Flooded lead acid batteries wiki,replacement battery yaesu vx-1 grade,remove car battery black or red first cave,how to refurbish a battery with epsom salt bath - Easy Way

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Because of evaporation, it needs regular maintenance to check specific gravity, to add water and acid. These batteries can withstand high temperature, voltage, and deep discharge with minimum damage to itself. A notice should be exhibited in the battery room prohibiting smoking and use of naked flames. These batteries cannot be transported in charged condition and therefore need charging at site.Typical initial charging of the battery will take about 55 to 90 hours. Tubular Type Lead acid battery These types of batteries are typically used for UPS Systems of very high rated capacity, typically engaged for plant application, wherein maintenance and space is not really an issue.
These batteries are the most popular for usage with UPS systems for computer or commercial application.

Being sealed, these batteries do not emit any fumes and hence can be very well installed next to electronic equipment.
These batteries are also maintenance free and avoid any hassles of checking specific gravity, adding water or acid, etc.These batteries have a relatively lesser life of approx. Permissible operating temperature range of SMF batteries is 15 deg C to 50 deg C, but using within an operating range 5 C to 35 C will extend service life.
Below – 15 deg C, the battery changes its chemical composition and cannot hold a charge.
You will enjoy longer service life, if batteries are operated in ambient temperature range of 20 deg C to 25 deg C (68F to 77F). At lower temperature they have longer life and lower capacity while at higher temperature they have higher capacity and lower life.2.
A good rule of thumb when determining battery service life in relation to temperature is that for every 8.3 deg C (15F) average annual temperature above 25 deg C (77F), the life of the battery is reduced by 50%. When there are more cells (generally >120) in series, to compensate for higher temperatures, float voltage should be decreased by approx.
It should be increased by the same amount when operated at a temperature less than 25 deg C to avoid undercharge. It is recommended that SMF batteries should not be left in totally discharged state more than 72 hrs. The batteries may get partially or fully damaged due to SULPHATION if charging does not start within 72 Hrs from totally discharged state.
Sulphation is the formation of lead sulphate on negative plates which acts as an insulator and has a detrimental effect on charge acceptance.5.
There is no need to add external water, but due the corrosion of the electrodes battery will eventually lose capacity.6. At ambient temperature of 30 – 40 deg C, the shelf life of batteries is 5-6 months only. A freshening charge must be given to the batteries every 6 months, if needed to be stored for longer periods.
At ambient temperature of 20 deg C (68F), the self-discharge rate is 3-4% (approx.) of rated capacity per month. SMF batteries are equipped with a safe, low pressure venting system, which operates at 7 psi to 10 psi (can vary slightly from manufacturer to manufacturer), automatically releasing excess gas in the event that gas pressure rises to a level above the normal rate ensuring no excessive buildup of gas in the batteries.

Cyclic life of the battery depends on ambient operating temperature, the discharge rate, the depth of discharge, and the manner in which the battery is recharged. At a given discharge rate and time, the shallower the depth of discharge, the longer is the cyclic life.9.
The relationship between AH capacity and runtime time is not linear, a 20% reduction in capacity results in a much greater reduction in runtime.
When battery reaches 80% of its rated capacity, the aging process accelerates and the battery should be replaced. Mixed use of batteries with different capacities, different makes should be avoided as it will cause accelerated aging of the whole string.12.
If two or more battery groups are to be used, connected in parallel, they must be connected to the UPS through lengths of wires, cables or busbars that have the same loop line resistance as each other.
This makes sure that each parallel bank of batteries presents the same impedance to the UPS as any other of the parallel banks thereby ensuring correct equalization of the source to allow for maximum energy transfer to the UPS load.13. Nickel Cadmium Batteries (Ni-Cd)Ni-cd batteries do emit hydrogen and oxygen gas, products of electrolysis, but there are no corrosive gases as lead acid batteries, so these can be installed near electronic equipment. Initial cost may be approximately three times that of lead acid battery depending upon their AH capacity.These batteries do not experience the severe shortening of life when operated at elevated temperatures and perform better at low temperatures than do the lead acid batteries.
The battery chargers and inverters have to be designed to operate with low end cell cutoff voltages and higher recharging voltages needed for such batteries.These batteries occasionally demand boost charging and typically find their applications wherein UPSs support critical equipment in hazardous environment such as chemical, fertilizer, cement industry. Water lost in electrolyte during such abusive overcharging could be easily made up manually by periodic top-up. Though there is no need to top-up due to the recombination principle, it is not always 100% efficient, so some water loss during use is not avoidable. Due to this, VRLA battery manufacturers invariably recommend the need for air conditioned environment for the battery compartments. Presently involved in the design of EHV outdoor substation and coal fired thermal power plants for more than seven years.
Motto of joining EEP as a contributor is to share my little engineering experience and help the budding engineers in bridging the conspicuous gap between academics and Industrial practice.

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