Highest energy density rechargeable battery,how to fix broken blackberry battery,hp pavilion dv7 laptop battery not charging - For Begninners

19.03.2015
We create high energy density, high voltage capacitors to suit a variety of applications and specifications. Without greater investment into solar and hydrogen energies, we are held hostage to rising oil prices.
To better understand the potential of alternative energy, we should try to understand two basic concepts of energy: Specific Energy and Energy Density. The specific energy of a fuel tells us how much energy can be derived from a measured amount fuel by weight. This however, is not the full story because volume or energy storage requirement becomes a significant factor for gaseous fuels. Figure 2 illustrates how fuels compare according to their energy density, that is, energy relative the container size.
In a hydrogen-based economy, solar energy can provide electric to generate hydrogen through electrolysis and vice versa. An interesting technical analysis of hydrogen energy is provided by Ulf Bossel and Baldur Eliasson Energy and the Hydrogen Economy The bottom line is that solar and hydrogen energies offer tremendous potential to low long-term fuel costs and improve our environment and climate. This Ragone plot for the new cathode material (red circles) and other cathode materials for Na-ion batteries shows that the new cathode has the highest energy density for a wide range of charge and discharge rates.
The researchers, Young-Uk Park, et al., from Seoul National University and KAIST, both in South Korea, have published their paper on the new high-energy cathode in a recent issue of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
As the researchers explain, Na-ion batteries have the potential to meet and even exceed the performance of today's Li-ion batteries. Both Na-ion and Li-ion batteries are candidates for being part of a large-scale system that stores energy generated by new technologies, such as solar, wind, and geothermal technology, where energy is produced intermittently. Another major challenge for Na-ion batteries is that, even moreso than Li-ion batteries, they suffer from poor long-term stability.
The new cathode material also allows the Na-ion battery to retain 95% of its capacity over 100 cycles and 84% for 500 cycles.
In the future, the researchers plan to further improve the electrochemical properties of this Na-ion battery cathode with the goal of designing next-generation Na-ion batteries for new applications. Lithium-ion batteries are now found everywhere in devices such as cellular phones and laptop computers, where they perform well. Taking inspiration from trees, scientists have developed a battery made from a sliver of wood coated with tin that shows promise for becoming a tiny, long-lasting, efficient and environmentally friendly energy source.
An undersea cable backed by Google and Asian companies aimed at boosting trans-Pacific broadband was put into service on Thursday, the consortium announced. Dutch telecoms group KPN said Thursday that The Netherlands had become the first country in the world to implement a nationwide long range (LoRa) network for the so-called Internet of Things. A small, squishy vehicle equipped with soft wheels rolls over rough terrain and runs under water.
Google is trying to make it easier for you to manage the vast pool of information that it collects about your online activities across phones, computers and other devices. The Nissan LEAF, which launched in the US back in December 2010, was touted as a breakthrough electric vehicle, but many automotive enthusiasts immediately expressed concerns over Nissan's decision to deploy a lithium-ion powered vehicle without liquid cooling. Liquid cooling controls the temps of the battery pack more precisely than air cooling and, by doing so, limits battery degradation. An exhaustive test, recently conducted by InsideEVs Tony Williams, seems to prove that either air cooling or Nissan's battery chemistry is inadequate.
This should be a wakeup call for consumers to demand battery range minimums in their warranties.
Extended range electrics are going to have to rescue the momentum and lead the way for EVs, it appears.
I've read about different types of lithium batteries and LiMn2O4 are known for their capacity loss when overheating. My 2011 Tucson-based LEAF has 7700 miles on it; it now also has a solid 11 bars of battery capacity. There is no doubt this has to be addressed, or it will be another huge financial risk of owning an EV. Two things -- I'm pretty sure that the Nissan Leaf's battery pack is passively cooled, and does not have any fans in it. I am compelled to say that in temperate climates, such as Bay Area, things are just peacock feathers wonderful. On the other hand, I do look forward to 2013 and what innvation that I don't know about yet is coming (i.e.
If Hitachi's ad hype is true, this is supposed to yield a longer-lasting battery with greater power density.
I was also surprised to read from one of Tony William's posts (tis true, Neil) that the current production Nissan pack doesn't have ANY cooling fans and relies on a semi vacuum packing of sort sort, basically to protect it from excessive moisture.
Could Nissan's new battery be a unit with Hitachi cells and cooling fans similar to what was found in the prototype Leaf packs? Getting back to LiFePO4s, the ones that seem to be the most robust in high heat situations are the new (not generally available until early 2013) A123 EXT units .
