How to charge ni-mh rechargeable batteries 800mah,can a 12 volt battery explode,club car charge battery,12v sealed lead acid battery voltage test - Plans On 2016

23.09.2015
Build your own Accurate LC Meter (Capacitance Inductance Meter) and start making your own coils and inductors.
1Hz - 2MHz XR2206 Function Generator produces high quality sine, square and triangle waveforms of high-stability and accuracy. Having the ability to control various appliances inside or outside of your house wirelessly is a huge convenience, and can make your life much easier and fun.
China Good Quality Solar Led Motion Sensor Light, Led Globe Bulbs and E27 Led Globe Bulb International Trade Site. This item will be sent through the Global Shipping Programme and includes international tracking. By clicking Confirm bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Shipping Programme terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. By clicking 1 Click Bid, you are agreeing to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder.
Popular as NiMh batteries, Nickle-metal hydride batteries are secondary (electrochemical cells) in nature and similar to the nickel-cadmium cells.
Users who are desperate to replace their non-rechargeable batteries and fervently hunting for a replacement can certainly consider these NiMh batteries as a good alternative. Usually, alkaline batteries are heavy on the wallet and can run out quickly if used in a digital camera or so. Categorized in three distinct groups, the recharging rate of NiMh batteries could be slow, brisk and fast. Well, discharge rate attribute towards the duration in which a battery loses its energy when left unused. In the absence of toxic cadmium, NiMh batteries are not hazardous to the environment at all. Proper chargers are usually expensive and cheap chargers supplied with the original equipment often incorrectly charge the cells and dramatically shorten their life. This LC Meter allows to measure incredibly small inductances making it perfect tool for making all types of RF coils and inductors. The meter is a perfect addition to any power supply, battery chargers and other electronic projects where voltage and current must be monitored.
It is a very useful bench test equipment for testing and finding out the frequency of various devices with unknown frequency such as oscillators, radio receivers, transmitters, function generators, crystals, etc. BA1404 HI-FI Stereo FM Transmitter broadcasts high quality stereo signal in 88MHz - 108MHz FM band. It is an irreplaceable tool for troubleshooting and repairing electronic equipment by determining performance and health of electrolytic capacitors.
8-DIP machined IC socket allows to swap OPA2134 with many other dual opamp chips such as OPA2132, OPA2227, OPA2228, dual OPA132, OPA627, etc. It's breadboard compatible so it can be plugged into a breadboard for quick prototyping, and it has VCC & GND power pins available on both sides of PCB.
If the item comes direct from a manufacturer, it may be delivered in non-retail packaging, such as a plain or unprinted box or plastic bag. By clicking Confirm bid you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder.
Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. However, for the negative electrode, these NiMh batteries carry a hydrogen-absorbing alloy instead of cadmium. In contrast, if we talk about the specific energy density then NiMh batteries are value for money products but not superior than Li-ion batteries. Being a safer product, these NiMh batteries are apt for the personal use as they comprise hydrogen absorbing alloys in place of electrodes.
If you wander around the market, you will get to know that the digital camera batteries are not pocket friendly at all and can easily affect your overall budget. A slow recharging battery would normally take around 14 to 16 hours whereas quickly rechargeable batteries merely need 3 to 6 hours. This 'intelligent' charger was designed for high current and rapid charge applications such as cordless power tools and model racing cars.
It can be connected to any type of stereo audio source such as iPod, Computer, Laptop, CD Player, Walkman, Television, Satellite Receiver, Tape Deck or other stereo system to transmit stereo sound with excellent clarity throughout your home, office, yard or camp ground. Unlike other ESR Meters that only measure ESR value this one measures capacitor's ESR value as well as its capacitance all at the same time. Headphone amplifier is small enough to fit in Altoids tin box, and thanks to low power consumption may be supplied from a single 9V battery. It's small, power efficient, yet customizable through onboard 2 x 7 perfboard that can be used for connecting various sensors and connectors. You can control lights, fans, AC system, computer, printer, amplifier, robots, garage door, security systems, motor-driven curtains, motorized window blinds, door locks, sprinklers, motorized projection screens and anything else you can think of. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. That is why NiMh batteries are better and more efficient companions than nickel-cadmium cells of equivalent sizes.
