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2012 Mitsubishi i electric car battery packEnlarge PhotoWe'd be the first to point out that many of the electric car owners currently out on the roads have had absolutely no trouble with the 100 or so miles they get from a full charge.
However, it'd be foolish to assume that some people really don't need more than that, and as a result there's always room for an EV with greater range. Improvements to battery technology could be the best way to find this range, and according to New Scientist (via Autoblog), developments in Lithium-Air batteries from IBM could give us electric cars with a 500-mile range. Lithium-air batteries have significantly greater energy density than regular lithium-ion batteries - close to that of gasoline, in fact. Several companies are working to improve Lithium-air technology, by testing moisture-proof battery membranes, and graphene cathodes.
IBM is seeking to improve the electrolyte, the solvent that carries lithium ions between anode and cathode.
However, an IBM-led coalition called Battery 500, hopes to have a full-scale prototype running by 2013, and commercial batteries ready by 2020.
You might have to wait a few more years for an electric car that truly goes further than the gasoline equivalent, but it's on its way. Lithium-ion battery pack for 2014 Chevrolet Spark EV electric carEnlarge PhotoIf it wasn't so important for the future of electric cars, it could almost get tiresome: Just how do you improve batteries for longer life, quicker charging and a greater range? It's a question being investigated by great minds all around the world, and has turned up some surprising and exciting results over the last few years. Inspired by Popular Mechanics' look at potential electric vehicle and hybrid battery breakthroughs, we've compiled many of our previous battery tech articles into one handy guide.
The aluminum plates used have high energy density, and companies testing it such as Phinergy say you'd need to refill the car with water every few hundred miles. Existing lithium-ion technology is among the best battery technology we have for electric cars and hybrids. Compared to other battery types it's relatively energy-dense, charges relatively quickly, is lighter than many other battery types, and it's tried-and-tested. Others have researched into the existing problems with lithium-ion tech--such as reducing the tendency for lithium to gather around the battery electrodes. Then there's lithium-air tech--an offshoot of lithium-ion batteries, and one that could significantly increase energy density. It sounds unlikely, but simple herbs could be employed to make batteries greener in future. In a rare look at improving the environmental aspects of batteries rather than increasing their range, researchers at Rice University and the City College of New York have looked at using the herb madder, or purpurin, as a natural cathode for lithium-ion batteries. You might not gain hundreds of miles, but any eco-minded electric car driver would be glad to know their batteries had just a little less impact on the environment, right? Progress has so far been modest, however, with a typical automotive lithium-ion battery yielding roughly 90 miles of range. As breakthroughs go, then, the ability to increase the energy density of existing lithium-ion batteries by a factor of seven would be hugely significant. Even more remarkably, it would mean a Tesla Model S would only need to charge up every 2,000-or-so miles, far outperforming even the most frugal gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles. According to Nikkei Technology, researchers at the School of Engineering at the University of Tokyo may have discovered a way to make such a breakthrough by adding cobalt to the crystal structure of lithium oxide for the positive electrode in a battery cell. Tests on the new battery have shown that it accepts charging and discharging cycles successfully without generating excess carbon dioxide or oxygen.
However, the University of Tokyo says that their battery’s sealed structure gives it greater reliability and safety, both of which are crucial for automotive usage.

