Deep cycle lead acid battery discharge curve supercapacitor,best battery for track car online,battery operated led icicle lights,rechargeable battery xbox not charging - Test Out

30.10.2013
This sealed lead-acid battery is specifically designed for deep-cycle solar or uninterruptable power supply (UPS) applications.
Battery weight is a simple indicator for the thickness of the lead plates used in a battery.
The DM12-7.2 is Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) battery of the Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) variety, featuring a thin fiberglass felt that holds the electrolyte in place like a sponge. If the battery has a reserve capacity rating instead of an amp hours rating, it's almost certainly a thin plate starting battery rather than a thick plate deep cycle battery. With lead-acid batteries, the life of the battery is directly related to the depth of discharge. So, to supply a given load of X, a bigger battery will be drained by a lower percentage, and would last for more cycles. Of course, if you use a thin plate starting battery in a thick plate deep cycle application - you aren't gonna get nearly as many cycles anyway. Also, I've heard that AGM batteries can be mounted on their sides - anyone know if that's true? From what I've read about AGM is due to how they are constructed, they don't vent, and they are air tight, and even if the casing is cracked, they won't leak. I'm no expert, so take this with a grain of salt, but I'd say they could be mounted in any configuration you want. FLA stands for Flooded Lead Acid, and is a normal type battery with electrolyte that sloshes around.
Yes, that's true with one exception - they WILL vent if they are overcharged sufficiently to build up enough pressure to blow the seal.
All VRLA (sealed) batteries have a pop-off valve (like an air compressor or water heater) that will vent excess pressure if overcharged far enough.
What I mean is, is the valve a pure safety feature in the low percentage event that too much pressure builds up internally, that trips the safety valve, and then the valve has to be replaced? I believe one large battery is a better setup than two batteries each of which has half the capacity. In other words, the number of cycles yielded by a battery goes up exponentially the shallower the DOD.
Mobile phone users typically recharge their batteries when the DOD is only about 25 to 30 percent. Some applications such as electric vehicles or marine use may require the maximum capacity to be extracted from the battery which means discharging the battery to a very high DOD. You can’t do this every time you lay your tool down but at least make sure they are not left lying in the sun at break or over lunch.
As soon as you are done for the day put your battery operated tools into a covered tub and put them into the coolest place in your vehicle. If you use your battery operated tools for seasonal work make sure you store them with a full charge.
For power tools that you are use often on your job you should have at the minimum two batteries, one in the charger and one in the tool.
If you are using battery operated power tools in your work place daily try to buy tools where the you can use the same batteries for each of the tools.
Batteries are not cheap and by applying these principles you can easily double or triple the life of your batteries.
Note: Quotes and pictures in this post were taken from Battery Life on the Battery and Energy Technologies Website which is owned by Woodbank Communications Ltd a battery consultancy company based in Chester, UK. Car battery buying strategy for use in Montana, for example, is different than in the hotter climates found in Texas.
The two most common categories of car (including motorcycle and other power sports starting) and deep cycle batteries are Wet (also known as "flooded", "liquid electrolyte", "vented", "enhanced flooded" or "VLA" cell) and Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA). When selecting a battery type, it is extremely important that you select a battery that will MATCH the voltage outputs of your charging system and application. Non-sealed wet Standard, wet Low-Maintenance, AGM or Gel Cell VRLA batteries with pasted, tubular or Manchester ("Manchex") positive plates or Spiral Wound AGM VRLA batteries are recommended for motive deep cycle applications.
The wet (or "flooded" cell), non-sealed Low Maintenance batteries (with filler caps) have Lead with Antimony (Sb) alloy in the positive and Lead with Calcium (Ca) alloy in the negative dual alloy or hybrid plate formulations. Wet "Maintenance Free" batteries have a Lead with Calcium (Ca) alloy in the positive and Lead with Calcium (Ca) alloy in the negative plate chemistry or formulation, for example, Johnson Controls [formally Delphi], General Motor's ACDelco, or East Penn. However, the versions with "GM" side terminals are more prone to terminal seal leakage due to over-tightening, incorrect terminal bolt length, or vibration from short battery cables. Relocating the vehicle's starting battery to the passenger compartment or trunk is becoming more popular because vehicle manufacturers want to extend their "bumper-to-bumper" warranty periods, to avoid underhood temperature extremes, to provide more weight in the rear, or to save underhood space. Spiral Wound AGM batteries are easily identified with their "six-pack" beverage can-like shape. Examples of spiral wound AGM VRLA batteries are Johnson Controls' Optima, Exide's Orbital or Maxxima, EnerSys' Cyclon, BLS, or ToPin. For special high electrical load requirements, such as an emergency vehicles, RVs, motor homes, caravans, boats, or vehicles with snow plows, electric winches, high power audio or lighting systems, etc., both car and deep cycle batteries are often used. Ralph Scheidler at Sure Power has written an excellent, easy to understand, free e-booklet, Introduction to Batteries and Charging Systems, about multi-battery applications. If a discharged deep cycle battery (or bank) is connected to a charged starting battery in parallel, a large current could flow from the starting battery to the deep cycle battery in an attempt to equalize the voltage. If the wiring or contacts of the isolation relay or switch are not heavy enough to carry the current, damage could occur. If 4% or more concentration of hydrogen is present, an explosion could occur due to the arc created by the relay or switch closure.
