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20.10.2014
A lead-acid battery (also know as an "accumulator") is a secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical device that stores chemical energy and releases it as electrical energy upon demand. To provide extra power for the lighting, two-way radios, audio system and other accessories when their combined load exceeds the capability of the vehicle's charging system.
To supply a source of power to the vehicle's electrical system when the charging system is not operating. A good quality wet car battery will cost between $90 and $125 and, if properly maintained, should last five years or more.
Forbes reported that Johnson Controls is the largest global manufacturer with 36% of the approximately 375 million annually produced. The purpose of a deep cycle battery is to provide electric power for wheelchairs, trolling motors, golf carts, boats, fork lift trucks, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), and other accessories for marine and recreational vehicle (RV), commercial and stationary applications.
A 12-volt lead-acid battery is made up of six cells, each cell producing approximately 2.11 volts that are connected in series from POSITIVE (+) terminal of the first cell to the NEGATIVE (-) terminal of the second cell and so on.
The most common plate type in use today is made up of a metal grid that serves as the supporting framework for the active porous material that is "pasted" on it. A battery is created by electrochemical reaction of alternating two different metals such as Lead Dioxide (PbO2), the positive plates, and Sponge lead (Pb), the negative plates immersed in diluted Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), electrolyte. When the active material in the plates can no longer sustain a discharge current, a battery "dies". Normally, well maintained and properly charged deep cycle batteries naturally die due to positive grid corrosion causing an open connection.
In a hot climate, the harshest environment for a battery, a Johnson Controls survey of junk batteries revealed that the average life of a car battery was 37 months. Most of the "defective" batteries returned to manufacturers during free replacement warranty periods are good. A Chevy Volt's used battery, shown here in a General Motors simulation image, can still retain enough capacity to provide backup power to buildings when grouped with other used batteries in one unit. Developed by General Motors and ABB, one of the world's largest electric-technology companies, the device features five lithium-ion battery packs from plug-in hybrid Volts, strung together in a new arrangement and cooled by air instead of the liquid used in their former lives on the road.
To test the repackaged Volt batteries in the real world, partner Duke Energy, the largest utility in the United States, plans to install this unit next year in the field alongside a transformer.
Deployed on the grid, community energy storage devices could help utilities integrate highly variable, and sometimes unpredictable, renewables like solar and wind into the power supply, while absorbing spikes in demand from electric-car charging.
GM isn't the only automaker looking to help build a secondary market for its electric car batteries. Of course, because electric cars like the Volt and the Leaf are new to the market, there will not be a large supply of spent electric-car batteries for some time to come.
The batteries in the demo unit had been degraded down to about 85 or 90 percent of their original capacity, Valencia said. Adapting lithium-ion batteries from electric vehicles adds complexity to the task of designing energy storage for the power grid, however. Spent car batteries face tough competition from new lithium-ion batteries designed specifically for a given grid application, said See, as well as alternative technologies like flow batteries and molten salt batteries, which have the potential to cost less. Yet it's possible that stationary power customers looking for batteries could purchase spent EV batteries at significant discounts, he said.
Now when it's finally time to get a new battery, we can help you find the right replacement.
Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. At MIT, a group of dedicated researchers headed by Yet-Ming Chiang say they have come up with a new way of manufacturing lithium ion batteries that really is a game changer.
Two years ago, Chiang’s team ran a simulation to determine just how large a flow battery would have to be to be suitable for large scale grid storage.
Such a system would be too big and too costly to ever be commercially viable, so the team did what only a small group of researchers can do.
Because the team was starting from scratch, it decided to take a look at how lithium-ion batteries were made.
To understand this breakthrough, we have to go back in time to the days of data storage on magnetic tape. As data storage technology shifted to CD’s from magnetic tape, Sony, which was the largest manufacturer of magnetic tape in the world, found itself with lots of unused factory space and machinery. While scientists around the world are burning the midnight oil trying to invent new battery chemisty, Chiang and his team went back and re-examined how lithium batteries are made.
Chiang says his new manufacturing process needs only a $100,000,000 machine to produce the same energy storage capacity as the $5 billion dollar Tesla Gigafactory.
