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A battery is a device for storing chemical energy and converting that chemical energy into electricity. The electrons are generated by chemical reactions, and there are many different chemical reactions that are used in commercially available batteries. Automobile manufacturers have identified three types of rechargeable battery as suitable for electric car use. Lead-acid batteries were invented in 1859 and are the oldest form of rechargeable battery still in use.
Lithium-ion batteries, which came into commercial use in the early 1990s, have a very high energy density and are less likely than most batteries to lose their charge when not being used -- a property called self discharge.
2012 Mitsubishi i electric car battery packEnlarge PhotoWe'd be the first to point out that many of the electric car owners currently out on the roads have had absolutely no trouble with the 100 or so miles they get from a full charge.
However, it'd be foolish to assume that some people really don't need more than that, and as a result there's always room for an EV with greater range.
Improvements to battery technology could be the best way to find this range, and according to New Scientist (via Autoblog), developments in Lithium-Air batteries from IBM could give us electric cars with a 500-mile range. Lithium-air batteries have significantly greater energy density than regular lithium-ion batteries - close to that of gasoline, in fact. Several companies are working to improve Lithium-air technology, by testing moisture-proof battery membranes, and graphene cathodes.
IBM is seeking to improve the electrolyte, the solvent that carries lithium ions between anode and cathode. However, an IBM-led coalition called Battery 500, hopes to have a full-scale prototype running by 2013, and commercial batteries ready by 2020.
You might have to wait a few more years for an electric car that truly goes further than the gasoline equivalent, but it's on its way. Lithium-ion batteries are an extremely common form of rechargeable battery often found in consumer electronics such as laptops and cell-phones.
The electrolyte component in the batteries is typically liquid and quite flammable, and the batteries as a whole are prone to shorts, overheating and catching fire. Improvements in larger lithium-ion batteries would be a big step forward for technologies such as electric cars or electrical grids, and thus for sustainable transportation and energy.
The ORNL researchers, in work published in the current issue of the Journal of the American Chemistry Society, have an easy method for making a nanostructured form of one solid electrolyte. The solid electrolyte isn’t as conductive as liquid electrolytes, but the researchers say they can compensate for this by making the electrolyte very thin, among other measures. The solid electrolyte not only makes batteries safer, it could also enable the use of higher energy electrode materials. The team restructured the solid electrolyte to be porous at the nanoscale, which yielded the far higher level of conductivity. Just to put a finer point on lithium-ion batteries, the chemistry in the battery cells on board the grounded 787 were cobalt oxide(CoO2)from a Japanese company GS Yuasa.
The batteries in the EV CODA for example, use lithium-iron phosphate(LiFePO4)chemistry, which is safer at high temperatures. It will be interesting to see when solid electrolyte batteries replace liquid chemistry batteries. They’re now looking at the protection circuits for those failed 787 batteries, not the cells. FYI — the photo shows the box of high-voltage electronics of the MINI-E, not the battery pack. Batteries add a very large amount of material expense, weight, and recycling challenges to an electric fleet. Why keep making millions of redundant systems, when those huge expenses could go toward electrical induction of roads?
Producing electricity and electric roadways should be a Federal project, so expenses can be minimized, and individual consumers needed be forced to bear the brunt of upfront costs (like $10,000 to $15,000 worth of battery pack per automobile). Far better to put it on the Federal debt ledger, and pay it off through equitable taxes, Federal bonds, and printing money. So why do we think this sort of economic model is appropriate for the most pressing national infrastructure challenge in the history of the world? And if 67you are wrong, as I surmise, how do you justify self-righteously touting such unadulterated bull***t in a serious discusion? Somehow, I don’t think a Nissan Leaf requires 57 million watts of energy to drive one mile down the road. But perhaps you have an advanced degree in electrical engineering and can show me my error?
They often still have enough capacity to be used as stationary batteries for storing electricity, or powering homes and other buildings. Taking the batteries out of a car and rebuilding them for stationary use could have a significant, positive environmental impact, according to a new study from the University of Waterloo.