Either the deep cycle battery (or bank) is undercharged or the starting battery will be overcharged.
Will the battery produce enough current to start the engine in the coldest temperatures that you start your engine in?
Can you afford to get stuck some extremely cold morning until you can jump start your vehicle if it does not have the capacity to start you engine?
In hot climates, buying car or marine starting batteries with double or triple your vehicle's cold cranking amp requirements could a waste of money because the extra cranking amps will not be used. In North America, some battery manufacturers produce a "North" version of a battery designed for cold climates and a "South" version for hot climates. If more CCA performance is required, two identical 12-volt starting batteries can be connected in parallel or two identical 6-volt starting batteries with greater CCA can be connected in series.
Making a simple analogy between a water tank and a battery, the level in the tank will determine the water pressure (battery's voltage), but the diameter of the tank is going to determine the total volume of water (battery's Reserve Capacity or amp hour capacity).
For car batteries, an equally important consideration to CCA is the Reserve Capacity (RC) or Amp Hour (AH) endurance ratings because of the effects of increased parasitic (ignition key off) loads while long term parking, power demands during short trips and emergencies.
For deep cycle batteries important considerations are; will the Ampere-Hour (AH) rating exceed the requirements based on your application? Normally the best buy will be the heaviest battery that best suites your application, physical size requirements and that has the lowest cost (including maintenance) for the total amount of power it will produce over its service life.
When connected as exactly shown in the above diagrams, the batteries will better discharge and charge equally and have a longer service life.
Some battery experts believe that batteries in series are easier to discharge or charge because the same amount of current is applied to each cell and, with fewer cells, are a little more reliable. A better solution is to use a 24-volt to 12-volt DC-to-DC Converter or a separate 12-volt charging system and battery to produce 12-volts because an unbalanced load will not occur on the batteries and voltage variances. Below are examples of wiring diagrams of "half tapped" 12-volt, 24-volt, and 36-volt battery banks. With equal amp hour capacities, a single 12-volt battery will weigh approximately 10% less than two six-volt batteries connected in series due to the additional case material and the battery connecting cable.
To prevent charging problems when connecting batteries in series or series-parallel, do not mix old and new batteries, ones of different capacities or types. In North America, manufacturers build their batteries to an adopted Battery Council International (BCI) Group Size Number (U1, 24, 27, 31, 34, 35, 65, 75, 78, 8D, GC, L-16, etc.) standard.
The battery manufacturers publish application Selection Guides that contain OEM cold cranking amperage requirements and group number replacement recommendations by make, model and year of car, battery size, and CCA and RC (or Amp Hour) specifications. There are six types of common battery terminals: SAE Post, GM Side, "L", Stud, combination SAE and Stud, and combination SAE Post and GM Side. Battery manufacturers or distributors will often "private label" their batteries for car manufacturers, large chain stores or export. Douglas uses the letters of their name to indicate the year of manufacture and the digits 1-12 for the month, D=1994 O=1995 U=1996 G=1997 L=1998 A=1999 S=2000. The date code is burned into the case and if used to determine when the warranty begins if the proof of purchase is not available.
The date code on the negative post is stamped as the battery comes off of the finishing line, ready to ship out or go into stock. The activation date is found on an orange sticker on the shipping carton or email Concorde Customer Service with the serial number of the battery.
The four digit date code represents the day of the week (first digit), week of the year (middle two digits) and the year (last digit). The three digit date code represents the year (first digit), month (middle letter) and the plant code (last digit).
The four digit date code could represent the week of the year (first two digits) and the year (last two digits).