Most industry observers say batteries that cost under $100 per kWh are what’s needed to make electric cars stop being the playthings of the wealthy and affordable by mainstream buyers, the same people who buy Honda Civics and Toyota Corollas today.


Nissan has announced plans to offer battery replacements to US LEAF customer who want to replace their original lithium-ion battery pack. The battery replacement program will cost approximately $100 per month, and all Nissan Leaf vehicles will be eligible. Some Leaf owners had expected Nissan to outline battery replacement costs by putting a fixed number on a replacement pack. When a battery is connected to a resistive load, such as a motor, chemical energy is converted to electrical energy and direct current flows through the circuit. This commonly occurs while the vehicle's engine is idling or during short trips with a heavy power load like at night in bad weather. A good quality wet deep cycle (or "leisure") battery will cost between $50 and $300 and, if properly maintained and used, will give you at least 200 deep discharge-charge cycles.
Each cell is made up of an element containing positive plates that are all connected together and negative plates, which are also all connected together.
After the "curing" of the plates, they are made up into cells, and the cells are inserted into a high-density tough polypropylene or hard rubber case. Porosity is the pits and tunnels in the plate that allows the sulphuric acid to get to the interior of the plate. Normally a car (or starting) battery "ages" as sulfation builds up on the negative plates or the active positive plate material sheds (or flakes off) due to the normal expansion and contraction that occurs during the discharge and charge cycles.
This strongly suggests that some sellers of new batteries do not know how to or fail to take the time to properly recharge and test batteries. In January, Nissan North America joined with ABB, 4R Energy, and Sumitomo Corporation of America to announce plans to build a prototype of a grid storage system using Nissan Leaf batteries. That’s when they founded 24M, a start-up company they hoped would revolutionize flow battery technology. Their computer simulation said it would be enormous – about the size of a typical nuclear power plant.
They did a rapid pirouette away from flow batteries and went back to looking at lithium-ion batteries. The manufacturing procedure, known as roll to roll processing, involved applying a thin layer of magnetic material to a thin layer of metal or plastic, then drying everything in large ovens.
They wound up discarding 80% of the structure inside the battery that has nothing to do with storing electricity.
That’s the kind of game changing technology the world will need to finally turn its back on burning fossil fuels.
He has been known to drive to Nova Scotia just to see the lupins in bloom or to Watkins Glen for a weekend of historic racing.
The program will begin int he first half of 2014, and will work in tandem with the standard battery warranty for the Leaf which includes a 5 year, 60,000 mile coverage against battery capacity loss below 70% and 8 year, 100,000 mile coverage against defects. All LEAF batteries installed under the replacement program will have the same protection against capacity loss below 70%, but instead of a 5 year, 60,000 mile limit, the replacement packs will be warranted for the life of their electric vehicle. Nissan, however, says it has no intention of selling battery packs to individual consumers.
The details should allow us to get a replacement anytime we want it like the Smart car EV plan. Approximately 850 to 900 million lead-acid batteries are in use worldwide with starting batteries representing approximately 88% of the total. With an estimated 3% compounded annual growth rate, worldwide retail sales of car lead-acid batteries represent roughly 63% of the estimated $30 billion annually spent on batteries.
In another marketing study by Recharge, in 2003 the worldwide battery market was roughly $30 billion, with 30% of that being SLI (car) and 15.3% industrial (deep cycle) lead-acid batteries. They are individually separated with thin sheets of electrically insulating, porous material "envelopes" or "separators" (in the diagram below) that are used as spacers between the positive (usually light orange) and negative (usually slate gray) plates to keep them from electrically shorting to each other. The positive plates in cells are connected in parallel to the external POSITIVE (+) terminal and the negative plates in each cell are connected to the NEGATIVE (-) external terminal.
