Lead acid battery charge vs specific gravity equation,cheap car batteries for sale in india hyderabad,galaxy s4 android 4.4.2 battery drain fix - Reviews

A refractometer uses only a drop of electrolyte to measure specific gravity, and is more accurate and easier to use.
A technician checks the specific gravity using a refractometer and reading its illuminated internal numeric scale. IntermediateSpecific gravity (SG) is defined as the ratio of the density of a material to the density of a reference material—with liquids, this is usually pure water. With flooded LA (FLA) batteries, each battery cell’s SG should be measured and recorded at the time of installation, but only after an initialization charge. Once the batteries are in service, each cell’s SG should be measured annually to identify problems like unequal charging or if the battery is not getting fully recharged.
Charging the battery to a full SOC before testing the SG will result in more accurate readings, as the electrolyte will be better mixed and cell voltages more balanced. Stratification of a battery, where the electrolyte becomes denser at the bottom of a cell and less dense at the top, occurs frequently on tall, high-capacity LA cells that are not fully recharged. When drawing the battery electrolyte into the hydrometer, first squeeze the rubber bulb and then insert the hydrometer into the vent opening on the battery.
And correct me if I'm wrong but doesn't desulfating battery plates restore the SG of a battery's electrolyte by putting the sulfur back into solution? My back up system is cheap (by necessity) and my battery "bank" consists of 2 car batteries that I swap out. It admittedly takes a long time to bring back a heavily sulfated battery but I've been able to accomplish a lot without even having to lay out the cost for deep cycle batteries. No, you cannot accurately determine battery state of charge by looking at its instantaneous voltage, which is what that "tester" does. The main thing that desulfation does is remove the crystals that prevent the electrolyte from fully contacting the lead plates.
It's good that you are hands-on enough to get by with refurbished car batteries, but most people want more reliability and less maintenance, and to be able to more deeply cycle a battery with less impact on the battery's life span.
Christopher - You say an SG reading is the only way to detect stratification, but don't say how. Also, I've found it extremely important when taking an acid sample up into the hydrometer to make sure the glass bulb floats freely and doesn't "drag" on the sides as acid is introduced. Resources, Tools and Basic Information for Engineering and Design of Technical Applications! With operational ranges of 20-30 miles, electric bicycles (eBikes) are a fun, inexpensive alternative to fossil-fueled vehicles for many urban and suburban applications. Most of the challenges involved with measuring a battery’s state of charge (SOC) lie in the complex processes that enable a two-way exchange between chemical and electrical energy. The most obvious downside to using only a lookup-based OCV methodology is that it cannot tell you how much energy is actually available from the battery. Devices such as Maxim’s DS2788 stand-alone fuel gauge use these basic techniques to estimate available capacity for rechargeable lithium-ion (Li+) and Li+ polymer batteries.
While some devices can use these relatively simple techniques to deliver battery capacity estimates with accuracies approaching 90 percent, this may not be sufficient for drivers who want to squeeze the last possible mile out of their vehicles’ batteries. Texas Instruments has developed its own enhanced battery modeling technique called Impedance Track, which supplements coulomb counting with measurement techniques that determine the actual physical condition of the battery. The Impedance Track methodology is used by most of Texas Instruments’ recently-released battery fuel gauges, including its bq20Z70 battery gas gauges (Figure 4). Estimating how much battery energy is left is a key factor in determining the range of an e-Bike. The Chemistry Handbook begins with a clear, concise introduction to the fundamental concepts of chemistry, including the atomic structure of matter. The Chemistry Handbook was originally developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. An ionic bond is formed when one or more electrons are wholly transferred from one element to another, and the elements are held together by the force of attraction due to the opposing charges. The sodium atom loses the one electron in its outer shell to the chlorine atom, which uses the electron to fill its outer shell. Externally, the converter resembles a large cylindrical tank resting on its side (see Figure A-4). Conductivity of reactor facility water is measured to provide an indication of dissolved ionic substances in the coolant. Regardless of the operating limits specified for a given reactor facility, operating relationships can be established between pH and conductivity levels of the coolant.
Figure 5 shows the theoretical relationship of pH versus conductivity in a solution containing pure water.