If you cannot determine the date code, ask the dealer or contact the distributor or manufacturer. The following are some tips for consumers for buying car, motorcycle, truck, marine and recreational vehicle starting and deep cycle batteries.
Purchasing a battery has become much easier because most of the battery and vehicle manufacturers have adopted the BCI Group Number, European Type Number (ETN) which replaces DIN or JIS as a standard for the battery's voltage, physical size, and terminal type and location.
For starting an engine, using a car or starting battery is normally a better choice than a deep cycle battery because it is specifically designed for shallow (1%-5%) discharges.
For a deep cycle application, using a deep cycle battery is a much better alternative than using a starting battery because the deep cycle battery will have a much longer service life when deeply (50% to 80%) discharged because the plates are thicker. Greater RC or AH is better because of the affects of increased parasitic (ignition key off) loads, normal battery self discharge while the vehicle is not being used, and the demands of stop-and-go city driving.
Batteries are generally sold by model or series, so the battery sizes can vary for the same price. Pro rated battery replacement warranties or cost are not necessarily indicative of the quality over the life of the battery.
Below are the basic steps for sizing the deep cycle battery bank, inverter, AC battery bank charger and generator based on your 120 volt AC power requirements. You can determine the optimum battery bank size by multiplying the number of cycles time the total amp hour capacity divided into the cost. As can be seen from this example, using just battery backup for one day for AC power with a heavy load can become very expensive, so that is why most shore power, "grid" or commercial AC power backup systems is an AC generator, combination of batteries and AC generator, or combination of batteries and solar power with AC generator backup. As a general rule for longer service life, size deep cycle batteries or battery bank capacity so that the Depth-of-Discharge does not exceed 50%. Equally small-sized sealed motor cycle starter motor batteries are not an alternative here! The heavier a battery for a given group size, the thicker the plates, and the better the battery will tolerate deep discharges, hence the longer its life-span. I don't want to worry about running out of power in a couple of days though I do have a Honda 1000 generator if needed to top off batteries. Also, the cell caps have a catlayst which recombines the hydrogen and oxygen separated during charging. Quite a few Gels can be mounted in any position, even upside down, but usually only the aviation AGMs are approved for upside down use. Limit the depth of discharge (DOD) by swapping when battery first shows signs of loss of power. The relation between the cycle life and the depth of discharge is logarithmic as shown in the graph below.
This is because battery life depends on the total energy throughput that the active chemicals can tolerate. By restricting the possible DOD in the application, the designer can dramatically improve the cycle life of the product. At this low DOD a lithium-ion battery can be expected to achieve between 5 and 6 times the specified cycle life of the battery which assumes complete discharge every cycle. Subjecting the battery to only partial discharges gives rise to the so called memory effect (see below) which can only be reversed by deep discharging.
Special “deep cycle” battery constructions must be used for such applications since deep discharging may damage general purpose batteries. This essentially gives the battery a partial charge instead of fully charging it, similar to working at a lower DOD as in the example above. When you are not using your tools with rechargeable batteries keep them under a sheet of plywood or in the shade.
Keep your battery charger and the batteries it is charging in the shade or shaded by a sheet of plywood so they are never expose them to the direct sun rays. If you find that you are using your power tools to the point where both batteries are almost dead by the end of the day then get a third battery. Within the wet category, the three most common battery types in order of use are Low Maintenance, sealed "Maintenance Free", and Standard, which are defined in more detail below.


The easiest way to accomplish this is to replace your battery with the same or compatible type of battery that originally was installed in your vehicle or appliance.
Motive applications are where the battery is discharged in operations that will consume between 20% and 80% of the battery's capacity and then recharged (which is considered to be one cycle). Non-sealed wet Standard, wet Low-Maintenance, wet "Maintenance Free" batteries with pasted or solid (Planté) positive plates are recommended for stationary applications.
In 1915, the Willard Storage Battery Company introduced sealed hard rubber cases that made car batteries practical. They are available in non-sealed (with removable filler caps) and sealed (with non-removable filler caps) versions. The service life of a healthy EFB car battery generally will produce approximately 85,000 start-stop cycles. For excessive vibration applications, in off-road operation, or extreme conditions, it is best to use a spiral wound AGM VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead-Acid) car or deep cycle battery because there is no shedding of active plate material since the plates are immobilized. Depending on CCA performance or amp-hour capacity, typically spiral wound AGM car battery versions cost between $125 and $250 and deep cycle variants are more expensive. They use a thickening agent like fumed silica gel to immobilize the electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte like wet batteries. They are engineered for up to 5,000 shallow (to 5%) discharges cycles, which is over four engine starts per day. The plates are thicker than in starting batteries, but thinner than in deep cycle batteries.
