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Lithium-ion batteries are an extremely common form of rechargeable battery often found in consumer electronics such as laptops and cell-phones.
The electrolyte component in the batteries is typically liquid and quite flammable, and the batteries as a whole are prone to shorts, overheating and catching fire. Improvements in larger lithium-ion batteries would be a big step forward for technologies such as electric cars or electrical grids, and thus for sustainable transportation and energy. The ORNL researchers, in work published in the current issue of the Journal of the American Chemistry Society, have an easy method for making a nanostructured form of one solid electrolyte.
The solid electrolyte isn’t as conductive as liquid electrolytes, but the researchers say they can compensate for this by making the electrolyte very thin, among other measures. The solid electrolyte not only makes batteries safer, it could also enable the use of higher energy electrode materials. The team restructured the solid electrolyte to be porous at the nanoscale, which yielded the far higher level of conductivity. Just to put a finer point on lithium-ion batteries, the chemistry in the battery cells on board the grounded 787 were cobalt oxide(CoO2)from a Japanese company GS Yuasa. The batteries in the EV CODA for example, use lithium-iron phosphate(LiFePO4)chemistry, which is safer at high temperatures. It will be interesting to see when solid electrolyte batteries replace liquid chemistry batteries. They’re now looking at the protection circuits for those failed 787 batteries, not the cells. FYI — the photo shows the box of high-voltage electronics of the MINI-E, not the battery pack.
Batteries add a very large amount of material expense, weight, and recycling challenges to an electric fleet. Why keep making millions of redundant systems, when those huge expenses could go toward electrical induction of roads? Producing electricity and electric roadways should be a Federal project, so expenses can be minimized, and individual consumers needed be forced to bear the brunt of upfront costs (like $10,000 to $15,000 worth of battery pack per automobile).
Far better to put it on the Federal debt ledger, and pay it off through equitable taxes, Federal bonds, and printing money. So why do we think this sort of economic model is appropriate for the most pressing national infrastructure challenge in the history of the world? And if 67you are wrong, as I surmise, how do you justify self-righteously touting such unadulterated bull***t in a serious discusion? Somehow, I don’t think a Nissan Leaf requires 57 million watts of energy to drive one mile down the road.
But perhaps you have an advanced degree in electrical engineering and can show me my error? Lithium-ion battery pack for 2014 Chevrolet Spark EV electric carEnlarge PhotoAs anyone with a smartphone, laptop or indeed a whole electric car will know, lithium-ion batteries degrade over time.
Now, research scientists supported by the Department of Energy have discovered the physical properties behind this loss in capacity. As Gizmodo reports, it's all to do with how ions moving through the battery change the physical structure of the electrodes.