In both Figure 4 and Figure 5, a definite relationship exists between pH and conductivity, assuming no foreign ions are present. Because of the different densities of anion and cation resins, the flow of solution (impure water) is from top to bottom. For fixed amounts of anion and cation resins, the efficiency for removal of impurities is greater in a mixed-bed resin than a layered arrangement. The capacity of ion exchange resins to remove impurity ions is given in Table 2 along with other information on resins.
Losses by evaporation of liquid stored in safety cans at ordinary temperatures are negligible.
The Department of Energy Primer on Lead-Acid Storage Batteries was originally prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of the Department's nuclear facilities. The purpose of this Primer is to provide operation and maintenance personnel with the information necessary to safely operate and maintain lead-acid storage battery systems. One of the key parameters of battery operation is the specific gravity of the electrolyte.
SLI batteries are used by most people every day and are produced in greater numbers than any other type of lead-acid storage battery. Portable lead-acid batteries are usually of the sealed type constructed similarly to that depicted in Figure 14. Electricity is the flow of electrons in a conductor from one atom to the next atom in the same general direction.
Elements are defined by the number of electrons in orbit around the nucleus of an atom and by the number of protons in the nucleus.
Electrons in the outer band of an atom are easily displaced by the application of some external force. A material with more protons than electrons has a net positive charge and a material with more electrons than protons has a net negative charge. Electrons in the outer band can become free of their orbit by the application of some external force such as movement through a magnetic field, friction, or chemical action.
A free electron leaves a void which can be filled by an electron forced out of orbit from another atom. The relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance was discovered by the German physicist Georg Ohm, (1787 – 1854). By knowing any two values of the Voltage, Current or Resistance quantities we can use Ohms Law to find the third missing value. To help you better understand this relationship between Voltage, Current and Resistance, below is a pictorial representation known as Ohms Law Triangle.
Electrical Power, (P) in a circuit is the amount of energy that is absorbed or produced within the circuit. To help you better understand Power better, below is a pictorial representation known as Watts Law Triangle or the Power Triangle. One other point about Power, if the calculated power is positive in value for any formula the component absorbs the power, but if the calculated power is negative in value the component produces power, in other words it is a source of electrical energy.
The force required to make electricity flow through a conductor is called a difference in potential (pd), electromotive force (emf), or voltage. For a DC voltage source, the polarity of the terminals does not change, so the resulting current constantly flows in the same direction.
Generally, lead acid batteries are classified into two (2) groups, starting batteries and deep cycle batteries.
Deep cycle batteries feature thicker lead battery plates which help make these types of batteries more resilient to deep discharges. Lead acid batteries are produced in various types and chemistries, such as Wet Cell, Maintenance Free, Absorbed Glass Matt and Gel Cell. After extended use, a Wet Cell lead acid battery will begin to lose its ability to produce sufficient electricity.
Maintenance-Free (MF) – similar to Wet Cell lead acid batteries, except they require less routine maintenance. AGM batteries are a recombinant battery, which means the oxygen and hydrogen inside the battery will recombine, creating water.
AGM batteries have a lower self-discharge rate when compared to flooded lead acid batteries. Gel Cell – is similar to AGM batteries because the electrolyte is sealed by using a thickening agent (such as fumed silica) to immobilize the electrolyte. Both Gel Cell and AGM batteries can dispense charge at higher rates than flooded batteries due to their lower Peukerts exponent. The battery voltage of a lead acid battery is directly proportional to the number of battery cells wired in series. A batteries State of Charge measures the available capacity of the battery, which is expressed as a percentage.
A batteries State of Charge can be measured by reading either the terminal voltage or the specific gravity of the electrolyte. The Depth of Discharge (DOD) for a lead acid battery is the measure of how deeply a battery is discharged. Battery Amp-Hour ratings are important for selecting the appropriate battery and battery charger for a given application.
Based on some simple calculations, we can determine that you will need at least a 75Ah rated battery. Using this same example, you can select the appropriate battery charger and calculate the batter recharge times for recharging your batteries. Battery manufacturers define the end-of-life of a battery when it can no longer hold a proper charge or when the available battery capacity is 80% or less than what the battery was rated for.