A car battery is normally used to start the engine and motive deep cycle (or leisure) batteries that are the same battery type (plate chemistry) as the car battery are used to power the electrical accessories. Depending on the temperature and battery type, a battery that has been sitting around for weeks or months without a charge has probably sulfated. However, it might crank the engine slower or not last as long as a starting battery for this application, due of the high under hood temperatures and shallower discharges. Please refer to the diagrams in Section 7.3 below for more information about connecting batteries in parallel or series. Endurance is defined by Eurobat as the actual combination of the energy content stored in a battery and the rate which the battery is discharged over the life time. Peukert determined that the higher the discharge rate (or fewer hours the battery is fully discharged in), the lower the capacity due to the Peukert Effect or "the shrinking battery effect" and to the internal resistance of the battery. Two (or more) 12-volt batteries can be connected in parallel, should be identical and connected exactly as shown in the diagram below for best results. Two identical larger capacity six-volt batteries can be connected in series by connecting the NEGATIVE (-) terminal of Battery One to the POSITIVE (+) terminal of Battery Two. Two identical larger capacity six-volt batteries can be connected in series by connecting the NEGATIVE (-) terminal of Battery One to the POSITIVE (+) terminal of Battery Two to make a "12-volt battery". Between the battery terminals or battery terminals and distribution points, the cables should be an equal length, same wire size, as short as possible and sized large enough to prevent significant voltage drop of 0.075 volts (75 millivolts) per 100 amps or less in the cables and connectors.
Batteries connected in series are also safer because if a cell shorts, the voltage will just be deceased. Two identical 12-volt batteries or three identical 8-volt batteries can be connected in series to produce 24-volts.
A common problem is powering a laptop computer or other appliance requiring more than 14 VDC from a 12-volt battery or 12-volt appliances from 24, 36 or 48-volt battery banks. For example and using the diagram below, let's assume that two identical 12-volt batteries are used in series to power a 24-volt trolling motor and there is a requirement to power 12-volt lights or electronic equipment. With batteries in series, if discharging unevenly or use of non-identical batteries can not be avoided, then use an isolated multi-bank charger, single bank charger with an external diode isolator (adjusted for the voltage loss), or combiner to recharge all of the batteries at the same time. But, the two six-volt batteries can be split apart and each battery weighs approximately half of the weight of the 12-volt battery and is easier to transport. Mixing old batteries with new batteries is like mixing old milk with new milk--soon you have nothing but old milk.
These specifications, which are based on the physical case size, terminal placement, type and polarity.
Within a size, the CCA and RC ratings, warranty and battery type will vary within models of the same brand or from brand to brand. For North America automotive applications, the SAE Post is the most popular, followed by GM Side, then the combination "dual" SAE Post and GM Side. Clamps and lugs are the connectors on the ends of battery cables that connect to the terminals on the top or side of the battery. Because of permanent sulfation due to self-discharge, a fresher battery is definitely better and does matter.
Some dealers will prorate warranties based on the list price of the bad battery, so if a discounted battery failed three-fourths through its warranty period, buying a new discounted battery outright might cost you less than paying the list price for the same battery less the pro-rated warranty. Before you buy a replacement battery, you should fully charge your old battery, remove the surface charge and test it. Web based Battery Replacement Selectors or Fitment Guides published by battery manufacturers or distributors can make the task even easier.
The battery type MUST match the vehicle's charging system or the new battery or charging system could be damaged.
Amp Hour (AH) ratings are normally used to describe the capacity of deep cycle and European car (starting) batteries. This means that for the same price, potentially a larger battery with more RC (or Amp Hours) can be purchased than the battery being replaced. The exception is the free replacement warranty, which represents is a better indicator the risk that the dealer, distributor, or manufacturer is willing to assume.
Depending on the efficiency of the inverter and the power loss in the wiring, it takes between 12 and 14 amps of 12 VDC power to produce one amp of 120 VAC power or 24 to 28 amps to produce one amp of 240 VAC. Depending on the average load on the battery bank, the total daily usage may have to be adjusted due to the Peukert Effect. Depending on the temperature of the battery electrolyte, the usage might also have to adjusted.
Once you have determined your daily usage, then you need to determine how many hours or days you want to run using your battery bank before you recharge your batteries and decrease or increase the size of the battery bank accordingly. To size the battery charger (or charger portion of an inverter charger), you will need the output to be at least 12% of the battery capacity used to fully recharge the batteries within 24 hours.
