable indication as to the state-of-charge of the battery. Some buyers do not accept shipments of new batteries if the OCV at incoming inspection is below 2.10V per cell.
Watering is the single most important step in maintaining a flooded lead acid battery; a requirement that is all too often neglected. The formation of gas bubbles in a flooded lead acid indicates that the battery is reaching full state-of-charge. If your golf trolley is discharging your batteries when not being used, you must have a short circuit or partial short in the speed controller or wiring. I would like to ask you two questions regarding the process of charging sealed lead acid batteries, i would be so grateful for you for taking in consideration a simple answer as i am so far from the technology of batteries. 1)- I bought 2 new 6v 10Ah sealed lead acid batteries to use instead of the dead ones in my child’s ride-on, i also bought a simple wall charger which states that it charges at 1Ah, does this mean that to charge them for the 1st time i should leave them connected to the mains for 10 hours? 2)- I also have a 12v 1.5Ah charger, can i connect those 2 new 6v 10Ah batteries in series and charge them together and how much time would they take to be fully charged. More of a question:  Is it possible for a 6 volt charger to charge a automobile 12 volt lead acid battery to the point where it will have enough energy to start a car?
Can i use Sealed maintenance free batteries instead of Electrolyte filled ( Distilled water recharge )lead acid batteries. For connecting the battery as a buffer I just nead to conect in parallel the battery with my device and the charger? I have a two year old car battery which gives enough power to start my car when cold , but it refuses to crank the engine after the car runs for more than 10 kms. I tested this battery, It initially read 12.76V, and I had applied a top-up charge using a 600ma smart charger intended for smaller batteries.
I connected a paralell series of 3x 15 ohm,  and 3x 22 Ohm, 10W resistors, with a 1 ohm 10W resister in series with the combination, to use as a current indicator. As expected on connection, the voltage dropped very quickly, and the current was below what would be expected for the voltage.
I believe this effect was due to thermal changes, and a delay in the chemical reactions in the battery, mentioned elsewhare in article on battery perfomance. Most guides to rested open circuit voltage suggest that with an open circuit voltage of 12.26V, the battery is about 65% cahrged. These statement would indicate that the battery is in good condition, and close to stated capicity. Is the rapid change in discharge curve normal, or does that indicate there could be a fault? This page is a good reference about lead acid Battery charging, but few points are incorrect, but not fatal mistake.
I set up a 50W network of resistors to create a loat to discharge them and graphed the in-circuit terminal voltage and current over a period of 25 hours. The Terminal voltage initially dropped very quickly from it’s resting state, then took about 30 mins to stabilise. The calculated AH removed from the battery and the open circuit voltage after the test both indicated about 40% drain re the stated 220AH capacity of the battery.
How much charging current is required for charging above batteries in parallel connection condition.
PS.This kind of discharging test is really not necessary and it is unwise because it will damage your battery.
It is easy to charge with a higher voltage to a lower voltage, in your case, a 12V to a 6V.
The negative electrode (the cathode) is made from pure lead and both electrodes are immersed in sulphuric acid.
On charging sulphuric acid is produced and the specific gravity of the electrolyte increases.
Lead (IV) oxide is formed at the anode, pure lead is formed at the cathode and sulphuric acid is liberated into the electrolyte causing the specific gravity to increase. Lead sulphate is formed at both electrodes and sulphuric acid is removed from the electrolyte causing the specific gravity to reduce. If deep cycled these batteries quickly degenerate and will fail after 30-150 cycles but should last for a very long time when used correctly. Standard types have removable caps so that the electrolyte can be diluted and the specific gravity measured, such batteries are supplied dry and you add distilled water.
The electrolyte can not be diluted so that over charging must be avoided and these batteries may only last for 2 or 3 years in hot climates although with good care they can last for 5 years. Like gelled electrolyte batteries they will not leak acid but they can withstand more careless treatment and are less sensitive to over charging since they are designed to retain vented gases. We see AT as a tool to address the inequalities and injustices faced by millions of communities around the world who lack access to the basic resources required for a dignified life.
