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The Viburnum Trend in southeastern Missouri contains the largest concentration of lead in North America. Lead pipes, such as these discovered in Bath, England, were used for plumbing by ancient Romans. Yosemite Rock Fall Photos: A photo sequence of a rockfall and debris avalanche by Herb Dunn. If you're faced with replacing the battery on an out-of-warranty car, there's no need to panic. While there are many theories about how to make batteries last longer (coasting, slow takeoffs, etc.), they haven't been shown to actually extend battery life and are impractical anyway. Club Car golf carts are one of the premier manufacturers of golf carts and my personal favorite as well.
Several of our local golf cart dealers prefer the Club Car over EZ-Go and Yamaha, stating that the Club car offers more value. Because the Club Car has pretty much stayed the same for the past 10-15 years, it makes it easier to replace Club Car parts. I like the contemporary design of this electric golf cart which is the most obvious difference between the two models. Find out what else Club Car did that makes the Precedent different from their DS golf cart.
Club Car accessories include golf cart steering wheels, seat covers, windshields, heaters, wheel covers and storage organizers. Consider a used Club Car golf cart if you are wanting to buy or replace your existing golf cart.
Most recently I replaced a solenoid that wasn't working with a used one and my cart works great.
The Club Car Service Manual is not available from the Club Car website or online as a pdf file. If you have a Club car golf cart, you may be wondering what is the best deep cycle battery to use for your Club car. There is no one specific Club Car battery, but rather several different manufacturers you can choose from. What is the most important thing to know is whether you need 6 volt golf cart batteries or 8 volt golf cart batteries. Find out the best way to charge your golf cart batteries, how to maintain them and the most recommended golf cart battery makes. Normally, if your golf cart battery charger is not charging - the problem is usually not the charger. This information is necessary when buying Club Car parts or if you need to register your golf cart.
One of the most important Winterizing Tips is to have a good, fully charged battery with clean, tight terminals for reliable cold weather starting. Slow Down Traction loss starts at about 40-degrees Fahrenheit, even without rain or snow on the ground.
Be Smooth Accelerate, brake and steer as if you had a full cup of hot coffee on the dashboard. Check Air Pressure For every 10-degree drop in temperature, tires lose 1 psi of air pressure. Choose the Right Tires for Winder Driving Tires are shoes for your car, and wearing the right "snow shoes" can make a big difference. Here is a link to a short YouTube video about Winter Tire Safety made by the Tire Industry Association: Tire Safety Starts With Winter tires. When considering purchasing a previously owned battery it is important to be aware of a fair used car battery price before completing a transaction. As car batteries become used and worn down over time, the risk they will leak battery fluid and potentially become harmful to engine parts in your vehicle increases. Before you purchase a used battery for your car, beware of the potential for the battery to do damage to your vehicle. There are a variety of different stores that sell used car batteries for a number of different types of vehicles. There are many types of battery tenders so it’s important that you know what to look for and can separate features you need from those that you don’t need when choosing a motorcycle battery tender. Motorcycles are in their own class when it comes to battery tenders because their batteries are small and you don’t need a lot of complicated features to do the job.
It is also important to compare specifications because these will tell you if a particular motorcycle battery tender is up to the task you want it to perform. Motorcycle battery tenders can vary greatly in the average time it takes to charge your motorcycle’s battery although the most common tenders take anywhere from 2 to 10 hours to charge.
This is a very personal specification because one person’s “ease of use” is another person’s “difficult to use!” The good news is that most motorcycle battery tenders are very easy to use and fully automatic.
Does it come with a good instruction manual that discusses both the proper use and safety considerations?
Does it have an automatic shut off or go into a safer trickle charge (or battery tender) mode after charging is complete? Does it give the user enough information via a display or lights for the user to always know the status of the charging?
All motorcycle battery tenders have cables for you to hook to the positive and negative terminals of the battery. As we discussed in the specifications, not all motorcycle battery tenders are compatible with all battery types.
Many tenders use a microprocessor controlled multi-step process for charging and maintaining the battery. Many tenders come with an indicator that can tell you what percentage of charge is left in the battery.
Warranties vary greatly by manufacturer and the type of charger and are usually classified as “Limited Warranties.” Typical warranties run between 90 days up to 5 years. For a comparison of popular motorcycle battery tenders, please see our article Top 5 Motorcycle Battery Tenders For 2013. I would love to get your opinion of this article or hear your motorcycle battery tender story. Mark is an avid car nut and writer who loves to research and provide helpful information on popular topics to help consumers make better buying and care decisions.