For additional information on deep cycle battery bank sizing, please see Glacier Bay Refrigeration's HOW TO SIZE AND USE YOUR BATTERY BANK, Constian von Wentzel's Sizing a Lead-Acid Battery Bank.
Motor cycle batteries with their large-surface, but thin lead plates are designed for only brief high-current drains.
Draining the battery below the final discharge voltage causes an irreversable loss in storage capacity.
This pressure helps to reabsorb the oxygen and hydrogen gas generated in the final stage of charging a lead-acis battery, hence keeping the internal battery pressure constant.
Ignoring other ageing effects, one cycle of 100% DOD is roughly equivalent to 2 cycles at 50% DOD and 10 cycles at 10% DOD and 100 cycles at 1% DOD. Similarly the user can get a much longer life out of the battery by using cells with a capacity slightly more than required or by topping the battery up before it becomes completely discharged.
It takes a while to get used to doing this, but just like learning the hard way to keep your power saw under a sheet of plywood in the rain the shocking price of having to replace your batteries earlier can help you remember this.
In a hot climate, higher RC (Reserve Capacity) or AH (Ampere Hour) capacity ratings are more important than CCA; however, the cranking amp performance sizing should be based on the coldest climate the engine is started in. In the VRLA category, there are AGM or Absorbed Glass Mat, spiral wound AGM, and Gel Cell lead-acid batteries.
If you change your replacement battery to another battery type, you might have to adjust the charging voltage to prevent undercharging or overcharging that could damage or reduce the service life of your new battery.
Some examples of motive (also known as "cycling", "leisure" or "traction") applications are for batteries used in recreational vehicles (RV), motor homes, caravans, trailers, boats, wheelchairs, golf carts, solar, floor sweepers, folk lift trucks and other electric vehicles (EV) and typically have between 200-500 cycles per year. For more information about deep cycle batteries, please see Wind & Sun's Deep Cycle Battery FAQ and Deep Cycle Battery Types Comparisons. The major disadvantage of AGM or Gel Cell VRLA deep cycle batteries are their high initial cost (up to three times over the cost of a wet Standard batteries), but arguably can have an overall lower total cost of ownership due to a longer service life, no "watering" and other labor costs, and faster recharging. Some battery manufacturers, such as Johnson Controls, build "North" and "South" car battery versions to make up for the differences in cold and hot climates in North America.
Wet "Maintenance Free" batteries are also more susceptible to deep discharge ("dead" or "flat" battery) failures due to increased shedding of active plate material and development of a barrier layer between the active plate material and the grid metal.
GRT simply means that 90% or more of the gasses are recombined back into water during recharging and contained within each cell and special venting is not required.
It maybe ruggedized to be more resistant to vibration and shock than an automobile battery. Regardless of what isolation method is used, apply the battery manufacturer's temperature compensated charging voltages directly across the respective battery terminals to optimize the battery's capacity and overall service life. There have been other examples where wet motive deep cycle batteries have lasted over ten years.
The battery's CCA performance rating should meet (or just exceed) the vehicle manufacturer's recommendation or is best suited for the coldest temperatures encountered in your climate. A second reason is that in hot climates, thinner plates required to produce more surface area with in a battery tend to have more grid corrosion resulting in premature battery failures.
If you connect two 12-volt batteries in parallel and they are identical in type, age and capacity, you can potentially double your original CCA performance.
If you connect two 12-volt batteries in parallel and they are identical in type, age and capacity, you can more than double your original capacity due to the Peukert Effect. Do not mix non-identical battery types, battery manufacturers or capacity in series because the battery (or cell) with the lowest capacity will overcharge or over discharge. Battery cables to the charger or inverter (or other large load) should be of equal length and wire size so the batteries will charge or discharge evenly. Other battery experts believe that batteries in parallel are better because they require less space, will have more capacity due to the Peukert Effect and if a cell should fail open, the bad battery can be disconnected and the other one can continue to be used. Three identical 12-volt batteries connected in series or six identical six-volt batteries will produce 36-volts and so on.
Using an efficient DC-to-DC Converter is highly recommended, automatic and eliminates the problems associated with wide voltage variances from uneven multi-battery discharges and recharges.
The 12-volt electrical appliances can be connected to the 12-volt batteries as long the 12-volt electrical loads are equally divided between the two 12-volt batteries, so the loads are balanced and fused.
