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Shortly after I learned how to do this test, a friend called me in the middle of the night, in FullPanicMode? because he couldn't fix his starter and needed the car in the morning to get to his new job. I've searched online for a good description of the test, but almost everything I found was written for people that already had a good understanding of electrical troubleshooting. Practically every electrical textbook starts with several dreary and intricate chapters explaining why electricity behaves the way it does.
That stray piece of wire shown above happened to be completely isolated from anything else but the meter. Here is an example of a light bulb with a power source and switch, utilizing "perfect" conductors. Despite this convincing demonstration, you're still saying to yourself, "No thanks, I prefer to spend hours troubleshooting inconclusively with an ohmmeter. If the battery voltage is adequate under load, proceed with the voltage drop test on the positive and negative legs of the circuit. With caution for the moving fan blade and belt, wiggle the cables while testing under load. If you find the starter spins the engine adequately with the ignition disabled, but slows down once the ignition is reconnected, your ignition timing may have too much advance. When troubleshooting a starter circuit, more advantages of voltage drop testing becomes apparent.
If you do find a voltage drop problem, after making repairs, measure the voltage at the battery under load again.
IC LM 324 consists of4 op amps in one package , so power supply is common and is shown once (pin 4 and 11). To setup , connect  the circuit to battery  ,adjust R6 so that required voltages are available at the inverting pins( refer description to get the required voltages).
For your Car Battery Voltmeter Circuit, would you be able to tell me what resistor values I would need to monitor a 6 V supply? I need to build a stop watch display on a lcd or 7 seg to add to my efx-tex prop-xs micro controller!!!this looks like this mite be what I need!!! The website is no longer online (got overwhelmed with the email it generated), but I wanted to pass along this method of troubleshooting for a slow-turning starter, or any similar electrical fault. When I learned about this VERY simple test years ago, the proverbial light bulb (no pun intended) illuminated over my head, just like in the cartoons. Your starter barely turns, and I'm delving into the seemingly unimportant details of a voltmeter.
Instead of the meter leads connected directly to each other, what would happen if they were joined by a "Perfect" conductor? For the moment, consider it an unwanted restriction like a loose crimp or multiple broken strands.
The faulty wire can be electrically separated in two parts by poking one meter lead through the insulation near the middle. I would recommend no more than 0.500 volts total on either the positive or negative leg of any circuit. Reinstall the bulb so the circuit is under load and run the amazingly simple voltage drop test. In the example above, a test with an ohmmeter would have showed good continuity yet the damaged wire was incapable of carrying the needed current. Similar to the light bulb circuit shown above, here is a diagram of a typical starter circuit. Current must flow through the starter mount bolts to the engine block, then via a jumper to the frame, and then via a second jumper to the battery. The only time a problem would be indicated with the starter itself is if battery voltage is adequate while cranking and both circuit legs showed near-zero voltage drop. With an electrically activated switch like a solenoid, the main contacts are only closed when the coil is energized. Since you have now corrected an unwanted restriction that was slowing the flow of electrons, it's possible a marginal battery can't handle this increased (actually normal) demand. I realized if I could put this simple test to practical use, I could be lazy and still look like a hero in the process. If you could somehow propel one marble, all of the other marbles would be pushed along by the chain reaction.