In 2009, the residential solar photovoltaic (PV) inverter market represented 90 percent of the total PV inverter worldwide market based on the number of units shipped. Typically residential PV inverter systems provide 3 to 10 kilowatts of output power; a low amount when compared to the megawatt inverters in solar farms.
Each micro-inverter in a solar PV application can use its maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm to optimize the power conversion efficiency of each PV module. Figure 1 illustrates a typical residential solar power system with a micro-inverter attached to each solar panel. The advantages of a parallel configuration can be further enhanced by attaching micro-inverters to each PV module rather than using one centralized inverter. Another striking advantage of using a multiple micro-inverter topology instead of a centralized inverter is enhanced system reliability. Nevertheless, tradeoffs must be considered when employing a multiple micro-inverter topology when it comes to system design and cost.
One primary design goal in a PV micro-inverter application is to maximize power conversion efficiency, which often involves sophisticated, iterative processes to develop MPPT algorithms and real-time controllers with sufficient computing power to execute the algorithms.
The MPPT algorithm operates the PV module at the output voltage level where maximum power can be extracted from the module.

Another example that requires accurate current sensing is load balance control, which is required when the solar panels are connected in parallel. When designing drive and sense circuits for inverters, galvanic isolation between the high-voltage circuits, low-voltage controller, and user interface must be maintained both for operator safety and to prevent hazardous high-voltage transients from damaging the controller. In order to achieve optimum system efficiency, the converter illustrated in Figure 3 shows that important current and voltage information must be fed back to the DSP for calculations and effective controls, such as MPPT and load balancing. Inter-panel and inter-system communications are part of a solar PV energy system since each panel must communicate with the central controller for control and monitoring.
By providing enhanced linearity, low cost and design flexibility, shunt resistor current sensing is an optimum current measurement method, despite the drawback of power loss in the shunt. One example is the family of ACPL-C79X miniature iso-amps that help meet the stringent requirements in power conversion systems. A micro-inverter has the ability to adjust conversion parameters on each panel by using a high-resolution PWM. The gate drive optocoupler uses a MOSFET to pull the output to VCC for rail-to-rail output voltage swing. Another advantage of using a driver with rail-torail output capability is improved gate driver switching efficiency.
Shoot-through is a serious short circuit condition in a power converter using the Hbridge configuration. Minimum dead time prevents shoot-through and yet, on the other hand, the maximum dead time is the longest period of time which both IGBTs Q1 and Q2 are off.
6) ACPL-H342 and ACPL-K342 2.5 Amp Output Current IGBT Gate Drive Optocoupler Data Sheet, Avago Technologies, AV02-2526EN. Bodos Power Systems - who has written 791 posts on PowerGuru – Power Electronics Information Portal. The Buick mine is one of six underground mines that currently produce lead in the Viburnum Trend ore district. The cost of a new battery pack continues to decline and now stands at about $3,000, not bad when you consider how long they last. There are strict regulations for the handling and disposal of old batteries, which can leak hazardous materials. Simply maintaining your vehicle as recommended is the best way to ensure your battery stays healthy for as long as possible. The easiest alternative to all of the above is to fill you gas tank and head south for the winter.
Hybrid batteries function differently from standard gasoline batteries, and different makes of cars oftentimes require unique types of batteries as well. Damaged batteries are not only potentially hurtful to your car, but they can leak fluids that are toxic to people and animals as well. If the price seems too good to be true, it is likely the battery has already been used extensively and may have lost some of its capabilities.
Your best bet is to speak with a mechanic or dealer who specializes in your particular type of car. The difference can save you a lot of money and eliminate features which usually equates to extra size and weight you don’t want to have to carry around. On the other hand, you are definitely looking for a unit that will get you through the entire storage time and also maintain the battery in good health for the whole period. It’s hard to compare if you don’t know what the specifications mean or why you would want any particular features.
Common battery types include lead acid, flooded or sealed maintenance free (very common now), in either AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat separators) or Gel cel batteries.
Peak amperes is the measurement of the highest peak of current draw over one millisecond or over one thousandth of a second.
Since you are going to be leaving the tender on autopilot for possibly months, motorcycle battery connections are much more reliable than alligator clips. A reverse polarity warning on a motorcycle battery tender will tell you if you have hooked the positive cable to the negative post on the battery incorrectly or vice versa.