The weakest or smallest capacity battery (or cell) connected in series or series-parallel will over discharge and overcharge, which will eventually cause a premature failure. In Europe, the European Committee for Standardization has adopted the ETN (European Type Numbering) standard to replace the older EN, IKC, Italian CEI, and German DIN standards. Batteries are generally sold by model or series, so the size numbers will vary for the same price. To reduce inventory costs, dual terminal "universal" batteries that will replace several group sizes are becoming more popular and fit 75% or more of cars on the road today. The "L" terminal post is used on some European cars, motorcycles, lawn and garden equipment, snowmobiles, and other light duty power sport vehicles. Dry charged batteries are shipped without electrolyte, but usually have "sell by" dates of one to three years.
The following three numeric characters are the number of days since the beginning of the year. The four digit date code could also represent the month of the year (first two digits) and the year (last two digits).
You could have a faulty charging system, loose alternator belt or corroded terminals and the old battery is healthy but was just discharged. They contain the vehicle's minimum cold cranking amps (CCA) requirement, terminal layout, and battery size replacement recommendations by manufacturer's make, model and year. The easiest way to accomplish this is to replace your battery with the same or compatible type of battery that was originally installed by the vehicle's manufacturer. If a physically larger battery is bought, be sure that the replacement battery will fit, the cables will connect to the correct terminals, and that the terminals will NOT touch metal surfaces such as a closed hood (or bonnet). This will require determining how much current an appliance uses and for how long times the "duty cycle" (the amount of time the appliance is on during that time period).
Deep cycle batteries are normally rated by the fully charged capacity divided by the number of hours of discharge it takes to drop to 10.5 VDC. Let's assume that you are fully recharging the battery bank daily and using "low end" inexpensive deep cycle batteries that when fully discharged (or 100% average Depth-of-Discharge) will last 50 cycles, at 80% average DoD (or 20% State-of-Charge) will last 200 cycles and at 50% average DoD will last 500 cycles. Be sure to consider the start surge power requirement of up to five time the run current with large inductive starting loads, such as microwave ovens, motors and transformers. Using the example above, you would need at least a 214 amp charger to replace 1780 AH in 24 hours.
To calculate the ampere draw for trolling motors based on the pound thrust of the motor, divide the pounds of thrust by the motor voltage and multiply by 12. Most starter batteries tolerate being completely discharged only a few times before becoming irreversibly damaged. The depth of discharge, even above the final discharge voltage, is the most negatively influencing factor on cycle service life-time. Electrolyte replenishment with sealed AGM is not possible, therefore it is very important to prevent too fast charging and overcharging. See also Cycle Life which shows how cell performance diminishes due to deterioration of the active chemicals as the battery ages.


For cells used for “microcycle” applications (small current discharge and charging pulses) a cycle life of 300,000 to 500,000 cycles is common. Please do NOT buy a new battery until it is needed because it will sulfate sitting in storage and you will lose capacity and performance. The one additional sub-category for smaller (typically below 50 AH) deep cycle batteries is SLA (Sealed Lead-Acid) using AGM or Gel Cell VRLA construction. For example, replacing an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) wet sealed "Maintenance Free" with a wet non-sealed Low Maintenance battery (with filler caps) might cause the Low-Maintenance battery to be slightly overcharged and consume more water.
Stationary (also known as "float", "reserve", "backup" or "standby") applications are where stationary batteries are used to provide backup or standby power during loss of the primary source of power such as uninterruptible power systems (UPS), emergency lighting systems, security systems, telecommunications systems, etc., and typically have 2-12 cycles per year.
Some manufacturers also construct special car batteries that have a higher tolerance to heat by changing plate or connecting strap formulations or providing for more electrolyte. The battery's construction, separator thickness and material, plate thickness and plate composition will all determine a battery's ability to withstand vibration.
They also tend to have a slightly higher Specific Gravity and are normally discharged between 20% and 80% Depth-of-Discharge at a lower amperage than a starting battery.
A common deep cycle application in recreational vehicles is using a DC to AC inverter, which is used to convert 12 volts DC to 120 (or 240) VAC power.
This is especially important when mixing battery types and can be accomplished in several different ways depending on the charging system.
