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09.01.2014
Formula E recently published an interesting article on Spark-Renault SRT_01E’s battery pack developed and manufactured by Williams Advanced Engineering, a Formula 1 supplier.
As it turns out, the British company had just six months to prepare the whole system according to FIA requirements. An interesting finding for us is that battery pack performance are intentionally limited to achieve consistent output, not only across teams but also over a 2 year period (Spark-Renault SRT_01E will be used in two seasons). While the sheer size of the Formula E battery means there’s no mistaking it for one Williams developed for its F1 programme, the knowledge flow between the programmes has been very evident. After first shakedown tests, now everyone waits for July 3 and 4 when first official tests will take place at the Formula E home track at Donington Park, UK. In the end, Williams Advanced Engineering believes that racing improves the breed and we should expect higher energy density batteries thanks to Formula E. There’s an old saying that racing improves the breed, and Formula E is helping to improve the next generation of electric vehicles.
I wish they had gone with replacable packs during the race it would have added another dimension. EOS Additive Manufacturing meets challenges in motor racing where conventional manufacturing techniques prove inadequate. EOS is actively involved in promoting young engineering talent and supports the "Formula Student" teams - an international design engineering competition for universities. Build in the shortest possible time, a lightweight, compact, battery housing with integrated cable ducts and cooling channels for an electric-powered race car. Build a reliable, lightweight axle-pivot with high rigidity, in the shortest possible time. As the world’s first fully electric race series, Formula E’s revolutionary and innovative technology is at the forefront of its vision. While Formula E hasn’t had uniform praise, nobody can doubt the advanced technological innovation it has brought.
The standard Spark-Renault SRT_01E chassis that teams currently run will be substantially revised next season pushing performance further. Despite having its eye on the future, it is two old Formula 1 hands in the form of McLaren and Williams which helped to spark the birth of Formula E. Williams Advanced Engineering (WAE), the technology and engineering division of the Williams F1 team, was approached about supplying the batteries for Formula E in April 2013.
WAE also designs and produces the hybrid systems which are slowly creeping into public transport, so developing battery technology for Formula E was a logical step in terms of research and development. While WAE remains tight lipped on the costs to make and buy one of its batteries, it is clear the process is painstakingly long and requires meticulous work.
Sat above the batteries in the cars is the electric motor, developed by another hallowed name in motorsport – McLaren. Ahead of its inaugural season, McLaren Electronics Systems agreed to become Formula E’s sole motor supplier, with the marque supplying the heart of every one of the 40 cars used on each race weekend.
The motor itself, or Motor Generator Unit (MGU) as it’s officially titled, has its components taken directly from the ?866,000 P1, including the rotating electromagnets at its centre. Woking-based McLaren’s route to Formula E started at a time when the P1 was in its infancy and Formula E was merely a glint in the eye. Formula E’s electric-only approach has greatly benefited McLaren with the development of their MGU, alongside the company’s hybrid-projects such as the P1. With the season nearly over, no one can deny McLaren their 100 per cent reliability record thus far, amid the continued development of their electric motors, for road and for race.