That is why NiMh batteries are recommended to the users and as their improper disposal also will not affect our surroundings. Unfortunately the battery packs are fairly expensive to replace, sometimes costing almost as much as the entire drill kit, if in fact you can purchase the batteries separately at all.
The circuit includes an auto ranging as well as reset switch and produces very accurate and stable readings. Arduino Prototype uses all standard through-hole components for easy construction, two of which are hidden underneath IC socket. If we compare lithium-ion cells with NiMh batteries then the volumetric energy density in NiMh batteries will be lower and self discharge capacity will be higher. However, the price of NiMh batteries also vary from model to model and some models could also be expensive in nature.


Truthfully, the rate of charge is also affected by the current passing into your switch board.
For instance, if you keep your battery as it is it will discharge around 40% of its power at the end of the month. This charger uses the cell manufacturer's recommended charge method, to safely and quickly charge batteries.
USB IO Board is self-powered by USB port and can provide up to 500mA for electronic projects. Board features 28-PIN DIP IC socket, user replaceable ATmega328 microcontroller flashed with Arduino bootloader, 16MHz crystal resonator and a reset switch.
To reduce its discharging capacity, users can simply keep these NiMh batteries in a cooler place. It is cheaper to purchase your own cells and use the old case to manufacture a battery pack, if you can do the soldering of the battery tags (Note: don't solder directly to the batteries as is damages them and is quite dangerous). In selecting replacement cells, I researched the manufacturer's specifications on charging and guess what?
Arduino sketches are uploaded through any USB-Serial adapter connected to 6-PIN ICSP female header. In other words, the supplied battery charger is a very simple device that applies constant current to the battery pack. Board is supplied by 2-5V voltage and may be powered by a battery such as Lithium Ion cell, two AA cells, external power supply or USB power adapter.
During the recharging process, once batteries reach their 100% charge, the cell starts to heat and the internal pressure builds up, causing the battery to eventually rupture or vent electrolyte. Having paid good money for a new battery pack, I decided to design a new charger that would not damage the battery. I decided from the specifications and from my preferred style of use (throw it in the charger and expect it to be good next time I reached for it) that the design of a better battery charger would require the charger to sense the condition of cells and charge accordingly. To perform this task requires a device that measures, remembers and controls which state the charge should be in, and when coupled with some complex characteristics that rechargeable batteries can exhibit, it seemed to me that logic control circuitry was required. I wanted to keep the design as simple as possible, and reduce the component count, because reducing the size and number of holes in the PCB is the major cost driver in circuit manufacture. I soon realised that the simplest design would be a one-chip design, and that was to use a PIC.
To start with a cell is defined as a single vessel containing electrodes and electrolyte for generating current. They can supply very large amounts of current and display a remarkably flat discharge characteristic, maintaining a consistent 1.2V throughout discharge. This is called the "knee" characteristic because of the shape of the graph of voltage against time. Rechargeable battery capacity is rated in mAH (milliampere-hours). The total capacity of a battery is defined as "C", that is it can supply C mA for 1 hour, or 2C for 30 minutes etc.
Charge rates can vary from trickle charges to keep the battery 'topped up' of 3.3% of C to 5% of C, a slow current charge of 10% of C to 20% of C or a fast charge of 50% of C to 100% of C. Fast charges such as 100% of C should be terminated after about 1.5 hours, providing the battery is flat to begin with. Once a battery is fully charged, the battery produces gas creating a high internal pressure, and a sudden rise in temperature. The charge should be switched to a trickle charge at this point or the battery will begin to vent and release its electrolyte.