A battery is a device for storing chemical energy and converting that chemical energy into electricity. The electrons are generated by chemical reactions, and there are many different chemical reactions that are used in commercially available batteries. Automobile manufacturers have identified three types of rechargeable battery as suitable for electric car use. Lead-acid batteries were invented in 1859 and are the oldest form of rechargeable battery still in use. Lithium-ion batteries, which came into commercial use in the early 1990s, have a very high energy density and are less likely than most batteries to lose their charge when not being used -- a property called self discharge.
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This is difficult to say right now as the first production electric cars with lithium ion battery technology are still very new, but most people agree they will last at least eight years before they reach what is called the 'end of life' – Vauxhall even has an eight-year warranty on the battery in its Ampera.But ‘end of life’ doesn’t mean the battery will stop working at that moment – ‘end of life’ is actually the point at which batteries reach 80% efficiency, so they'll still work pretty well for years after that.
That's enough to beat many internal combustion cars on sale today, and would certainly eliminate range anxiety.
That means batteries could be down-scaled - and therefore vehicle weight reduced - while still increasing range.
Current electrolytes react with air and become depleted over time, so IBM is testing various materials. Aluminum is used as the anode in a battery, ambient air (and the oxygen in it) as a cathode, and water molecules.
But it isn't perfect, and several research groups are looking for a way to improve on its existing strengths. As it improves, so does the driving range of the increasingly popular zero-emission vehicles. While ideal for many electric car owners using their vehicles on shorter daily routes, that range is some way short of the 200 miles of range that would open up the market to the majority of drivers. Cost aside, such technology would allow the Nissan LEAF to drive roughly 550 miles on a single charge using a similarly sized battery to the 24kWh unit it currently features. It means that while extensive tests will still be required before this technology reaches a road-legal car, the early signs are encouraging. Having fallen for cars because of the virtues of a particular German flat-six, it's what we'll all be driving next that now interests Richard most. Without considering the practicality of building such a battery, we can look at the periodic table and pick out the lightest elements with multiple oxidations states that do form compounds. A battery is made up of one or more electrochemical cells, each of which consists of two half-cells or electrodes. For example, the familiar alkaline batteries commonly used in flashlights and television remote controls generate electricity through a chemical reaction involving zinc and manganese oxide. Those types are lead-acid batteries, nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries.
They've been used in all types of cars -- including electric cars -- since the 19th century.
They have a high energy density -- that is, a great deal of energy can be packed into a relatively small battery -- and don't contain any toxic metals, so they're easy to recycle.
Because of their light weight and low maintenance requirements, lithium-ion batteries are widely used in electronic devices such as laptop computers. In fact, some Ford Ranger EVs from the late 1990s with less efficient lead acid and NiMH batteries are still going, nearly 15 years later.Lithium ion should fare a lot better, which is just as well because a new battery is expensive right now – they’re the major reason electric cars cost so much to buy – but prices will fall as more electric cars hit the road.

Combined in the battery, they produce hydrated aluminum oxide and energy--and that energy can be used to power a car.
Egg-line nanoparticles of sulfur are one option, improving energy transfer and hugely increasing capacity, while silicon nanoparticles to replace graphite anodes is another. But as currently designed, they have a theoretical energy density limit of about 2 mega-joules per kilogram. One half-cell, called the negative electrode, has an overabundance of the tiny, negatively charged subatomic particles called electrons.
Lead-acid batteries are a kind of wet cell battery and usually contain a mild solution of sulfuric acid in an open container. Some experts believe that lithium-ion batteries are about as close as science has yet come to developing a perfect rechargeable battery, and this type of battery is the best candidate for powering the electric cars of the near future.
And Nissan says you're going to have to replace individual modules in the battery pack, rather than an entire battery, which will cost hundreds of ?s rather than thousands (or tens of thousands, if some reports will have you believe). And if research regarding the substitution of silicon for carbon in the anodes is realized in a practical way, then the theoretical limit on lithium-ion batteries might break 3 mega-joules per kilogram.
Assuming that we could actually make such a battery, its theoretical limit would be around 5 mega-joules per kilogram. The name comes from the combination of lead electrodes and acid used to generate electricity in these batteries. A variation on lithium-ion batteries, called lithium-ion polymer batteries, may also prove valuable to the future of EVs.
Therefore, the maximum theoretical potential of advanced lithium-ion batteries that haven’t been demonstrated to work yet is still only about 6 percent of crude oil! When the two halves are connected by a wire or an electrical cable, electrons will flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode.
Automobile batteries, on the other hand, need to be rechargeable, so they don't require constant replacement.
The major advantage of lead-acid batteries is that, after having been used for so many years, they are well understood and cheap to produce. These batteries may eventually cost less to build than lithium-ion batteries; however, at the present time, lithium-ion polymer batteries are prohibitively expensive. In a rechargeable battery, electrical energy is used to reverse the negative and positive halves of the electrochemical cells, restarting the electron flow.
However, they do produce dangerous gases while being used and if the battery is overcharged there's a risk of explosion. After eight years the engine is a bit old and tired, perhaps a bit smokey, and doesn't have the same horsepower it had when new. The energy of these moving electrons can be harnessed to do work -- running a motor, for instance. As electrons pass to the positive side, the flow gradually slows down and the voltage of the electricity produced by the battery drops. Eventually, when there are as many electrons on the positive side as on the negative side, the battery is considered 'dead' and is no longer capable of producing an electric flow.

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Comments Electric car batteries toxic

  1. 3770077
    The engine is running, the alternator.
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