If deep cycle battery is left discharged for long period of time, dendrite shorts between the plates can occur when the battery is recharged. This situation is improving with the widespread use of easy to use battery testers like those made by Cadex, Midtronics and Solar. For the demonstration unit, GM scavenged its own laboratories to find batteries that had been degraded by simulations. But GM envisions old batteries eventually will be tracked down and purchased for grid-storage use through the same system used today to auction off parts like water pumps and starters at the end of vehicle life for recycling or rebuilding. Because the process they have invented will not only drive down the cost of batteries, it will also become a model for how products are produced in the future. The only way to make more was to expand the size of the factory and add more drying ovens in longer lines.


It practically invented the first commercial lithium-ion battery, using many thin electrodes kept separated by tiny layers of insulating material that allowed electrolyte to flow between them. Then they increased the size of the electrodes, packing much more storage capacity into the same space. In North America, BCI reports that approximately 120 million car and motorcycle batteries were sold in 2010, of which approximately 88% were for replacement and 12% were for original equipment. In the June 2015 report, Environmental Protection Acency stated that approximately 99% of all lead-acid car batteries were recycled in the U.S. Purportedly, Exide and EnerSys are the two largest deep cycle battery manufacturers in the world.
The plates (in the diagram below), within a cell, alternate with a positive plate, a negative plate and so on. When you are using your battery, the fresh acid needs to be in contact with the plate material and the water generated needs to be carried away from the plate. The chemical action between the metals and the electrolyte (battery acid) creates the electrical energy. A brown sediment, called sludge or "mud," that builds up in the bottom of the case and can short the plates of a cell out. The low resistance bridge in the shorted cell will heat up and boil the electrolyte out of the cell causing a high volumes of hydrogen and oxygen. If your car battery is more than three years old and you live in a hot climate, then your battery is probably living on borrowed time. Midwest and Southeast, explained, "Our grid, and most electricity grids, are not really designed to handle that kind of rapid swinging. Chiang is the same researcher who started A123, an early leader in lithium ion battery technology that went bankrupt a few years ago.
Sony engineers figured out how to use the old magnetic tape process to make the electrodes. For 2003, Eurobat estimates that in Western Europe 58.5 million car batteries will be sold and 71% will be replacement (after market) and 29% will be OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer). Energy flows from the battery as soon as there is an electrical load, for example, a starter motor, that completes a circuit between the positive terminal connected to the positive plates and the negative terminal connected to the negative plates. Abnormally slow cranking, especially on a cold day, is another good indication that your battery is going bad. Its process became the standard for making lithium ion batteries and is still widely used today.
The battery is initially charged or "formed" to convert the active yellow Lead Oxide (PbO or Litharge) in the positive plates (cathode) into Lead Peroxide (PbO2), which is usually dark brown or black.
Electrical current flows as charged portions of acid (ions) between the battery plates and as electrons through the external circuit. In hot climates, additional causes of failure are positive grid growth, positive grid metal corrosion, Dendrite formation, negative grid shrinkage, buckling of plates, or loss of water. Approximately 85% of premature deep cycle and starting batteries failures that are not recharged on a regular basis is due to an accumulation of sulfation.
Simply increase the size of the storage tanks that hold the electrolyte and you’re done. The active material in the negative pasted plates (anode) becomes sponge Lead (Pb), but with a very porous structure which is slate gray.
The action of the lead-acid storage battery is determined by chemicals used, State-of-Charge, temperature, porosity, diffusion, and load. Deep discharges, heat, vibration, fast charging, and overcharging all accelerate the "aging" process. Sulfation is caused when a battery's State-of-Charge drops below 100% for long periods or under charging. Approximately 50% of premature car battery failures is caused by the loss of water for normal recharging charging due to the lack of maintenance, evaporation from high under hood heat, or overcharging. You can easily spend the cost of a new battery or more for an emergency jump start, tow or taxi ride. Antimony (Sb), Calcium (Ca) or other alloys are often added to the plates to enhance their performance or service life.
Positive grid growth and undercharging causing sulfation and electrical system malfunctions also cause premature battery failures. A "Wet charged" battery is a wet lead-acid battery shipped with electrolyte in the battery and a "dry charged" battery is shipped without electrolyte.



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Comments Electric car battery tester kit

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  3. LEONIT
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