But there is also the consideration of vehicle type which can dictate a special battery which might not even be 12 volts.
When considering a tender for motorcycle storage, a slow maintenance charge is all that is needed.
In addition the charge percentage, it can tell you if there is a problem and whether it’s actually with the battery or not.
One way that this is handled is through a power shutoff that automatically shuts off power to the clamps if they are dislodged from the terminals.
All other things being equal, a longer warranty may tip the balance in favor of one tender over another. I hope this article has been helpful in preparing you for comparing one motorcycle battery tender to another. Growing at an annual average rate of 26 percent, the number of residential inverters sold should reach 4 million units by 2015 [1].
Due to space constraints, the primary selection criteria for a residential inverter are compact size, ease of design, build quality, and monitoring capability. Current and voltage information is required to implement MPPT algorithms and isolation amplifiers (isoamps), working with shunt resistors, to help provide accurate current measurements. This parallel configuration helps prevent energy loss from PV panel shading, since the entire system can be optimized for maximum energy harvesting on an individual-panel basis.
This allows each micro-inverter to utilize a MPPT algorithm and optimize the performance of each PV module. Besides the obvious increase in design complexity that results from using multiple inverters in the system, inter-panel communications becomes necessary for load balancing and proper planning of power allocation and distribution.
It needs to find and track the MPP that is constantly changing with atmospheric conditions. The controller must be able to detect the load current and adjust the converter output voltage by varying the PWM duty cycle. In this example, the solar panel provides a DC source that is stepped up by a DC-to-DC boost converter to a high voltage of 300 V or more. This information includes panel output voltage, DC-link current and voltage, and inverter output currents. In such a fieldbus communication design, an ultra-low-power digital optocoupler, such as the ACPL-M61L, can be used for high-speed signal transmission with galvanic isolation. Today, better thermal performance and low-resistance shunt technology allows power loss to be minimized by reducing the shunt signal level. By accepting input signals of ±200mV, these devices optimize direct connection to shunt-based current-sensing applications. In the past, a gate drive optocoupler used bipolar Darlington transistors in the output stage to deliver high output current.
During dead time, no work is done and too much dead time reduces the efficiency of the power converter.
In small capacity PV systems, such as the residential and commercial rooftop solar inverters, the micro-inverter topology’s parallel configuration offers easier installation, higher efficiency, better panel power harvesting, and no-single-point-of-failure reliability issues. Advanced miniature isolation amplifiers can accurately measure the currents and voltages that are required in microinverter designs to achieve optimum efficiency. If you're the original owner of a hybrid vehicle, chances are you won't ever have to replace the battery pack because it just wears out.
The gas engine will run almost constantly and your fuel economy will take a noticeable hit.
Just as engine price estimation can be tricky, however, so too can the cost of a used car battery.

For this reason, the cost of a battery greatly fluctuates depending upon your vehicle, and oftentimes upon the age and exact type of vehicle as well.
This is the reason many dealers and other recycling services accept used batteries from cars in order to dispose of them safely and properly. Used batteries can also function poorly in your vehicle as well, making it difficult to start up the car or for the battery to retain a charge if you haven't used the vehicle in several days or weeks. Below I have laid out the most common specifications with an explanation of each and then the most common features also with explanation for each so you can compare apples to apples. Pay attention to what type of motorcycle battery or batteries you will be maintaining and select the appropriate tender.
The higher the peak amperes, the more current can be drawn by the tender without damaging it.
Again since you’re storing the motorcycle, it is not as important how fast the tender charges but that it is capable of maintaining a full charge and the health of the battery. Short cables will mean that you have to place the motorcycle battery tender very close to the battery or even remove the battery to use it safely. It’s also possible to detect a bad battery in some cases when normal charging does not fully charge the battery. A battery tender is a near requirement in the motorcycle world especially with the technology involved with security systems on newer models which can drain your battery faster.Trust us, there's nothing worse than ending a long week at work with the excitement overload that comes with a ride on your bike only to discover the battery is dead.Bottom line?
In response, the industry has introduced the micro-inverter topology for residential PV applications because it eliminates the need for a large centralized inverter, simplifies installation and energy management, increases reliability and optimizes efficiency.
Trees, fallen leaves, debris or clouds can partially shade or obscure solar panels from direct sunlight, leading to disproportionate power losses. Any atmospheric disturbances or mismatch on a module is then limited to that individual module.