I'm merely trying to help you figure out why your starter spins slowly over or why your headlights are dim. Before proceeding (I'm talking about reading further, not hurting me) it is vitally important to understand that there is no pressure difference between the meter leads when they are connected, and thus 0.000 volts is displayed. Even if bazillions of electrons were zipping past (very high pressure or voltage) there would be no pressure differential between the meter leads.
The restriction may not be as abrupt but is enough to cause a difference in pressure along the conductor.
With a simple meter hookup, a circuit under load can be easily tested for any unwanted restriction, or voltage drop. As long as the power source is supplying the proper voltage, the bulb shines at the specified brightness.
I'll scrub every connection with a wire brush, and maybe even draw blood a few times with the sharp bristles.
In this example, the frayed section is impeding the current flow so that inadequate voltage is available at the bulb. A similar situation would occur with a wire that is too small to conduct the needed flow of electrons. Yet when you try your starter, the conductor is incapable of delivering the massive current flow required. The initial step requires verifying adequate battery voltage under the load of the starter. In that case, either the starter needs repair or the engine is binding internally, causing slow cranking. In less than five minutes, I found a bad cable crimp that appeared perfectly fine on the outside. While I'm not allowed to wear a cowboy outfit, my employer pays me to ensure that various electrons traveled exactly where intended and nowhere else.
The second concept is that any circuit is already chock full of electrons, whether flowing or not.
These ramblings are intended to help you troubleshoot an existing circuit which is either inoperative or performing poorly. Connections must be undone, and the results are inconclusive even if perfect continuity is indicated. If too many electrons try to pass through, they will bunch up on the upstream side of the restriction.
The meter on the left is checking the entire positive leg of the circuit, including the switch.
After determining which end is at fault, further isolate the fault by moving the lead directly to the terminal lug instead of the battery post. Disregard any readings you get when the circuit is not under load, as you can read system voltage in some instances.
However, not enough current can flow through the frayed section for the circuit to work properly.
The voltage drop test on the ground leg is showing 4 volts, when ideally it should be as close to 0.000 as practical. Such an undersized wire would show perfect continuity with an ohmmeter, yet become a restriction in a circuit with heavy current.
By performing a voltage drop test between the starter case and the (-) battery post, any problem in the ground circuit can be quickly isolated. A voltage drop test across the terminals will easily check the current carrying capability of the contacts.
You would have fixed one problem, but it's important to retest the battery under load in case there was a second problem, hidden by the first. The electrons I corrall happen to be on aircraft, but the principles are the same no matter the application.
But why the electrons travel to and fro is beyond normal understanding and is merely theory. Even a scrap piece of wire sitting on your garage floor is full to the brim with electrons. Pretend you have shrunk yourself small enough to fit inside, but don't come crying to me if you get crushed by the marble behind you.

First you will test for adequate pressure behind the electrons (This is the battery load test).
This allows us to verify that any circuit element is allowing electrons through without any unwanted resistance. Remember this conductor is part of a circuit in motion, with the electrons traveling in a loop and performing useful work, such as powering a light. Maybe I can even throw away my hard-earned money by replacing some perfectly good parts." Granted, in the example above, you'd have eventually found the problem by checking resistance. A loose or corroded crimp, where at least one strand is making good contact, may also behave in the same manner. Due to the inconclusive results and the need to disconnect the components, I consider troubleshooting with an ohmmeter a potentially misleading waste of time.
On the positive leg, the meter is connected between the (+) battery post and the insulated terminal on the starter. Another advantage involves the ability to find the seemingly insignificant amounts of resistance that can slow down a starter.
They also had the disadvantage that their off-load voltage  would rise to unacceptable levels. Unless you like to fill your head with extraneous information, skim over the valence shells and free electrons covered so well in electrical textbooks.
We'll also test the rest of the circuit for any unwanted restrictions that can cause poor performance (This portion is the voltage drop test). Then sit on your hands, because you'll want to slap yourself once you realize how simple it is. Note how the meter leads are directly on the battery posts so that any faults in the cable terminals will be measured. Ohmmeters do have their place, like testing a fuel gauge sender but for most troubleshooting the voltage drop test is the way to go.
Then after replacing the battery, starter and solenoid you are still scratching your head and hoping your wife doesn't find out how much money you've wasted. As an example, with a 12 volt starter drawing 150 amps, a cable run with a mere 0.040 ohms resistance will drop available voltage in half at the starter. Adding a voltage stabiliser would fix the  regulation problem but at the expense of cost and complexity.
Input current at full  load is about 300mA which makes the unit a very respectable 75% efficient.
With the bulb removed and the circuit not under load, you will get VERY misleading results.
If you can grasp that invisible thing-a-ma-jiggies (electrons) travel predictably and can be harnessed to do useful work, you will be all set. These moving electrons can be harnessed to perform useful work such as spinning a motor, powering a light or heating Pop-Tarts.
The voltmeter draws so little current that enough electrons can easily pass through the remaining single strand.
When Alpo goes in one end, a chain reaction occurs and almost immediately something needs to come out the other end. If connected across the battery terminals, the pressure differential (voltage) is displayed. If everybody had a good understanding of electrical troubleshooting, I'd have to get a real job.
I highly recommend driving a sheet metal screw into each battery post as a place to connect the test leads. Fortunately, unlike my dog, it's electrons that come out the other end, and the transfer is instantaneous.

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