As Formula E gets into its stride, its technological development could be at risk of looking to high-end exotica in search of the top step of the podium, which could limit the potential spin-off benefits to road cars.
The architecture of the electric vehicles for Formula E is conceptually simple but involves a number of subtle trade-offs to optimise efficiency.
As well as providing a high degree of torque, especially at low speeds, the synchronous motor can work in reverse – generating current from its own momentum. The battery design has been put together by Williams, which is using a currently undisclosed battery chemistry, although the choices are largely between variants of nickel metal hydride or lithium-polymer – the latter presents greater safety issues in an environment where sparks could be flying. Charging systems such as Qualcomm’s Halo, which is gradually being phased into the fabric of Formula E, could prove instrumental in changing the architecture of the electric vehicle towards the supercapacitor. Other technologies being developed for Formula E may be less than suitable for road vehicles.
The question is whether teams in Formula E, when they get the choice of battery technology, will move to the more exploitable option or the one that wins. Here we show the contents of various batteries, which is something you cannot normally see. To assemble them, Williams put in place a production line in the brand new ‘battery building’ that’s been erected at its headquarters in Grove, Oxfordshire.
This created a challenge for packaging and installation that needed to be overcome from the start.
However, since the series is limited toSpark-Renault SRT_01E cars for two seasons, we don’t expect to see progress until late 2016 when the third season begins with different cars from teams.
At the end of the day, with the additional power performance you can always have more life by trading the power.
It is here that new ideas and technologies are put into practice before finding their way into serial production. The series has already begun to shape our automotive future through the ever-increasing success, durability and reliability of battery power and the benefits of its combustion-dodging electric motor. Including the driver, the car weighs less than a tonne (896kg minimum), making it both agile and quick off the line. Increases in efficiency and speed are on track to filter down to the road cars of the future, but the greatest impact is likely to be with the motors and batteries. Behind the seat of each driver’s cockpit sits the motor from the groundbreaking McLaren P1 supercar, while nine-times F1 champions Williams have developed the lithium batteries that charge each car up to 200kw (or 270bhp, for comparison’s sake).
In 2010 it began a technical partnership with Jaguar on its C-X75 supercar which was powered by a turbo-charged 1.6-litre petrol engine as well as two electric motors.
A large amount of this can be put down to manufacturing the battery’s own carbon fibre monocoque, which must be capable of passing a crash test – a first for any battery in racing history. In five years it expects the batteries will have double the energy density of any current lithium cell while the total weight of the battery pack will half.
With McLaren firmly at the forefront of automotive technology, thanks to its motorsport commitments and production of the P1 hybrid-supercar, it was the natural choice for Formula E. An article in the IET magazine E&T points out that the spirit of competition may indeed drive forward engineering advancements, but that not all of the results may be suitable for mass manufactured vehicles.
For much of the time, a battery feeds a synchronous motor, which uses permanent magnets to help move the rotor rather than the electromagnets typically used in the AC motors of washing machines.
This lets the car recover energy easily, as the driver lifts their foot off the accelerator, that can be transferred back to the battery.
Explosive chemistries and high-energy densities tend to go hand in hand in battery technology, although some researchers believe there are less flammable options waiting to be discovered.


It may make more sense to put a buffer of supercapacitors – electrochemical capacitors with an ability to store higher levels of charge temporarily – between the battery and motor. Yoichi Hori, researcher at the University of Tokyo, believes future road vehicles will dispense with batteries altogether and receive power from the road as they move along, citing the relatively high efficiency of transfer. If you only have to make 50 batteries a year for a race series, engineers have far more freedom over viable battery chemistries. Williams Advanced Engineering was awarded the prize for its work in creating the batteries that are currently powering the cars racing in Formula E, the worlda€™s first fully electric racing series.The Formula E battery had to be designed from scratch within an aggressive 12-month timeframe, fit into a strictly pre-determined safety cell, cool sufficiently, be 100% consistent from one team to the next (40 race cars plus spares), and last an entire season with no loss of power or performance.
The next challenge was in ensuring that the battery received sufficient cooling.“Thermal management is at the core of the design because temperature defines the whole performance parameters in almost all racing cars and our battery is no different than that,” explains Tur. The standards are high: in addition to acceleration and lap times, aspects such as cost and fuel efficiency also count towards the final rating. It goes from 0 to 62mph in just 3 seconds, with top speed limited to 140mph – these are quick cars, no question.
Testimony to this, it was able to provide 40 cars with batteries just 12 months after being selected for the job. Although the brakes were put on the project in 2012, WAE had done the groundwork on the batteries to power its motors by then. This will be driven by an expected 40 per cent increase in knowledge of battery chemistry, which will ultimately trickle down into our everyday appliances.
It’s the first time that we’ve been involved with a programme where you don’t have the luxury of an internal combustion engine to lean on,” the company says. The batteries showed remarkable reliability in the inaugural Formula E season, with only one failure in 440 race starts. In addition to precisely defined functional properties, low weight and a high degree of stability are usually crucial requirements.
In collaboration with the "Formula Student" teams, EOS solves problems where conventional production techniques fail."Uni Stuttgart" racing team used the EOS laser sintering method to create a particularly light and stable wheelsuspension , while Global Formula Racing Team produced a compact, modular battery system for its electrically-powered racing car series. Back in F1, WAE manufactured its own energy storage mechanisms for the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS) which was introduced in 2009. The electronic control unit (ECU) needs to interpret commands from the accelerator pedal as requests for torque and determine when to switch from motor to generator control. However, they lag behind today’s batteries in terms of energy density and they leak current far more readily. These components significantly increased the performance of these monocoque racing vehicles. What is more, users have a diverse range of materials at their disposal: EOS offers a broad spectrum of high-quality metals and plastics with various properties. After a highly successful 2012 season, the "Uni Stuttgart" racing team finally achieved overall victory at Hockenheimring.
It is because of these benefits that there are so many motor racing teams using EOS Additive Manufacturing techniques. The only difference is that both the last mentioned batteries are stronger means it will work for more time.



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Comments Formula for battery acid

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