My old battery was rated at C=1300mAH and my old charger was rated 400mA (30% of C) so the charger should have been switched off after about 4 hours, provided that they were almost flat to begin with.
However there is no way of knowing if C was actually 1300maH or if it had decreased a bit, and once the a battery starts to deteriorate, I suspect this becomes a vicious cycle and the battery deteriorates rapidly due to more and more overcharging.
Almost every one quotes it as the reason that cells have to be completely flattened - otherwise they develop some sort of memory, and can only hold a partial charge from there on. The effect disappears when the battery cycle is suddenly varied, and it is extremely difficult to reproduce this effect even in a laboratory. So the "memory effect" is not a significant problem in home usage. What I can tell you is while it may be OK to discharge individual cells to 0V, it is certainly not recommended to discharge an entire battery of cells. When the battery is discharged below 0.8V per cell, one of the cells is inevitably weaker than the others, and goes to zero first. If the battery is further flattened this battery becomes charged in reverse, which again makes it still weaker.
Eventually the battery's performance drops off quite suddenly which ironically is the very thing that the user is trying to prevent. Most users know where the battery's "knee" occurs; it is when the original equipment first starts to show signs that the battery performance (and hence voltage) is suddenly dropping, and it is a good idea to place it straight on charge at this point. They can build up internal heat when working and this can cause temperatures inside to increase also.
They also should be left to cool down for a while after discharge before placing them on charge. The value for C often forms some of the part number and the part number can be searched for on the Internet. Note that the cell value for C is the same as the battery value for C. Manufacturers data gives that when designing a charger you should first consider how the cells are to be used. For these applications the charge use is termed "cycle use" where the battery is repeatedly charged and discharged. In addition, usually the charge time required is as fast as possible, between 1 and 2 hours. Despite this I conservatively selected 1.25A as my charge current, because I wished to be able to charge 1300maH batteries also. This value should be good for most readers, and it doesn't really matter if it is a bit less than 100% of C, because the charger will still detect a peak eventually anyway.
However, some readers will want to adjust the maximum current, and this is described a bit later on. For "cycle use", there are two recommended methods of detecting charge termination, either using a temperature sensor in the battery pack or using a "negative delta V" cutoff system.
The temperature technique relies on detecting the sudden rise in battery temperature to shut off the charge. There is nothing wrong with doing this but battery packs do not always come with temperature sensors built in.
Hence, no matter how discharged the battery is, this technique will give enough charge to restore the battery to its full state, and then the battery is continually "topped up" with a trickle charge to prevent slow leakage through internal resistance. Other things to consider are the requirement to let a battery cool down, so a better charge can be applied.


This battery charger waits for the battery voltage to stabilize for about 30 seconds before starting to charge. If the battery has just come off discharge and is hot, it may take a minute or so for the charge to begin to start. For this reason the charger starts with a slow "soft start" charge for 4 minutes to allow the battery to cool and get past this point. The charger uses a threshold of 2V (open circuit voltage) to recognize that a battery has been connected. In practice even a very old battery that has been actually shorted out for some time, will recover above this value when unloaded.
Note that the first Light Emitting Diode (LED) comes on continually whilst battery is undergoing the bulk charge process, while the second LED gives an indication of the particular type of charge being applied. Normal operation of the charger is fairly straightforward.
Once a battery is connected, the charger will progress though mode 1 (cool), 2 (soft), 3 (fast) and 4 (trickle). When the battery is removed, the charger will revert to mode 0 (standby). Operating Principle The circuit was first designed as a block diagram shown in Fig 2.
The micro-controller senses the battery voltage and internally uses an analog to digital converter to read the battery voltage. The micro-controller, requires its own 5V regulated supply and displays the current charging status on two LEDs.
The smallest and cheapest micro-controller that could be used to perform the Analog to Digital function and still have the necessary functions and control lines to do this is the PIC16C711.