Cycle Life – Cycle Life is a measure of how many charge and discharge cycles a battery can take before the battery plates deteriorate and short out. Age – Over time, the chemicals inside the battery will be to deteriorate the battery plates.
Battery Chemistry – AGM and Gel Cell batteries typically have a longer battery life than flooded or Wet Cell batteries, because of their shock absorbance, self discharge rates and recombinant design. Plate Thickness – Typically, the thicker the battery plates, the more abuse the battery can withstand.
For lead-acid (LA) battery electrolyte, the amount of acid dissolved in the water determines the SG.
These initial readings will serve as a reference for comparison over time, and will also verify that the battery is in good condition. After this charge, but prior to taking the SG reading, do not top off the battery with water in an attempt to replace the electrolyte lost to gassing or your SG reading will be inaccurate.
Low-cost hydrometers are readily available, but refractometers and higher-quality hydrometers may need to be specially ordered. I also do what I can to keep them conditioned by using a Pulse Tech Xtreme charger that both does the diagnostics and desulfating while it's charging. If a battery is fully at rest and been charged completely, you can get a rough idea of its state of charge, but not as accurately as measuring specific gravity. I do not know how much of it goes back into the electrolyte and how much ends up at the bottom of the cell. However, since the load, battery condition, and terrain all dramatically affect an eBike’s range, it can be difficult to estimate whether you will make it home without having to pedal your grocery-laden vehicle up that last hill. Among the phenomena common to all these processes is that a battery cell’s open-circuit voltage (OCV) drops as it discharges, a behavior that can be used to infer its state of charge. The simplest solution for these applications is interpreting the voltage readings against a hardware or software lookup table that contains a set of chemistry-specific battery profiles which correlate a cell’s DoD with output voltage. This is because a battery’s charge capacity decreases as a function of age and the number of discharge cycles it experiences. The cell-specific characteristics and application parameters are stored in the DS2788’s on-chip EEPROM and used to calculate conservative estimate of the amount of useable charge, given the present temperature, discharge rate, stored charge, and application parameters.
In addition, it can be highly desirable to have a battery fuel gauge that can give accurate predictions of run time at a particular discharge rate, which then can be used to produce reliable estimates of how far the vehicle’s remaining charge will carry it. The self-learning mechanism produces a more accurate model of the battery by monitoring the increases in impedance a lithium battery experiences as it ages.
It monitors capacity change, battery impedance, open-circuit voltage, and other critical parameters of the battery pack, and reports the information to the system host controller over a serial-communication bus. It goes on to discuss and explain the periodic table and the significance of the information in a periodic table, chemical bonding, the laws of chemistry and chemical equations. The handbooks were first published as Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals in 1985 for use by DOE category A reactors. The following is a brief description of the information presented in each module of the handbook along with some selected figures included in the handbook. Discusses the periodic table and the significance of the information in a periodic table. When this occurs, the sodium atom is left with a +1 charge and the chlorine atom a -1 charge. Conductivity measurements provide quantitative rather than qualitative information because it is possible to determine the total conductivity of the ions present, but not the specific types of ions present.
Figure 4 shows a typical relationship of the pH and conductivity of a reactor coolant system using high pH, ammonium hydroxide chemistry control as a function of the ammonia (NH3) concentration. A second curve is added to the graph that illustrates the relationship that exists when nitric acid (HNO3) is used as a pH control agent (such as may be utilized in facilities with aluminum components). A similar graph could be constructed for those facilities using cation resins of a different base such as lithium or barium. The main reason is that for layered resins there may be large pH gradients within the column of resin.
For instance, each cubic foot of a mixed-bed resin is capable of exchanging with 19.8 moles each of monovalent cations and anions.
This Primer contains fundamental information that will be helpful to most personnel involved in lead-acid battery applications. There are many hazards associated with lead-acid battery operation including acid burn, fire, explosion, and electrical shock. Cells or batteries connected in series have the positive terminal of one cell or battery connected to the negative terminal of another cell or battery. They are used for applications where power is necessary only on a standby or emergency basis. Electrons which are forced out of their orbits can result in a lack of electrons where they leave and an excess of electrons where they come to rest. A positive or negative charge is caused by an absence or excess of electrons, because the number of protons in an atom normally remains constant. Electrons flow along a copper conductor to provide energy to an electric device such as a radio, lamp, or motor.