These batteries are constructed of several single cells connected in series each cell produces approximately 2.1 volts. The plates are enclosed in a plastic battery case and then submersed in an electrolyte consisting of water and sulfuric acid (see figure # 1). This LC Meter allows to measure incredibly small inductances making it perfect tool for making all types of RF coils and inductors. The meter is a perfect addition to any power supply, battery chargers and other electronic projects where voltage and current must be monitored. It is a very useful bench test equipment for testing and finding out the frequency of various devices with unknown frequency such as oscillators, radio receivers, transmitters, function generators, crystals, etc. BA1404 HI-FI Stereo FM Transmitter broadcasts high quality stereo signal in 88MHz - 108MHz FM band. It is an irreplaceable tool for troubleshooting and repairing electronic equipment by determining performance and health of electrolytic capacitors.


8-DIP machined IC socket allows to swap OPA2134 with many other dual opamp chips such as OPA2132, OPA2227, OPA2228, dual OPA132, OPA627, etc.
It's breadboard compatible so it can be plugged into a breadboard for quick prototyping, and it has VCC & GND power pins available on both sides of PCB. Sometimes they forget about the need to maintain the battery water level and to keep it fully charged when their RV is in storage. The goal is to fill (recharge) the Battery Tank as fast as possible, while keeping water loss to a minimum. This causes more water to flow than required to maintain a full level in the tank. First, it has to be raised to 14.4 feet to refill as fast as possible. Well someone has, Progressive Dynamics developed a microprocessor based programmer-controller for our electronic power converters. Six cells connected in series will provide a total voltage output of 12.6-volts. The Lead Sulfate (sulfation) is now covering more of the surface area of the plates. Battery Management 101 now completely covers the surface of all plates.
Remember, when recharging your RV battery the goal is to recharge it as fast as possible without excess water loss.
This lower voltage reduces charging current to 20 to 25 milliamps, enough to replace current lost through the internal leakage present in all batteries. CHECK WATER LEVEL AT LEAST ONCE A MONTH AND ADD DISTILLED WATER AS NEEDED.
These two gasses are extremely flammable and can cause an explosion if the battery is not properly vented to the outside of the RV. This remaining Lead Sulfate has formed hard crystals that can not be easily reconverted. The Charge Wizard's EQUALIZATION MODE automatically eliminates BATTERY SULFATION BUILD-UP before it becomes a problem! You learned previously that the electrolyte inside a battery is a mixture of water and sulfuric acid and like all mixtures, one component is heavier than the other is. Charge Wizards are available at leading RV Dealers and Distributors, or you may contact Progressive Dynamics at 269 781 4241.
All lead acid batteries consist of flat lead plates immersed in a pool of electrolyte. These batteries are constructed of several single cells connected in series each cell produces approximately 2.1 volts. Lead acid batteries do not generate voltage on their own; they only store a charge from another source.
This chemical reaction also begins to coat both positive and negative plates with a substance called lead sulfate also known as sulfation (shown as a yellow build-up on plates). Lead sulfate is a soft material, which can is reconverted back into lead and sulfuric acid, provided the discharged battery is immediately connected to a battery charger. Proper recharging and maintenance requires an intelligent charging system that can vary the charging voltage based on the state of charge and use of your RV or Marine battery. These gasses are very flammable and the reason your RV or Marine batteries must be vented outside.
Notice that some lead sulfate (sulfation) still remains on the plates.
A typical 125-AH RV or Marine battery will take approximately 80 hours to recharge at 13.6 volts. To prevent this from occurring the charging voltage must be reduced to 13.2-volts. However, this lower voltage does not provide enough gassing to prevent a battery condition called Battery Stratification. In order to prevent Battery Stratification, an Equalization Charge (increasing charging voltage to 14.4-volts) must be applied periodically. The rate of self-discharge for lead acid batteries depends on the storage or operating temperature.
Reduced performance can also be an indicator that an equalizing charge is needed. An equalizing charge prevents battery stratification and reduces sulfation, the leading cause of battery failure. Only distilled or deionized water should be added to achieve the recommended electrolyte levels. At a 40% state of charge, electrolyte will freeze if the temperature drops to approximately -16 degrees F.
Continuously operating a battery in a partial state of charge, or storing the battery in the discharged state results in the formation of lead sulfate (sulfation) on the plates.
Lead acid batteries should be charged after each discharge of more the 50% of its rated capacity and during or after prolonged storage of 30 days or more. If the electrolyte level drops below the tops of the plates, irreparable damage may occur.