It is an 8 bit, high performance CMOS 4MHz CPU, that has 4 Analog to Digital converters, a brown out timer and a watchdog timer which are used in this circuit to reset the chip if problems occur such as power transients or dips.
Hardly enough to load Windows 2000 on I know, but quite enough to write a control program on - makes you wonder doesn't it! The final circuit is shown in Fig 3. The circuit consists of a bridge rectifier and capacitor to reduce the ripple under a full 1.5A load to about 1V. Just use Ohms law and divide the 1.25Volts by the current that is recommended for full charge.
The IN5404 diode ensures that the circuit charges the battery, and prevents the battery running the circuit, should the input power be accidentally turned off!
The PIC can turn the transistor off by shorting the base to ground, and this allows the LM317 to provide a regulated, constant current output.
The drive current for the PIC, the transistor base and the transistor collector are all in the order of 1mA which is within the rated range of the PIC and transistor. A final feature of the software is that there is a Built-In-Test (BIT) upon power up that effectively tests all of the components except the capacitors (more than 80% of the components). If the voltage does not reach at least 10V when high and go below 2 V when low, then an error is detected.
This mode can be verified by shorting the output on power up or plugging in a battery during the BIT. The error mode will also be invoked if no peak is detected after 3 hours of main charge. Construction The circuit was developed and tested in full on breadboard and finally made on a Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The board is copyright to the designer, but home users can make their own board for personal use. The board was designed to be single sided with thick tracks and gentle curves, so it could be easily manufactured even at home, there are no vias or jumpers and all components can be directly soldered on the board.
The LEDs can be directly mounted on the board on the solder side and can then pass through the centre of the front panel if required, or they can be connected via wires and mounted separately. The circuit also delivers a large current, so the high current tracks on the board have been deliberately made short and thick to carry the load. Charger Assembly A complete parts list is included in Fig 6.
The circuit is easy to construct in a few hours, however the constructor will need to be careful with the polarity with some components, namely the transistor, the electrolytic capacitor, the IC and the diode. The No 1 pin of the PIC is next to the divot in the chip and faces the side of the board furthest away from the LEDs. Charger Heat Sink For the connections to the LM317, you can download the datasheet in pdf form from the bottom of this page. It will need to be bolted to the case tightly with silicon grease applied underneath to ensure a good thermal contact. The LM317 needs to be electrically isolated from the case by a silicon washer and grommet kit for a TO3 style transistor.
Don't forget to clean all of the flux off the board with a toothbrush soaked in methylated spirits, as over time flux will corrode your solder joints and tracks. If you are a beginner I recommend the use of an external "plug pack", however you could mount a mains transformer inside the unit, if you are competent to carry out mains wiring but you will obviously need a larger box. Charger In Use For the connection to the battery, I used my existing charger pack. I removed the internal circuitry, which was no more than a transistor and LED that indicated that current was being delivered.
For power connections, EIAJ DC Voltage connectors and plugs are standard, with the positive usually being the centre pin. It is wise to select your pin sizes so that the AC cannot be plugged from the AC plug pack to the charger, if you use this setup. To explain the various control modes to the user, the artwork for the front panel includes a legend for understanding the flashing LED indications. This artwork is included as Fig 7. The circuit was tested using a voltage data logger and the results of this are included as Fig 8 and Fig 9 which show the original and new charge profiles respectively. Note particularly the new charge profile switching to trickle charge when a peak is established. Conclusion The charger was easy to construct, and has been demonstrated to charge effectively and safely many times.
As a result of this project my charging time has halved from 3-4 hours to 1.5 hours maximum. The source code is not freeware or shareware so please don't ask me to mail you the source code as it has commercial applications.
Free support is available if you have any problems with the construction of this project, and many hundreds have been sold in Australia and overseas.
Click on the button below to order a PIC. RCS RadioThe blank printed circuit board is coded 14104011 and is available from RCS Radio Australia phone 61 2 9738 0330.



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Comments How to charge ni-mh rechargeable batteries 800mah

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