Georg Ohm found that, at a constant temperature, the electrical current flowing through a fixed linear resistance is directly proportional to the voltage applied across it, and also inversely proportional to the resistance. A source of energy such as a voltage will produce or deliver power while the connected load absorbs it.
Also, we now know that the unit of power is the WATT but some electrical devices such as electric motors have a power rating in Horsepower or hp. While all circuit components have resistance, a resistor is a component manufactured to provide a designated resistance that is often shown in color coded bands around the resistor. The terminals of an AC voltage source periodically change polarity, causing the current flow direction to change with each switch in polarity. A lead-acid battery is an electrical storage device that uses a reversible chemical reaction to store energy.
Starting batteries, commonly called SLI, which stands for Starting, Lighting and Ignition are designed to deliver quick bursts of energy. Because they are designed to delivery short, but high bursts of current, these batteries feature a greater number of thin lead battery plates in order to discharge energy quickly over a short period of time. However, deep cycle batteries cannot provide quick bursts of current like starting batteries, which make the less likely to be used for starting combustible engines. This is a result of the material on the positive battery plates flaking off during the discharging and charging cycles. Maintenance-Free lead acid batteries also use a calcium alloy of lead instead of an antimony alloy, which reduces the amount of electrolysis. Because of this design, AGM batteries do not spill electrolyte (even when damaged), nor do AGM batteries require regular addition of water into the electrolyte, nor are they susceptible to shock and vibration. AGM batteries typically will not freeze in cold weather applications because of the lack of liquid electrolyte.
AGM batteries typically have a self-discharge of 1-3% per month, whereas, flooded lead acid batteries can self discharge up to 20% per month (or 1% per day). Typically, flooded batteries cannot deliver more than 25% of their rated amp-hour capacity in amps without decreasing its Available Capacity. Flooded batteries convert 15-20% of its electrical energy into heat instead of potential power, Gel Cell batteries about 10-16% and AGM batteries about 4%.
If the nominal voltage of a typical lead acid battery is about 2V per battery cell, then there is roughly 6 battery cells for a standard lead acid battery.
State of Charge is rated from 0-100%, with 100% representing a fully charged battery and 0% representing a fully discharged battery. Terminal voltage can be measured with a volt meter, whereas, the specific gravity is measured by using a hydrometer.
Similar to a batteries State of Charge, the Depth of Discharge is also measures as a percentage. Although some lead acid batteries are designed handle deep discharge cycles, such as deep cycle batteries, continued deep discharged may shorten the batteries life span. The Amp-Hour is the amount of usable energy the battery will deliver at a constant rate of discharge over a period of 20 hours before the battery is completely discharged. When selecting a battery, determine the amount of load the battery system will need to handle. Let’s say you have selected at 90Ah battery (typically a Group 27 battery, see Battery Group Sizes) and want to select a battery charger.
Reserve Minutes is the number of minutes a battery can carry a 25A load (at 80°F) before becoming completely discharged. The greater the average depth-of-discharge, the shorter the cycle life (the opposite holds true).
Battery group sized are rated by the Battery Council International (BCI), which refers to the physical size of the battery. A battery electrolyte’s density is a direct indicator of the battery cell’s state of charge (SOC)—and can also reveal the relative health of that cell compared to others.
If there is a significant imbalance between the SG of the cells in a newly initialized battery or if the electrolyte does not reach a “full” SG reading after charging, contact the battery manufacturer or supplier. If left to persist, stratification will damage the battery by corroding the lead plate at the bottom while allowing the top of the plate to become sulfated and inactive. A section of the float is calibrated with a scale so that when it is submerged in water it will read a value of 1.000 (or 1,000). Keep the tip of the hydrometer in the cell while slowly releasing the rubber bulb, drawing the electrolyte into the glass tube. Some battery chemistries, such as the lead-acid (PbA) gel cells used in most early eBikes, have a relatively linear voltage profile and a large voltage difference between their charged and discharged states (Figure 1). The relatively flat discharge curves of most modern battery chemistries require accurate, high-resolution (12 bits or more) voltage measurements to provide useful SOC data within their 20 percent and 80 percent charge region. Without some sort of compensation, there will be a big difference between the distance delivered by a new battery and a year-old unit when they both show a 75 percent charge reading. The gauge’s capacity estimates can be displayed on a 5-segment LED, or made available to a host processor via a series of registers that report the remaining charge in terms of mAh remaining and percentage maximum capacity (Figure 3). Unlike traditional fuel gauges, the ModelGauge algorithm eliminates the need for battery relearn cycles and an external current-sense resistor.