The generally favorable asset to these is the ability to charge more quickly than other lithium formulas. I know a lot of folks here are very excited to see what will become of the Envia units, which are promised to be only a few years off.
World2Steven: so sorry to hear that you are now in the "eleven bar club." Are you going try to make it down to the Arizona Inn this Sunday? Needless to say, after the above SOMETHING electric is going to be around for the (my) duration.
If I had a Leaf and lived in a hot climate (the latter already true,) and the car was losing battery capacity fast, would I consider a replacement battery with slight less energy density (translate to slight less range) but almost guaranteed never to deplete further?
Micheal: You'd answer your own question if you'd read the previous paragraph to the one you quoted. If you plan to charge in public, you'll want to sign up for charging network membership (or two). How do you ensure that electric car owners will be happy with every visit to your charging spot? In a new study, scientists have designed a new cathode for Na-ion batteries that provides an energy density of 600 Wh kg-1, which is the highest reported so far for Na-ion batteries and even rivals the energy densities of some Li-ion batteries.


Although Li-ion batteries' high energy densities enable them to store a large amount of energy in a small space, the downsides of these batteries are their high cost and low stability. The researchers attribute the 600 Wh kg-1 energy density to the cathode material's open crystal framework with vanadium redox couples, which leads to a high voltage that in turn increases the energy density. This outstanding cycle life arises from the fact that the cathode material has the smallest volume change among Na cathodes so far, which is due to the rigid framework that is less sensitive to Na ion insertion and extraction compared to other frameworks.
A couple of years ago, people were basically ho-hum about LiFePO4, because the power density is slightly lower than other lithium formulas. I think I read somewhere that Hitachi is the vendor Nissan will go with for the 2013 Tennessee-assembled Leafs. If I lost a bar or 2 I'd be taking matters into my own hands and call A123 or Envia asking for assistance, begging them to put their hardware in my semi-disabled Leaf and embarass Nissan. Let's hypothetically say that Nissan will only honor factory battery pack replacements on just some of the current generation Leafs.
There are also no internal combustion engines, tires, computers, toaster ovens or track shoes that won't wear out eventually. The new cathode material also has a greatly improved cycle life, bringing Na-ion batteries a step closer to realization as part of a large-scale energy storage system. Since sodium is abundant in the earth, it is much cheaper than lithium, even though Na-ion batteries face their own challenges. The root of this problem can be traced to the inherent characteristics of sodium (in particular, a less negative redox potential compared to lithium), which reduces the operating voltage and leads to the lower energy density. The large size causes a greater change in the host structure upon insertion and removal, which results in a decrease in capacity after repeated cycles. Herein, as a case study, we develop an entirely binder-free HSC by using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) network film as the cathode and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanowire array as the anode and study the volumetric energy storage capability.
I have this feeling I'll be selling and buying a Leaf next year depending on what's in the hopper.
A fraction of a volt or amp per individual cell doesn't sound like much, but it adds up when you've got hundreds of cells in a car-sized pack. Whoever is going to make the pack, it's already claimed to have more range than the old one. The vehicles with older, stock batteries will always be suspect in the eyes of consumers (possibly to be picked up at pennies on the dollar used) and would be a prime candidate for an aftermarket upgrade. The key benefit of hydrogen is that it democratizes the energy economy bringing power to all countries in the world. Our 3?V HSC device exhibits maximum volumetric energy density of ~4.38?mWh cm?3, much superior to those of previous supercapacitors based on thin-film electrodes fabricated directly on carbon cloth and even comparable to the commercial thin-film lithium battery.
Before the battery depletion issue became such a hot topic (pun intended,) I think range was the only thing both manufacturer and customer was really concerned about. It's not aceptable to have to charge your car 5 days to be able to drive it for one (unless we go for that whole battery-swap thing). Now, of course, people are clamoring for more range AND some assurance of greater long term reliability in a high heat environment.
The concept of utilizing binder-free electrodes to construct HSC for thin-film energy storage may be readily extended to other HSC electrode systems.IntroductionLithium ion battery (LIB) and supercapacitor are two key components in typical energy storage systems1,2,3.