Researchers note that continuing to use batteries outside of a car contributes to additional reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, which would not be the case if they were simply broken down and recycled.
To see exactly how well salvaged electric-car batteries could function in a new role, researchers used them to power a warehouse with lighting, refrigeration, and other electrical equipment.
The batteries were able to capture energy during off-peak times and discharge it during the day – a practice that could potentially save a significant amount of money if enacted over the long term. Researchers estimate that electric-car batteries will last an average of eight years performing their original function, and then another 12 years in lower-intensity stationary electrical storage functions. As more electric cars rack up mileage, the question of what to do with used battery packs will only become more prominent.
Recycling them and using the material to make more batteries has strong appeal, but growing interest in energy storage could see more projects like the University of Waterloo study that make the argument for reuse.
BMW is partnering with Bosch and utility company Vattenfall to build a prototype energy-storage plant in Germany, using battery packs primarily from scrapped ActiveE electric cars. Plants like this can make better use of electricity generated from renewable sources, advocates say. Meanwhile, Tesla Motors is expected to announce a new line of storage batteries later this week, which could be used to perform a similar function for homes and businesses equipped with solar panels. For several years, electric cars suffered in comparison with electronic products like mobile phones and computers. Because of the pace of incremental change, and because product cycles of cars are slower than they are for cellphones, an innovation revolution in electric cars has always felt distant.

General Motors is preparing to launch the Chevrolet Bolt, and its first letter isn’t its only difference from the Volt. Earlier this week, Bloomberg New Energy Finance released a report arguing that by 2040, 35 percent of annual vehicles sales will be electric. In other words, the defining characteristic of electric vehicles that made them prohibitively expensive may soon be the factor that enables them to compete with conventional vehicles on price. Electric-drive vehicles rely partially or completely on an electric motor to move down the road. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) comprise the majority of advanced vehicles on the market today.
Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), like HEVS, include both a gasoline engine and electric motor, but have a larger battery that can be recharged via a household wall outlet or public charging station. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) do away with the combustion engine completely, relying solely on a battery pack to power the electric motor.
Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs), like BEVs, eliminate the combustion engine, but the electric motor is powered by fuel cells that combine hydrogen, from an onboard tank, with oxygen from the air to produce electricity (and water—the only waste produced).
Electric-drive vehicles incorporate a number of advanced technologies, like those highlighted below, to reduce fuel consumption and emissions.
In addition to saving consumers money on fuel, electric-drive technology has the potential to dramatically reduce global warming, smog-forming, and toxic pollution from cars and trucks. It can be difficult to determine the impact of operating a specific electric vehicle because the mix of electricity sources varies greatly across the United States. If a BEV or PHEV fits your budget, you should seriously consider purchasing one, especially if you live in an area of the country where much of the electricity is generated from natural gas or renewables.
Considering that our nation has relied on one basic engine technology and one fuel for more than a century, a full-scale shift to electric-drive vehicles will take time.
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A battery is made up of one or more electrochemical cells, each of which consists of two half-cells or electrodes.
For example, the familiar alkaline batteries commonly used in flashlights and television remote controls generate electricity through a chemical reaction involving zinc and manganese oxide. Those types are lead-acid batteries, nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries.
They've been used in all types of cars -- including electric cars -- since the 19th century. They have a high energy density -- that is, a great deal of energy can be packed into a relatively small battery -- and don't contain any toxic metals, so they're easy to recycle. Because of their light weight and low maintenance requirements, lithium-ion batteries are widely used in electronic devices such as laptop computers.
That's enough to beat many internal combustion cars on sale today, and would certainly eliminate range anxiety. That means batteries could be down-scaled - and therefore vehicle weight reduced - while still increasing range. Current electrolytes react with air and become depleted over time, so IBM is testing various materials. At those smaller scales the batteries’ technology is reliable and well-understood, but at larger sizes there have been challenges. Boeing’s new Dreamliner 787 fleet was recently grounded worldwide after two separate incidents in which the on-board lithium-ion battery, which supplies the planes with auxiliary and back-up power, caught fire. To that end, a group of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have just published preliminary work on a new form of battery that relies on a solid electrolyte. The nanostructure improves the material’s conductivity 1,000 times, enough to make it useful in lithium-ion batteries.