Besides improved efficiency and reliability, micro-inverters also add flexibility since it is easy to expand capacity by simply adding PV panels. The point at which a PV device delivers its maximum power output and operates at its highest efficiency is referred to as its maximum power point (MPP or PMP).
An effective MPPT algorithm relies on accurate tracking of the PV module’s current and voltage in addition to feeding that current and voltage data back to the microcontroller [4]. The high-voltage DC is converted by a full-bridge inverter to AC power that must then be synchronized to the power grid in phase, frequency, and voltage and have low total harmonic distortion. Therefore, current and voltage sensors with sufficient accuracy, response speed, high-switching noise rejection and safety insulation are needed. By providing an extremely low-current LED, working at 1.6mA, the device uses as little as 10 percent of the power of a standard digital optocoupler. This is possible because of the availability of low cost, precision optically-isolated amplifiers. By choosing an appropriate shunt resistance, any range of current can be monitored, from less than 1A to more than 100A.
The PWM signals need to be sent to the IGBT gates after passing through an optical isolator with high-output current drive capability. As shown in Figure 6, a rail-to-rail output stage exhibits a higher output voltage swing than the Darlington approach. The power dissipation of the gate drive optocoupler decreases by as much as 30 percent because of the lower saturation voltage and does not need to increase VCC to compensate for the 3VBE diode drop of the Darlington circuit. Shoot-through wastes energy because a large current flows from the HV+ rail directly to the HV- rail without going through the load.
This preventive feature simplifies the PWM design, because there is no need to consider delay time before toggling an IGBT on and off. The gate drive optocoupler reduces the maximum dead time to 200 ns and this improves efficiency (Figure 10). Gate drive optocouplers, featuring high current driving capability and compact packaging, can carry isolated PWM signals while driving the IGBT. Almost all replacements are performed by dealers, who have the experience and know-how to do it the right way. While your car may run for some time on a bum battery, its performance and efficiency will steadily decline until it's replaced.
The reason for this is there are other complicating factors that may need to be taken into consideration when planning on replacing your car's battery. Generally, however, while new batteries may cost several hundred dollars and can range into the thousands, used batteries should be roughly 50% to 75% of that cost, depending upon their condition and quality. If they do not, they'll likely be able to give you one or more names of people or companies who do sell used parts. So it is usually a measurement of the quality of the components rather than a measurement of charging capability. Longer cables will give you flexibility in where you locate the battery tender during the storage period. Gate drive optocouplers with high current driving capability carry the pulse-width-modulation (PWM) signal across an isolation barrier to drive IGBTs. For instance, in a typical series PV array, a 10 percent shading of the cell area will cause the source impedance to increase significantly and may cause power loss as high as 50 percent [2].
Although MPPT algorithms and other techniques can increase conversion efficiency of single-inverter systems, the measures performed on the entire array will only offer an average and will not reach the full energy potential of each panel in the solar array.
When compared to an alternative technology isolator using magnetic coupling, power savings is 60 percent. Such a device can also be used to monitor voltage with the use of a resistive voltage divider at its input [5].
This helps ensure that the IGBT’s gate voltage is driven to the optimum intended level with minimum power loss across the IGBT.
More importantly, the resulting high-IGBT power dissipation can overheat and damage the expensive IGBTs. And, they also provide rail-to-rail output and a shoot-through preventive circuit to help reduce power loss and protect the micro-inverter. New dealer-installed batteries come with full warranties, so you may be covered for the remainder of your ownership.
If the battery reads less than 12.4 volts, it is less than 75% charged and should be recharged.
The freezing protection of the coolant depends on how much water has been mixed with the antifreeze. Read on for some advice regarding the purchase of a used car battery, and the best way of telling if you are getting a reasonable deal on a battery for the car of your choice. Although you can also buy used batteries online, this mode of sale is a bit risky because you don't have the chance to inspect the battery before purchasing it. For a motorcycle you don’t need to be concerned about peak amperes or even charging amps as much because you will be storing your motorcycle and are more interested in maintaining the battery rather than trying to charge it initially. Since they provide tight dead time control and shoot-through prevention, gate drivers improve conversion efficiency and help protect the IGBTs. By using a parallel configuration, each PV string can operate at its optimum power point, independent of other strings, which helps eliminate problems from potential shading and other variances. Motorcycle batteries are smaller with less capacity and so don’t need the same charger performance as the larger 12 volt battery in your car. Any price and availability information displayed on the merchant site at the time of purchase will apply to the purchase of this product.

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