Your local electric utility bills you by the KWH, which according to the US Department of Energy Average Retail Price of Electricity in 2007 is approximately $0.11 per KWH. The most important difference between LIB and supercapacitor is that, in a certain volume, LIB could store dozens of times more energy than supercapacitor while supercapacitor could deliver hundreds of times and even more power than LIB. They have been widely utilized to power most of portable electronics and small machines4,5, and have attracted enormous attention in hybrid vehicles and even smart electrical grid6. With such ever-growing energy needs, single typical LIB or supercapacitor cannot work well7, and researchers are striving to develop energy storage materials and systems which possess both high energy and power densities8. Firstly, compared to traditional supercapacitor, HSC generally utilizes non-aqueous electrolyte like in LIBs, enabling a wider working potential window31; the battery-type electrode also provides larger capacity than typical capacitive materials.
Secondly, when compared with LIB, the electric double-layer electrode promotes the power capability and cycling stability32. As a result, HSC has opened a new avenue for emerging energy-storage applications such as electric vehicles. It can bridge up the gap between LIB and supercapacitor and in some cases can even achieve energy comparable to LIB and power comparable to traditional supercapacitor.
Despite this, the battery electrode in HSC still suffers sluggish ion diffusion at high rates and pulverization upon long-term cycling.
To address this challenge, the most popular way is to develop the battery electrodes hybridized with various carbon nanomaterials (activated carbon, carbon nanotube, graphene, etc.)23,25,28,33,34.
The integrated carbon materials work as structure backbones, electron transport pathways or even as capacitive materials to enhance the charge storage rate and capactitance35.
Although thin-film LIB and supercapacitor technologies provide possible solutions, they in general could not simultaneously provide high energy and power (the volumetric energy density of traditional supercapacitors is in most cases ?1?mWh cm?3 and the volumetric power density of commercial thin-film lithium batteries is ?5?mW cm?3)7,40; the energy supply systems in these application fields have been requiring a greater degree of development. However, to our knowledge, its volumetric energy storage capability has never been investigated for downsized energy storage systems.In the present work, we make the first attempt to construct a thin-film HSC with both high volumetric energy and power densities. Both the cathode and anode are entirely binder-free, and the active nanomaterials are growing directly on current collector substrate, very different from previous slurry-processed HSC electrodes29,30,41. The direct growth of nanostructures on current collector represents a popular way to fabricate thin-film electrodes, which not only ensures convenient electron transport channels and ion diffusion pathways, but also provides sufficient structural interspaces for buffering volume expansion of the battery electrode11,33,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53.
When combined with flexible current collector, such thin-film electrode also has greater durability to shape deformation, giving better mechanical flexibility. As a case study, we choose multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) network film as the cathode and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) nanowire array as the anode; both are grown directly on carbon cloth current collector.
The highly-conductive MWCNT network film facilitates the direct contact with electrolyte, capable of providing high double-layer capacitance; while LTO as the battery-type electrode is “zero-strain” and highly safe54,55,56,57.
The present work clearly demonstrates that binder-free HSC is promising in thin-film downsized energy storage systems.ResultsFigure 1 shows the schematic illustration of our HSC configuration. The LTO array works as the popular insertion anode characteristic of long life and high safety while MWCNT network film serves as the cathode providing large ion-accessible surface area for double-layer capacitance; both electrodes are grown directly on a highly porous and conductive carbon cloth without any binder and additive. It is noted that in cathode's high potential range, MWCNT does not intercalate lithium as in traditional LIBs where it was used as anode.
The nanowires in general have needle-like tips and very smooth surface with diameters distributed between 70 and 150?nm (Figure 2c).


The conversion from RTO to LTO is different from previous cases that LTO was obtained from anatase TiO2 and layered titanate54,55,56,57,58, and our case is believed to be more facile since the conversion from tetragonal to cubic structure is energetically favorable.
After dropping LiOH into RTO nanowire array and drying, the RTO nanowire array is found to be fully covered by LiOH microcrystals (Figure 2d1). The microcrystal is excess after the conversion reaction (Figure 2d2), and the LTO nanowires can be exposed only after LiOH removal (Figure 2d3). Figure 2e and f clearly demonstrate that the morphology of the nanowire array could be well maintained after conversion (~ 4–4.5??m in length).
The nanowires' diameter expands more than 20?nm, and the most morphology difference between RTO and LTO nanowires is that the surface of LTO nanowires becomes rough (Figure 2g). The presence of protrusions on the LTO nanowires is due to the structure reorganization during the phase transformation.Figure 2(a–c) SEM images of the RTO nanowire array with different magnifications. It is observed that the dominant component of the nanowire array is spinel cubic-phase LTO after solid-state reaction (JCPDS Card No. 1-1292) can still be detected even though LiOH is excess, indicating that the conversion is not complete in our case. Based on the weight loss before and after the excess LiOH removal, the weight percentage of RTO in the LTO array was calculated to be ca. LTO nanowire array was further investigated by TEM observation and the results are shown in Figure 4.