Fully recharge the deep cycle battery with an external charger first and have it tested at an auto parts or battery store. However, in extremely cold climates a higher CCA rating is better, due to increased power required to crank a sluggish engine and the inefficiency of a cold car battery. If you connect two in series that are not the same type or capacity, the battery (or cell) with the lowest capacity will overcharge or over discharge. If you connect two or more batteries (or battery banks) in parallel that are not the same type or capacity, proper charging can become more difficult. Batteries in series are much easier to correctly charge, offer higher reliability due to few number of cells, but are limited to the lowest capacity battery (or cell) in the series. What is important is that the battery manufacturer's recommended temperature compensated charging voltages are being applied directly across the battery's terminals from the charging source.
If replacing the weakest batteries occurs, "preconditioning" the new batteries is recommended by charging and discharging several cycles. For the same price, potentially a physically larger battery with more CCA or RC (or AH) can be purchased than the battery being replaced. For example, 2265 would indicate that a battery was shipped on September 21, 2012 (a leap year) or possibly September 20, 2002 (a non-leap year). The code on the positive post is the manufacturing date that indicates when the battery was physically built but before the addition of any electrolyte. The exception to this is in hot climates, using a non-sealed wet "Maintenance Free" car battery (with filler caps) is highly encouraged because lost water can be easily replaced. The label of the electrical appliance will have the amount of power and the AC voltage that the appliance uses. If your battery bank was operating at 60 degrees F then you would have to increase the usage by 10% and at 32 degrees F, by 20%. Some "square wave" or "modified" sine wave inverters are not capable of providing the power to run some motors, compressors or other electronic or electrical appliances.
Deep Cycle batteries have thicker lead plates that make them tolerate deep discharges better. If you charge a wet "Maintenance Free" battery with a charging system or charger designed for a wet Low Maintenance battery (with filler caps), you could undercharge the wet "Maintenance Free" battery.
If keep below 80 degrees F (26.7 degrees C), stationary batteries have longer service lives than motive batteries due to thicker plates and being used less. For that reason, using non-sealed wet batteries (with filler caps) so distilled water can be added, is highly encouraged, especially in hot climates and continuous float charging. Deep cycle batteries will typically outlast two to ten car batteries in a deep cycle application. Isolator sizing is important and should be larger than the combined current sources on each side of the isolator. It takes between 12 and 14 amps of 12-volt DC power to make one amp (or 120 watts) of 120 VAC power (or one-half amp or 120 watts of 240 VAC power), so deep cycle batteries or vehicle charging systems should be used to power inverters and NOT starting batteries. For example, if the voltage regulator is equipped with a sense wire, it can be connected to the output of the diode isolator or positive battery terminal or the internal voltage regulator can be replaced with an adjustable or a "smart" voltage regulator.
If good, then try it and monitor the SoC and electrolyte levels for the the first few months for proper charging. As car batteries age, they are also less capable of producing as much CCA as when they were new. To convert RC to AH (or AH to RC), check the battery manufacturer's capacity specifications. For a detailed explanation of the calculation, please see Steve Gibson's article, An in depth analysis of the math behind Peukert's Equation (Peukert's Law). Other voltage combinations are possible, but the battery type and amp hour capacity of each of the batteries in series should be the same because uneven discharging will cause charging problems.
If discharging the batteries unevenly or use of non-identical batteries has to occur, then use an isolated multi-bank charger, single bank charger with an external diode isolator (adjusted for the voltage loss), multiple chargers, or combiner to recharge the batteries all at the same time or recharge each battery separately. The letter is the month (A = Jan, B = Feb, C = March, etc.) and the number is the actual date.
The six digit date code could represent the month of the year (first two digits), day of the year (middle two digits), and the year (last two digits), or any other combination. A longer free replacement warranty period is generally better depending on the cost of the battery. For batteries with side terminals commonly found in General Motors vehicles, check the terminal bolt length and do not over-tighten because you might crack the battery case and cause a leak.
It is the rate of discharge so a fully charged battery is discharged over a 20 hour period. Battery dealers will often place their fresher batteries in the rear of the battery rack or in a storage room.
To prevent overcharging, charging of the battery should be stopped when reaching 13.8V for floated standby use, or 15V for cycle use. All VRLA batteries are sealed with a safety pressure relief valve or plug in case of excessive gas pressure build up due to overcharging or overheating. Replacing any other non-Gel Cell type of battery with Gel Cell battery could easily overcharge it. For example, if a diode isolator is used with a 40 amp "shore" power battery charger and a 100 amp alternator, then the diode rating should be at least 140 amps. Some multi-battery systems can get extremely complex with multiple charging sources or multiple isolated batteries. Individual battery or battery bank voltage regulators can be used downstream of the isolator. If the State-of-Charge is continuously low, the battery is being undercharged and sulfate will gradually build up, thus reducing the capacity of the battery and causing it to prematurely fail. According to BCI (Battery Council International), diesel engines require 220% to 300% more current than their gasoline counterparts and winter starting requires 140% to 170% more current than during summer.