Impedance Track does this by taking a series of voltage and current readings, when the battery is at rest and under load, and using them to calculate changes in the battery’s impedance and its total chemical capacity (Qmax).
The handbook also includes information on the chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes, water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment, the hazards of chemicals and gases and basic gaseous diffusion processes. The subject areas, subject matter content, and level of detail of the Reactor Operator Fundamentals Manuals were determined from several sources and prepared by the DOE Training Coordination Program. The ionic bond is formed as a result of the attraction of the two oppositely-charged particles. Because many ions such as iron (Fe+++), chromium (Cr+++), copper (Cu++) and aluminum (Al+++) are susceptible to forming oxides and plating out as scale on heat transfer surfaces, reactor coolant conductivity is normally controlled at a level as low as practicable and consistent with pH. If, for example, the hydroxyl form resin is on top, as solution passes through it anionic impurities are removed and replaced by OR ions; thus, the pH increases. Mixed-bed resins are available commercially and in practical applications several cubic feet are used in a purification system. The reader is reminded to always follow the manufacturer's directions and to consult the manufacturer for help in battery sizing and selection. This has the effect of increasing the overall voltage but the overall capacity remains the same.
For example, if two 12-V automotive batteries were connected in parallel, the overall voltage for the batteries would still be 12 V. When two like-charged bodies are brought together, their electric fields repel one body from the other. Coulomb discovered that charged bodies attract or repel each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. An insulator around the outside of the copper conductor is provided to keep electrons in the conductor. This relationship between the Voltage, Current and Resistance forms the bases of Ohms Law and is shown below. The quantity symbol for power is P and is the product of voltage multiplied by the current with the unit of measurement being the Watt (W).
Deep cycle batteries can still be used as starter batteries, but a higher battery capacity (Ah rating) should be selected. The gas generated by the electrolysis of water is a combination oxygen and hydrogen, which can be an explosive mixture.
As the battery plates continue to shed material, the battery plates become smaller (less surface area) and forms sediment at the bottom of the battery. The amount of free-standing electrolyte above the plates is designed to be much higher, which means that there’s enough electrolyte to keep the plates covered even after a few seasons of normal use. Conversely, AGM batteries also perform well in hot weather applications because of their plate proximity and pure lead battery plates, which provides a lower internal resistance. As you can see, the difference between a fully charged battery and a fully discharged battery is only roughly 1V. Battery hydrometers can only be used with flooded batteries, not sealed (Gel Cell or AGM) batteries. A fully charged battery will have a DOD level of 0%, whereas, a fully discharged battery will have a DOD level of 100%. As a general rule, do not discharge your batteries more the 50% before recharging your batteries. If you have a battery rated at 120 Reserve Minutes, you can theoretically sustain a 25A load for roughly 2 hours.
When the liquid being tested has a higher density, the float sits higher in the liquid, indicating a higher SG value on the scale. In this case, a simple mechanical voltmeter can give the rider a useable, if imprecise, sense of the percentage of charge remaining. Since the OCV curves tend to shift as a function of temperature, even a simple lookup-based fuel gauge also needs to also factor the battery’s thermal status into its capacity calculations. Temperature compensation is possible in the application with minimal interaction between a µC and the device. It also accounts for the fact that battery impedance also varies significantly between cells and at different usage conditions, such as temperature and state-of-charge. This information will provide YOU with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations or potentially cause disasters in planned experiments and serious projects.
Each handbook contains an abstract, a foreword, an overview, learning objectives, and text material, and is divided into modules. No single negatively-charged ion has a greater tendency to bond to a particular positively-charged ion than to any other ion.