Add water to your battery after it has been fully charged, never when the battery is partially discharged. Battery stratification is caused when the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte mixture separates from the water and begins to concentrate at the bottom of the battery. To prevent stratification, your battery should receive a periodic equalizing charge (increasing the charging voltage to 14.4 volts or above). A regulated current raises the terminal voltage until the upper charge voltage limit is reached, at which point the current drops due to saturation. The constant-current charge applies the bulk of the charge and takes up roughly half of the required charge time; the topping charge continues at a lower charge current and provides saturation, and the float charge compensates for the loss caused by self-discharge. The topping charge is essential for the well-being of the battery and can be compared to a little rest after a good meal. A warmer ambient requires a slightly lower voltage threshold and a colder temperature prefers a higher setting. This is especially critical for sealed systems because they are less tolerant to overcharge than the flooded type. Cylindrical sealed lead acid, such as the Hawker Cyclon cell, requires higher voltage settings and the limits should be set to manufacturer’s specifications. Connected in a string, all cells receive the same charge current and controlling individual cell voltages as each reaches full capacity is almost impossible. A voltage peak constitutes an overcharge, causing hydrogen evolution, while the valley induces a brief discharge that creates a starved state resulting in electrolyte depletion. The results are inconclusive and manufacturers as well as service technicians are divided on the benefit.
Another method is the hysteresis charge that disconnects the float current when the battery goes to standby mode. A low voltage suggests a partial charge due to long storage or a high self-discharge caused by a micro-short. Battery University monitors the comments and understands the importance of expressing perspectives and opinions in a shared forum. If they discharge too quick during use only, it sounds like they are too small a capacity for the job. If the current I am taking is constant is imposible to do this, because my charger will never be able to charge the battery? Can I use one charger of 1000 mAh output to charge all 3 batteries in parallel and then keep them on a maintenance charge till neded?  Or will I need to charge them one at a time.
I am not sure what is really you question is, but you can’t change a 12v using 24v power supply.
I set out to test them to determine if they are working correctly for a 2 year old battery. It dropped slowly over the next 16 hours (to about 12V, then fell much more quickly over 8 hours to about 11V.
The easiest circuit requires just 1 electronic component which is a 7807 regulator (7 volt regulator).
Since you have a 500mA charging current, you can’t continually use more than 500ma for 13 hours.
To simplify what I have said above, the answer to your question is yes, but if you continually use more power than you have provided from the charger, then the battery will eventually drained. Particularly How much they are applying the Excess percentage to the Practical Applications. Is it Possible to find out the Value of S.G with Voltage before Charging what will be the Values if them corresponding to our Charging Current with duration. These batteries are designed to discharge by as much as 80% of their capacity over thousands of charging and discharging cycles. Standard flooded batteries are cheap and if they are kept topped up they are not overly sensitive to high charging voltages. AGM batteries can also stand for 30 days in a totally discharged state and still be recharged successfully. Regular water addition is required for most types of lead acid batteries although low-maintenance types come with excess electrolyte calculated to compensate for water loss during a normal lifetime.
A six-volt battery has three single cells, which when fully charged produce an output voltage of 6.3 volts. It can be connected to any type of stereo audio source such as iPod, Computer, Laptop, CD Player, Walkman, Television, Satellite Receiver, Tape Deck or other stereo system to transmit stereo sound with excellent clarity throughout your home, office, yard or camp ground. Unlike other ESR Meters that only measure ESR value this one measures capacitor's ESR value as well as its capacitance all at the same time. Headphone amplifier is small enough to fit in Altoids tin box, and thanks to low power consumption may be supplied from a single 9V battery. It's small, power efficient, yet customizable through onboard 2 x 7 perfboard that can be used for connecting various sensors and connectors.
You can control lights, fans, AC system, computer, printer, amplifier, robots, garage door, security systems, motor-driven curtains, motorized window blinds, door locks, sprinklers, motorized projection screens and anything else you can think of. RV owners do however remember the consequences of improper battery charging and maintenancea€¦a dead battery that is expensive to replace!
Remember when recharging your RV batteries the charger voltage must also be higher than battery voltage to allow charging current to flow.
This excess water is lost as it splashes out the top of the Battery Tank. Then it must be lowered to 13.6 feet to finish the fill with minimum water loss. This device proved to be so intelligent, we called it the Charge Wizard, because it automatically adjusts the charging voltage as required by the battery to ensure fast recharge cycles, with minimum water loss. Initially the Lead Sulfate coating is soft, thin and easily reconverted into lead and sulfuric acid when battery is recharged.