Pure-phase LTO nanowires can be detected (Figure 4a,b), the interplanar spacing of 0.48?nm corresponds to (111) plane of spinel LTO. In addition, partially converted RTO nanowires with LTO layer on the surface are also found, as displayed in Figure 4c. The observed d-spacing of 0.32?nm matches well with that of (110) plane of tetragonal RTO (Figure 4d). The outer LTO exhibits clear crystal lattice with bright fast Fourier transform (FFT) patterns, indicating the high-quality single-crystalline nature of LTO (Figure 4e and inset). The standard XRD patterns of LTO and RTO are also shown in (d) and (e) respectively for reference.Full size imageFigure 4(a, b) Low and high-resolution TEM images of pure-phase LTO single-crystalline nanowires. The MWCNTs grow on carbon cloth fiber uniformly and tightly with the film thickness of ~5–10??m.
Both cross-sectional and top-view images demonstrate that the MWCNTs are curving and interconnected with each other, forming highly porous network morphology.
TEM image in Figure 5c further reveals the tubular and multiwalled structure of the CNTs; the outer diameters are ~20–35?nm and the inner diameters are ~10–15?nm. Also, the corresponding gravimetric data will be given for reference, especially in rate capability figures.
The almost rectangular shape of the CV is indicative of pure capacitive energy storage, which is due to the electrolyte ions' accumulation on MWCNT surface (forming electric double layer).
In contrast, the charge and discharge curves of MWCNT cathode have a triangular shape with linear voltage-time plots (a non-faradic process). Based on the above analysis and the structure of our HSC in Figure 1, the energy storage mechanism can be elucidated as follows: During the charging process, Li+ cations from the electrolyte are inserted into LTO anode to form Li7Ti5O12, at the same time, PF6? anions are adsorbed on the surface of MWCNT cathode, forming electric double layer with positive charges. To this end, we have already optimized the experimental details to grow appropriate amount of MWCNT cathode. It was found that the stored charge in cathode increased with increasing the growth times of MWCNT film and five times-repeated growth could achieve good charge balance with the LTO anode.
In Figure 7, the quantities of charges stored in both anode and optimized cathode at various current densities are compared. We call Figure 7 as “matching map”, from which one can see the overall performance of each electrode and determine if the resulting full cell will behave well.
It is obvious that LTO could deliver capacity of ~0.235?mAh cm?2 and retain 95% of the initial value after 400 cycles.
The cycling performance of MWCNT was carried out at 0.6?mA cm?2 and the result is illustrated in Figure 8d. As far as we know, such a value is large for CNTs measured in organic electrolyte22 and is probably related to the microstructure of our MWCNT. From the HRTEM image in Figure 5d, there is in general a certain angle between the graphitic layers and the axis direction of MWCNT. It is thus believed that there are more active sites on the MWCNT's surface for charge accumulation due to the opened edges of graphitic layers to electrolyte. Our HSC can be operated within a large potential window of 0–3?V, which consists well with the half-cell potential ranges of LTO and MWCNT. The charge-discharge curves exhibit an almost triangular shape with relatively linear voltage-time plots, revealing good capacitive behavior.
The cycling response at continuously variable currents (powers) was further evaluated and shown in Figure 9c. In Figure 9c, the current density and capacitance have been converted into power density and energy density, respectively. Five power densities were adopted and our HSC shows stable performance at each step (tens of cycles). The highest volumetric energy density is ~4.38?mWh cm?3, corresponding to a gravimetric energy density of ~54?Wh kg?1. This gravimetric value is high and comparable to that of most previous HSCs23,24,25,26,27,28.Figure 9(a) Optical image of our HSC.
8.Full size imageIn order to manifest the superiority of our HSC for downsized energy storage, Ragone plot of volumetric energy density versus power density is presented and compared with previous supercapacitor data as well as those of commercially available state-of-the-art energy storage systems (Figure 9d). In general, our HSC device has high volumetric energy densities, even comparable to the commercial thin-film lithium battery (0.3–10?mWh cm?3). It is also two orders of magnitude higher than that of commercially available lithium thin-film batteries.



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