The other end contains the mixed process gas inlet and the stage coolant inlet and outlet.
By monitoring conductivity levels in the reactor facility systems, the operator is able to cross check the chemistry of these systems, thereby achieving a higher confidence level in the parameters measured. This increase in pH may decrease the efficiency in lower portions of the resin bed for removing impurities. This Primer is provided as an information resource intended to supplement battery safety or hazardous material training. For example, the 12-V lead-acid automobile battery contains 6 cells connected in series with each cell having a potential difference of about 2 V. However, the connected batteries would have twice the capacity of a single 12-V battery.
They are not suitable for deep discharge applications, but excel for uses needing a high current for a brief time.
Stationary batteries remain on a continuous float charge so that they can be used on demand.
Batteries in this category may be frequently deep cycled or remain unused for a relatively long time. When two unlike-charged bodies are brought together, their electric fields attract one body to the other. Copper is widely used as a conductor because it is one of the best conductors and is relatively inexpensive.
The amount of resistance depends upon composition, length, cross-section and temperature of the resistive material.
All voltage sources share the characteristic of an excess of electrons at one terminal and a shortage at the other terminal. Despite having low energy-to-weight ratio a correspondingly low energy-to-volume ratio; lead acid batteries have the ability to supply high surge currents (or large power-to-weight ratio). In fact, SLI batteries will only tolerate being completed discharged a handful of times before damaging the battery and decreasing the battery life. As sediment continues to build, the battery will eventually short out and the battery will be completely destroyed.
To calculate the battery recharge time, take the Ah divided by the maximum amperage rating of the battery charger.
However, for practical purposes, it is never a good idea to discharge your batteries more than 50%.
When reading the scale on a hydrometer, be sure that the scale is read using the bottom level (the meniscus) of the liquid’s surface. When processed to account for charging losses, discharge losses (due to the battery’s internal impedance), temperature, and other effects, this current data can be used in conjunction with the SOC lookup table to provide a reasonable estimate of the actual charge remaining in the battery. The information in the handbook is presented to provide a foundation for applying engineering concepts. The cylindrical tank is called the shell and is constructed of steel with welded joints.
Typical applications are portable tools, toys, lighting and emergency lighting, radio equipment, and alarm systems.
Simply put, the force of attraction or repulsion depends on the strength of the charges and the distance between them.
For any specific material at a constant temperature, the resistance of a conductor increases with an increase of length or a decrease of cross-section.
In most Wet Cell lead acid batteries 60% of the battery weight is comprised of the lead battery plates and 40% of the weight is the electrolyte. Wet Cell lead acid batteries are also more prone to damage or premature failure during extreme heat, excessive use, excessive vibration and over-charging. The Chemistry Handbook presents enough information to provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to understand the advanced theoretical concepts presented in other subject areas, and to better understand basic system and equipment operation. Many systems use a backwash procedure, if the resins are regenerated, to remove solids collected by filtration and to separate the resins for regeneration. The resin column will filter some undissolved material, but the efficiency for filtration is usually significantly less than that for removal by ion exchange. Most portable batteries may be recharged to 80a€“90% of their original capacity in less than an hour using a constant-voltage charger. However, rarely are batteries completely depleted, so for practical purposes, use 50% of the Ah rating or 45Ah.
The many hundreds of barrier tubes, or tube bundles, contained in one converter are held in place by the spool, or spool piece. Stationary batteries are also used for backup emergency power, telecommunications equipment, and uninterruptible power supplies.
Using this modified formula, the battery charge time would be 4.5 hours (45Ah divided by 10A). Thus, we can determine that selecting a 10A battery charger would be an appropriate choice because a 4.5 hour battery recharge time is very fast. On either end of the core are tube sheets into the holes of which the barrier tubes are sealed by rolling or swagging. Tube sheets are also mounted on the core between the end tube sheets to support the barrier tubes.

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Comments Lead acid battery charge vs specific gravity equation

  1. Koshka
    The charging cycle the water ratios are quick vehicle shows those symptoms.
  2. Skarpion
    Know which wire goes people familiar with long time to fully charge.
    Batteries combine very light weight material with lithium place.