The Charge Wizard knows this and automatically selects STORAGE MODE of operation and reduces charger voltage to 13.2 volts.
This normal conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen is part of the battery recharge cycle and is another reason you should check the battery water level at least once a month.
These hard crystals are the beginning of BATTERY SULFATION, the leading cause of battery failure.
This equalizing charge will eventually convert this crystallized Lead Sulfate into its components (lead and sulfuric acid). Remember that the rate of SULFATION increases rapidly as a battery dischargesa€¦so keep your battery fully charged when not in use! In this case Sulfuric Acid is the heavy component and will eventually begin to settle to the bottom of the battery. A six-volt battery has three single cells, which when fully charged produce an output voltage of 6.3 volts. This is the reason lead acid batteries are called storage batteries, because they only store a charge. Progressive Dynamics has developed intelligent charging systems that solve battery problems and reduce battery maintenance. Gassing causes water loss and therefore lead acid batteries need to have water added periodically. Increasing the charge voltage to 14.4-volts will reduce battery recharge time for a 125-AH battery to 3-4 hours.
The Charge Wizard will automatically select its STORAGE MODE of operation (13.2-volts) once the battery reaches full charge and remains unused for a period of 30 hours. Battery Stratification is caused by the fact that the electrolyte in the battery is a mixture of water and acid and, like all mixtures, one component, the acid, is heavier than water. The Charge Wizard automatically selects its EQUALIZATION MODE (14.4 volts) every 21 hours for a period of 15 minutes. It is best to check your battery water level frequently and add distilled water when needed. Adding water to a battery before charging may result in overflow of the electrolyte.
When a battery is fully charged the electrolyte will not freeze until the temperature drops to approximately -92 degrees F.
Sulfation reduces the performance of the battery and may cause premature battery failure.
If continually deprived, the battery will eventually lose the ability to accept a full charge and the performance will decrease due to sulfation.
A battery with high leakage may never attain this low saturation current, and a plateau timer takes over to end the charge.
Chargers exposed to temperature fluctuations include temperature sensors to adjust the charge voltage for optimum charge efficiency. Charging beyond the specified limits turns redundant energy into heat and the battery begins to gas. Failing to apply the recommended voltage will cause a gradual decrease in capacity due to sulfation. If sulfation could be measured and the right amount of pulsing applied, then the remedy could be beneficial; however giving a cure without knowing the underlying side effects can be harmful to the battery. Using OCV to estimate state-of-charge works best when the battery has rested for a few hours, because a charge or discharge agitates the battery and distorts the voltage. Battery users have found that a pack arriving at a lower than specified voltage has a higher failure rate than those with higher voltages.
A naked plate will sustain irreversible damage through oxidation, leading to reduced capacity and lower performance. Do not fill to the correct level before charging as this could cause an overflow during charging.
However, all communication must be done with the use of appropriate language and the avoidance of spam and discrimination. We recommend posting your question in the comment sections for the Battery University Group (BUG) to share. How there are calculating the Capacity (Ah) in Theoretical Manner and how they are applying the Practical Ah to the battery. The specific gravity also depends on the battery temperature and the above values or for a battery at 15°C. True deep cycle batteries have solid lead plates however many batteries that do not have solid plates are called semi-deep cycle.
Sealed batteries are supplied pre-flooded and have fixed valves to allow gases to vent during use however, they will still leak if inverted and the electrolyte can not be replenished so that over charging will cause damage. The major drawback to these batteries is that they cost between 2 or 3 times as much as flooded batteries.
A twelve-volt battery has six single cells in series producing a fully charged output voltage of 12.6 volts. Lead acid batteries do not generate voltage on their own; they only store a charge from another source.


The circuit includes an auto ranging as well as reset switch and produces very accurate and stable readings. Arduino Prototype uses all standard through-hole components for easy construction, two of which are hidden underneath IC socket. This analogy explains the need to constantly monitor and adjust the flow rate to prevent water loss. Once the tank is full, you have to lower it again to 13.2 feet to reduce water loss even further. These plates are surrounded by the electrolyte, a mixture of water and sulfuric acid. It is important to remember, The longer your battery remains discharged, the more it will begin to form hard crystals of Lead Sulfatea€¦RECHARGE YOUR BATTERY AS SOON AS POSSIBLE! The remaining 10% of charge cycle will be completed at this lower voltage.