Even then, the batteries might not charge as quickly or provide the same boost of power possible with liquid electrolytes, but this would be okay in many applications, such as in electric cars, where the sheer number of battery cells makes it easy to deliver adequate bursts of power. As a result, while the rate at which these batteries deliver power may be less than today’s lithium-ion batteries, the total amount of energy they can store would be far higher.
The solid electrolyte also helps prevent shorts, and unlike the liquid counterparts won’t degrade electrodes.
Batteries can store electricity during peak times of wind or solar production, and then discharge it during periods of low production.
From the latest electric car to the classics, he's interested in anything with four wheels. But the types of batteries that can pack sufficient energy to drive a car on its own are relatively new; until a decade or so ago, engineers had never given them their full devotion, nor did manufacturers produce them in large volumes.
Thanks to continuous improvement, General Motors last year said the new lithium-ion packs now cost it about $145 per kilowatt-hour—about 70 percent cheaper than they did in 2012. Tesla believes that the Gig factory it’s building could drive down the cost of lithium-ion battery cells to $100 per kilowatt-hour. More than two dozen hybrids are available in showrooms today, and most major car companies are planning to offer even more advanced vehicles within the next few years, building on the recent introduction of the battery-electric Nissan Leaf and the gasoline-electric, plug-in hybrid Chevrolet Volt. They rely on gasoline for fuel, but supplement the engine with an electric motor and battery. When fully charged, PHEVs can travel about 15 to 50 miles using little or no gasoline, depending on the model and driving conditions. Most of the 50 or so hydrogen refueling stations in the United States today are located in Southern California, which is the only region in the United States where an FCEV (the Honda Clarity) can currently be leased. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (above left) supplement the battery pack with a small gasoline tank, while battery electric vehicles (above right) rely solely on battery power.
HEVs help by boosting fuel economy; PHEVs, BEVs, and FCEVs are not only very efficient, both in their operation and in how their fuel (electricity or hydrogen) is produced, but also replace petroleum fuels with cleaner alternatives, delivering their greatest potential reductions if the electricity or hydrogen used to power these vehicles comes from renewable energy sources (see the sidebar).
For example, BEVs and PHEVs cost more up front than their closest conventional counterparts, but federal tax breaks of up to $7,500, along with state incentive programs and lower fuel costs (on a per-mile basis, electricity can be about 50 to 75 percent less expensive than gasoline), can more than offset the initial investment.
For example, using renewable energy such as solar or wind power nearly eliminates smog-forming, heat-trapping, and toxic pollution associated with operating the vehicle, while using electricity produced exclusively from coal results in global warming emissions only slightly better than the average gasoline vehicle today. In addition to reducing fuel costs, global warming pollution, and oil use, you will show the auto industry there is a market for electric-drive vehicles.
However, the promise is simply too big and too important to ignore in a world facing the immense challenges of global warming and oil dependence. One half-cell, called the negative electrode, has an overabundance of the tiny, negatively charged subatomic particles called electrons.

Lead-acid batteries are a kind of wet cell battery and usually contain a mild solution of sulfuric acid in an open container.
Some experts believe that lithium-ion batteries are about as close as science has yet come to developing a perfect rechargeable battery, and this type of battery is the best candidate for powering the electric cars of the near future. The researchers also showed that the new material is compatible with high-energy electrodes. A much smaller battery could then be used—saving space and weight on airplanes and greatly reducing the cost of electric vehicles. But you’d need to deliver roughly a million watts along about 90 feet of road, and this would need to be repeated every mile to sustain travel at ~60MPH.
When he's not writing, he can be found searching the Internet for a car he hasn't seen before, or reading a good book. As a result, these batteries and the cars that contained them suffered the unfortunate combination of being both not very good and very expensive. It’s another when the inclusion of a not-very-effective battery boosts the price of the vehicle so much that no one wants to buy it. Rather than huge leaps and bounds, there has been slow, incremental improvement in the ability to manufacture lithium-ion batteries that can pack more power in the same space. Put another away, the battery pack in the 2017 Volt will cost less than 10 percent more than the one in the 2012 Volt. General Motors, which isn’t known for making glassy-eyed pronouncements, believes the cost of the lithium-ion cells it uses can fall to that level by 2022.