In a lithium-ion battery, lithium ions move from the anode to cathode through a non-aqueous electrolyte.
As ions move across the anode when discharging, they wear away at irregularities on its surface in a non-uniform way. Huolin Xin, a materials scientist at Brookhaven Lab's Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN), describes it as the same kind of non-uniform structure as rust creeping across steel.
Here, as lithium ions move across the electrode when charging, they form a kind of rock-salt, which acts as an electrically-insulating crust.
Xin says it might be possible to coat the cathodes with elements that resist crystallization--allowing ions to pass freely between anode and cathode. A commercially-realistic timescale for such advances may mean years of work, rather than months.
2012 Mitsubishi i electric car battery packEnlarge PhotoWe'd be the first to point out that many of the electric car owners currently out on the roads have had absolutely no trouble with the 100 or so miles they get from a full charge.
However, it'd be foolish to assume that some people really don't need more than that, and as a result there's always room for an EV with greater range. Improvements to battery technology could be the best way to find this range, and according to New Scientist (via Autoblog), developments in Lithium-Air batteries from IBM could give us electric cars with a 500-mile range. Lithium-air batteries have significantly greater energy density than regular lithium-ion batteries - close to that of gasoline, in fact.
Several companies are working to improve Lithium-air technology, by testing moisture-proof battery membranes, and graphene cathodes.
IBM is seeking to improve the electrolyte, the solvent that carries lithium ions between anode and cathode. However, an IBM-led coalition called Battery 500, hopes to have a full-scale prototype running by 2013, and commercial batteries ready by 2020. You might have to wait a few more years for an electric car that truly goes further than the gasoline equivalent, but it's on its way. Lithium Rechargeable Battery Pack 36V 100Ah for Electric Car, View lithium ion Rechargeable battery pack, China Aviation Industry Power Battery Product Details from China Aviation Lithium Battery Co., Ltd.
At those smaller scales the batteries’ technology is reliable and well-understood, but at larger sizes there have been challenges. Boeing’s new Dreamliner 787 fleet was recently grounded worldwide after two separate incidents in which the on-board lithium-ion battery, which supplies the planes with auxiliary and back-up power, caught fire. To that end, a group of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have just published preliminary work on a new form of battery that relies on a solid electrolyte.
The nanostructure improves the material’s conductivity 1,000 times, enough to make it useful in lithium-ion batteries.
Even then, the batteries might not charge as quickly or provide the same boost of power possible with liquid electrolytes, but this would be okay in many applications, such as in electric cars, where the sheer number of battery cells makes it easy to deliver adequate bursts of power.
As a result, while the rate at which these batteries deliver power may be less than today’s lithium-ion batteries, the total amount of energy they can store would be far higher. The solid electrolyte also helps prevent shorts, and unlike the liquid counterparts won’t degrade electrodes. Day to day you don't really notice, but over a year, or two, it means being able to use your phone (or car) a little less. As they do so, the physical structure of the electrodes is very slightly altered, at an atomic level.

Just as snowflakes form around microscopic dirt particles, explains Xin, so too do particles in a battery require these irregularities to form upon.
The thicker this crust, the less charge the battery will accept. Xin says this latter effect is even more pronounced at higher voltages.
So finding a fix for both could be the clue to batteries that retain capacity for much longer periods. But for electric car owners--and anyone else with an electronic device--it could be a step towards vehicles that achieve the same range whether they're brand new, or a decade old.
To boost their range toward a tantalizing 300 miles or more, researchers are reporting new progress on a “breathing” battery that has the potential to one day replace the lithium-ion technology of today’s EVs. That's enough to beat many internal combustion cars on sale today, and would certainly eliminate range anxiety.
That means batteries could be down-scaled - and therefore vehicle weight reduced - while still increasing range.
Current electrolytes react with air and become depleted over time, so IBM is testing various materials. If you require further details regarding the transaction data, please contact the supplier directly. The researchers also showed that the new material is compatible with high-energy electrodes.
A much smaller battery could then be used—saving space and weight on airplanes and greatly reducing the cost of electric vehicles.
But you’d need to deliver roughly a million watts along about 90 feet of road, and this would need to be repeated every mile to sustain travel at ~60MPH.
That makes the rechargeable metal-air battery lighter with the potential to pack in more energy than its commercial counterpart.
While lithium-air batteries have been touted as an exciting technology to watch, they still have some kinks that need to be worked out. Researchers are forging ahead on multiple fronts to get the batteries in top form before they debut under the hood.One of the main components researchers are working on is the batteries’ electrolytes, materials that conduct electricity between the electrodes. The advantage of this “aqueous” design over the others is that it protects the lithium from interacting with gases in the atmosphere and enables fast reactions at the air electrode.
Adding a protective material to the lithium metal is one approach, but this typically decreases the battery power. So they developed a layered approach, sandwiching a polymer electrolyte with high conductivity and a solid electrolyte in between the lithium electrode and the watery solution. In addition to powering EVs, lithium-air batteries could one day have applications in the home, thanks to their low cost. Power output remains a big hurdle, but Imanishi said his group is committed to honing this approach, as well as exploring other options, until lithium-air becomes a commercial reality.Imanishi’s work was supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

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