The size of the battery plates and amount of electrolyte determines the amount of charge lead acid batteries can store. As the battery continues to discharge, lead sulfate coats more and more of the plates and battery voltage begins to decrease from fully charged state of 12.6-volts (figure # 4).
Our 2000 Series of Marine Battery Chargers have the Charge Wizard feature built-in.
This feature is standard on all of Progressive Dynamics Marine Battery Chargers. A float current that is too high for the faded cell might sulfate the strong neighbor due to undercharge. Although in-house service can often bring such batteries to full performance, the time and equipment required adds to operational costs. Old batteries loose capacity but yours should be in good condition being only one year old. Little current will take forever to fully charge it up, so you can safely charge it using 10A. This is the reason lead acid batteries are called storage batteries, because they only store a charge. USB IO Board is self-powered by USB port and can provide up to 500mA for electronic projects. Board features 28-PIN DIP IC socket, user replaceable ATmega328 microcontroller flashed with Arduino bootloader, 16MHz crystal resonator and a reset switch. Battery chargers also require voltage adjustments during the recharge cycle to reduce water loss. Once these hard crystals form, they are impossible to remove during a standard fixed voltage (13.6 volts) charging process. Stratification will increase build-up of lead sulfate and reduce battery capacity. Equalizing also breaks down lead sulfate crystals that may have begun to form. The size of this storage capacity is described as the amp hour (AH) rating of a battery.
During the battery recharge cycle lead sulfate (sulfation) begins to reconvert to lead and sulfuric acid. Lead sulfate build up is reduced if battery is given an Equalizing Charge once every 10 discharge cycles or at least once a month. The optional Charge Wizard automatically senses when a battery has a very low state of charge and automatically selects its BOOST MODE of operation.
Tap water contains minerals that will reduce battery capacity and increase their self-discharge rate. Cell-balancing devices are available compensate for the differences in voltages caused by cell imbalance. As stated above, a fully charged 6 cell battery shows about 12.65 Volts when fully charged whether it is a small car battery or a massive forklift truck battery.
A dead battery in cold will work after it warm up, so be sure to know that Voltage reading is not accurate in winter time. The size of the battery plates and amount of electrolyte determines the amount of charge lead acid batteries can store. The small leak at the bottom of Battery Tank represents the small internal current leak present in all lead acid batteries. The Charge Wizard automatically Equalizes your battery for 15 minutes every 21 hours, when in the STORAGE MODE to prevent BATTERY STRATIFICATION. If the battery is overcharged pressure from these gasses will cause relief caps to open and vent, resulting in some water loss. An Equalizing Charge increases charging voltage to 14.4 volts or higher for a short period. Watering systems eliminate low electrolyte levels by automatically adding the right amount of water.
Lead acid batteries must always be stored in a fully charged state and be periodically recharged even when not in use. It is best if u built ur own charger, or you really want to get a more expensive smart charger.
Arduino sketches are uploaded through any USB-Serial adapter connected to 6-PIN ICSP female header. This internal current leak self-discharges your RV battery approximately 4% per week, thus the need to charge your battery periodically when in storage. Most sealed batteries have extra electrolyte added during the manufacturing process to compensate for some water loss. This higher voltage causes gassing that equalizes (re-mixes) the electrolyte solution.
When the battery reaches the 90% charge level, the Charge Wizard automatically reduces the charge voltage down to 13.6 volts to complete the charge. Keeping this in mind if a 125 AH battery is stored for four months (16 weeks) winter without being charged, it will loose 80 amps of its 125-amp capacity.
Board is supplied by 2-5V voltage and may be powered by a battery such as Lithium Ion cell, two AA cells, external power supply or USB power adapter. This chemical reaction also begins to coat both positive and negative plates with a substance called lead sulfate also known as sulfation (shown as a yellow build-up on plates).
Lead acid batteries can be connected in parallel to increase the total AH capacity.