To a degree, more powerful batteries will become standard—in hybrids, in plug-in hybrids, in all-electric cars. The Hyundai Ioniq is being introduced in three options: all-electric, plug-in hybrid, and standard hybrid. As the market expands, electric-drive vehicles will play a critical role in cutting our nation’s oil dependence—and the environmental, security, and economic risks associated with it. The battery pack can store excess energy produced by the engine under certain conditions, as well as energy that would otherwise be lost during braking (a process known as regenerative braking, which is featured in all electric-drive vehicles). Once the battery is nearly depleted, PHEVs switch to gasoline and operate like a regular HEV. Today’s BEVs can travel at least 60 to 100 miles on a full charge, which is sufficient for the majority of Americans’ daily travel needs. No FCEV models are currently sold commercially, but the market holds promise: the Clarity can travel an estimated 240 miles before refueling, and most automakers expect to introduce models by 2015 that will have a range of about 400 miles.
Electricity from natural gas falls somewhere in between, with a carbon footprint better than a good hybrid. Early adoption is critical to help drive up production volumes and spur additional research that can lower costs and improve technologies. Policy makers must accept the reality that the typical two- to four-year political cycle is too short to deliver big results, and that we must invest in a portfolio of technologies if we are to succeed. The name comes from the combination of lead electrodes and acid used to generate electricity in these batteries.
A variation on lithium-ion batteries, called lithium-ion polymer batteries, may also prove valuable to the future of EVs. Companies are doing a better job bargaining for supplies, rationalizing manufacturing processes, improving the chemistry, and generally doing the sorts of things that good engineers do.
In the rearview mirror, the early versions will always look big, clunky, and nonfunctional.
We’re moving toward a world where more and more cars will either run primarily on gasoline but with an assist from powerful batteries or primarily on powerful batteries but with an assist from gasoline. This energy can then be used to power onboard electronics when the vehicle is stopped at a light or in traffic—eliminating the need for wasteful idling of the engine, allowing it to shut down or “idle off”—or to supplement the engine during acceleration. Together, political action and consumer support can help move our transportation system—however belatedly—into the twenty-first century.
When the two halves are connected by a wire or an electrical cable, electrons will flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode. Automobile batteries, on the other hand, need to be rechargeable, so they don't require constant replacement.
The major advantage of lead-acid batteries is that, after having been used for so many years, they are well understood and cheap to produce. These batteries may eventually cost less to build than lithium-ion batteries; however, at the present time, lithium-ion polymer batteries are prohibitively expensive. It cost about $35,000, and its 400-pound lithium-ion battery pack, with a capacity of 16 kilowatt-hours, could only move a car about 35 miles (under perfect conditions!). And so the performance of lithium-ion batteries has been improving by 5 or 8 or 10 percent each year. Honda projects that by 2030, hybrids, plug-in hybrids, and electric vehicles will account for more than 60 percent of its sales. There are many excellent models on the market, and the UCS Hybrid Scorecard can help you pick one. In a rechargeable battery, electrical energy is used to reverse the negative and positive halves of the electrochemical cells, restarting the electron flow. However, they do produce dangerous gases while being used and if the battery is overcharged there's a risk of explosion. The company never shared with Volt owners how much the battery cost, but we know that in 2012, lithium-ion battery packs cost between $500 and $600 per kilowatt-hour.
The energy of these moving electrons can be harnessed to do work -- running a motor, for instance. As electrons pass to the positive side, the flow gradually slows down and the voltage of the electricity produced by the battery drops.
Eventually, when there are as many electrons on the positive side as on the negative side, the battery is considered 'dead' and is no longer capable of producing an electric flow.

Cost of a harley davidson battery voltage
Lead acid battery spec sheet

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