Lead sulfate is a soft material, which can is reconverted back into lead and sulfuric acid, provided the discharged battery is immediately connected to a battery charger. Proper recharging and maintenance requires an intelligent charging system that can vary the charging voltage based on the state of charge and use of your RV or Marine battery. In order to recharge a 12-volt lead acid battery with a fully charged terminal voltage of 12.6-volts, the charger voltage must be set at a higher voltage. During the battery recharge cycle lead sulfate (sulfation) begins to reconvert to lead and sulfuric acid. During the recharging process as electricity flows through the water portion of the electrolyte and water, (H2O) is converted into its original elements, hydrogen and oxygen. These gasses are very flammable and the reason your RV or Marine batteries must be vented outside. Gassing causes water loss and therefore lead acid batteries need to have water added periodically. Sealed lead acid batteries contain most of these gasses allowing them to recombine into the electrolyte. If the battery is overcharged pressure from these gasses will cause relief caps to open and vent, resulting in some water loss.
This build-up will continue after each recharging cycle and gradually the battery will begin to loose capacity to store a full charge and eventually must be replaced. Lead sulfate build up is reduced if battery is given an Equalizing Charge once every 10 discharge cycles or at least once a month.
An Equalizing Charge increases charging voltage to 14.4 volts or higher for a short period. This higher voltage causes gassing that equalizes (re-mixes) the electrolyte solution. Since most RV and Marine craft owners seldom remember to perform this function, Progressive Dynamics has developed the microprocessor controlled Charge Wizard.
The Charge Wizard will automatically provide an Equalizing Charge every 21 hours for a period of 15 minutes, when the battery is fully charged and not in use.
A typical 125-AH RV or Marine battery will take approximately 80 hours to recharge at 13.6 volts.
Increasing the charge voltage to 14.4-volts will reduce battery recharge time for a 125-AH battery to 3-4 hours.
The optional Charge Wizard automatically senses when a battery has a very low state of charge and automatically selects its BOOST MODE of operation.
When the battery reaches the 90% charge level, the Charge Wizard automatically reduces the charge voltage down to 13.6 volts to complete the charge. The Charge Wizard will automatically select its STORAGE MODE of operation (13.2-volts) once the battery reaches full charge and remains unused for a period of 30 hours.
However, this lower voltage does not provide enough gassing to prevent a battery condition called Battery Stratification. Battery Stratification is caused by the fact that the electrolyte in the battery is a mixture of water and acid and, like all mixtures, one component, the acid, is heavier than water. Therefore, acid will begin to settle and concentrate at the bottom of the battery (see figure #8). This higher concentration of acid at the bottom of the battery causes additional build-up of lead sulfate (sulfation), which reduces battery storage capacity and battery life.
In order to prevent Battery Stratification, an Equalization Charge (increasing charging voltage to 14.4-volts) must be applied periodically. The Charge Wizard automatically selects its EQUALIZATION MODE (14.4 volts) every 21 hours for a period of 15 minutes. This Equalizing Charge feature is standard on our Marine chargers. As you have learned, in order to properly charge and maintain a lead acid battery you must use an intelligent charging system. Progressive Dynamics, Inteli-Power 9100 Series RV converters with a Charge Wizard installed, or one of our Inteli-Power Marine Battery Chargers will provide the intelligent charging system your battery needs for a long life, with low maintenance. Dry cells Batteries are split between dry cell and wet cell. The old original dry cells were the kind with a carbon rod down the middle, and they had little power and shelf life.
Current non-rechargeable dry cells have an excellent shelf life and generally provide 1.5VDC.
Rechargeable dry cells have a shelf life of less than a year before needing to be charged again. NiCads have given rise to the idea of batteries having a memory.
Failing to fully discharge a NiCad before recharging it eventually led to a loss of battery life. There is no need to "condition" these batteries, and it is better to keep them on a float charge and fully charged than it is to cycle them by discharge then recharge. Cycling a battery makes it wear out faster. Wet cells Wet cells are the batteries we have in our cars - an acid and lead plates that generate electricity. Sealed lead-acid batteries will not leak, although they may discharge gasses if not charged properly. Gel cells are said to work better than AGM batteries in conditions where they have long use and frequent cycling.
The batteries are more deeply discharged and are used frequently, then recharged. AGMs seem more efficient at uses where they are deeply discharged but only infrequently, being kept on a floating charge.
The battery in a UPS is kept fully charged while the power is on, but when the power goes off, the computers, monitors, printers, and such pull a lot of current from the battery until they can be shut down properly. The differences between gel cells and AGMs may make no difference to non-critical users who need a big capacity, portable battery for occasional use. This may include ham radio operators who need a big battery for a day or two in the field for an event or for campers who want a battery on camping trips to run lights or to recharge AAs. Discharge Using a charged battery discharges it.
If the battery has a manual, it may have a chart showing different capacities based on different draws. When the battery shows 10V at the terminal with no load, the manufacturer deems the battery fully discharged. Smaller amperages will take longer to charge and may not ever fully charge a big enough battery. Sealed batteries have one-way valves to vent the gas, but remember the gas is hydrogen, which is flammable.
This means you will still be charging the battery as long as the charger is connected, and you will overcharge the battery. Battery life Battery life depends on many factors, and I'll cover only cycles.
A sealed lead-acid battery which is fully discharged (as defined above) has a life of about 200 cycles. If a battery is subject to "shallow" discharges (30% or 40% down from the voltage read when fully charged), then the life may be 800 or more cycles. It is better to keep a sealed lead-acid battery on a floating charge than to allow it to fully discharge by sitting a year between uses. The next best option is to fully recharge the battery monthly. People who use their batteries infrequently and then use them to full discharge (and beyond) will damage their batteries and shorten the battery's life substantially from any advertised life. They don't recharge their batteries until a day or two before they leave, drain the batteries dead during the week, then bring the batteries home and put them away discharged until next year.
If you have a 12 amp-hour battery and fully charge it, connect the lamp and volt meter to the battery, turn the lamp on, and note the time. When you notice the light fading, start watching the meter and note the time the voltmeter reads 10.5V. Its capacity will continue to degrade until you find the battery useless and recycle it. Answers to Common Questions about Batteries Do lead acid batteries discharge when not in use? All batteries, regardless of their chemistry, will self-discharge. The rate of self-discharge for lead acid batteries depends on the storage or operating temperature.
A battery with a 125-amp hour rating would self-discharge at a rate of approximately five amps per week. Keeping this in mind if a 125 AH battery is stored for four months (16 weeks) winter without being charged, it will loose 80 amps of its 125-amp capacity. An equalizing charge prevents battery stratification and reduces sulfation, the leading cause of battery failure. When should I add water to my batteries? How often you use and recharge your batteries will determine the frequency of watering. It is best to check your battery water level frequently and add distilled water when needed. Tap water contains minerals that will reduce battery capacity and increase their self-discharge rate. Warning - A brand new battery may have a low electrolyte level. Adding water to a battery before charging may result in overflow of the electrolyte. What is the proper electrolyte level? Battery electrolyte levels should be just below the bottom of the vent well, about ? - ? inch above the tops of the separators. Never let the electrolyte level to drop below the top of the plates. Do I ever need to add acid to my battery? Under normal operating conditions, you never need to add acid. Only distilled or deionized water should be added to achieve the recommended electrolyte levels. Can my batteries freeze? If your battery is partially discharged, the electrolyte in a lead acid battery may freeze.
At a 40% state of charge, electrolyte will freeze if the temperature drops to approximately -16 degrees F. When a battery is fully charged the electrolyte will not freeze until the temperature drops to approximately -92 degrees F. What are the most common mistakes made by owners of lead acid batteries? Undercharging - Generally caused by not allowing the charger to restore the battery to full charge after use. Continuously operating a battery in a partial state of charge, or storing the battery in the discharged state results in the formation of lead sulfate (sulfation) on the plates. Sulfation reduces the performance of the battery and may cause premature battery failure. Overcharging - Continuous-charging causes accelerated corrosion of the positive plates, excessive water consumption and in some cases, damaging temperatures within the battery. Lead acid batteries should be charged after each discharge of more the 50% of its rated capacity and during or after prolonged storage of 30 days or more. Under-watering - In lead acid batteries water is lost during the charging process. Check your battery water level frequently. Over-watering - Excessive watering of a battery results in additional dilution of the electrolyte, resulting in reduced battery performance. Add water to your battery after it has been fully charged, never when the battery is partially discharged. Can I reduce the need to add water to my battery by lowering the charging voltage to 13 volts or less? Lowering the charging voltage will reduce the need to add water, but this will cause a condition known as battery stratification.
Battery stratification is caused when the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte mixture separates from the water and begins to concentrate at the bottom of the battery. This increased concentration of acid increases the formation of lead sulfate (sulfation). To prevent stratification, your battery should receive a periodic equalizing charge (increasing the charging voltage to 14.4 volts or above).



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