When comparing amp hour capacities of deep cycle batteries, use the same discharge rating periods which can be obtained form the battery manufacturer. To better balance the voltage, please take special note of the connections from the POSITIVE (+) battery terminals to a single positive (+) distribution point and the connections from the NEGATIVE (-) battery terminals to a single NEGATIVE (-) distribution point. Batteries that will not produce at least 80% of their rated amp hour capacity are considered to be bad and should be replaced. If you buy a physically larger battery, be sure that the replacement battery will fit, the cables will connect to the correct terminals, cable terminal clamps or lugs will fit the terminal posts, and that the terminals will NOT touch metal surfaces such as the hood when it is closed. So "K26" means that the battery was ready for electrolyte filling and the first forming charge was on November 26th. If all of this power were consumed over six hour period, you would probably need to increase the daily usage by approximately 25%.
For more information on power inverters, please see Chad Whitney's very good Power Inverter Guide or Don Rows' Frequently Asked Questions about Power Inverters.
For OEM "start-stop" "enhanced flooded" or AGM batteries, replace with the same battery type because of their deeper cycling capabilities require for "start-stop" engines.
The chargers for stationary deep cycle batteries are different from car and motive deep cycle batteries and normally have three stages--bulk, float and equalize. This means if you are using an alternator sized at 25% (or less) of the capacity of a deep cycle battery bank, it is possible to overheat an air cooled alternator and burn it up during a long bulk charging phase.
If the voltages are not correct, then battery under or overcharging can occur and cause premature failures. These increased requirements are accounted for in the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) CCA performance recommendations.
In a hot climate, if your car has a 360 OEM cold cranking amps requirement, then a 400 CCA rated battery with 120 minutes of RC and more electrolyte for cooling and thicker plates would be more desirable than one with 600 CCA with 90 minutes of RC. For example due to the Peukert Effect, the same wet deep cycle battery with the amp hour capacity of 240 discharged over 20 hours could have a capacity of 176 amp hours when discharged over six hours or 115 amp hours when discharged in one hour.
All of the interconnecting leads between the battery terminals and distribution points need to be exactly the same wire size and length so the voltage will be the same. Historically once a battery will not produce 80% of its rated capacity, the failure rate goes up exponentially. There are adapters available that will allow you to connect cables with "GM" style side terminals to batteries with top post terminals or visa versa. Dealers will place their older batteries in storage racks so they will sell first and they do not have to maintain them.
Since the negative post shows A2 (January 2002), the manufacturing year was probably in 2001. The date code is usually stamped into battery or printed on a sticker attached to the battery. Non-use over a week or especially in the winter, short trips of less than a mile, will not keep the battery fully recharged. If possible, have a new battery tested to insure it meets or exceeds its advertised specifications, and recharged if necessary, before it leaves the store. Some other important considerations are wire sizing, fusing, transfer switching, frozen batteries and wet battery venting. In cycle service, the discharge capacity increases initially, to reache a maximum after about 50 cycles. For more information about the operation of sealed lead-acid batteries, please refer to DiaMec's excellent technical handbook. Consumer Reports conducts extensive car battery testing and can be a good source of information on brand selection and tips on battery types and sizing. The service life of a healthy wet low maintenance car battery generally will produce approximately 30,000 start cycles. For large capacity deep cycle battery banks, using a high output alternator, voltage regulator with an alternator temperature sensor or water cooled alternator is highly recommended. The wiring with fuses also should be rated to carry at least this much current with a 5% or less voltage drop at full current.
There is also a relationship between the weight of the battery and the amount of RC (or AH). Within a BCI Group Size, the battery with higher AH (or RC) will tend to be larger in physical size, have a longer service life and weigh more due to thicker plates and more lead than car batteries. The fresher batteries generally can be found in the rear of the battery rack or in a storage room. This could cause a gradual accumulation of lead sulfate which can prematurely reduce the performance and capacity or a frozen battery. Unless starting batteries are used in extremely cold climates, increased CCA is required to crank a sluggish engine and over come inefficiency of a cold battery.
Ventilation is required for all lead-acid batteries and good venting is mandatory for wet batteries to dissipate the explosive and toxic gasses produced during the absorption or equalization charge stages.
Solar or photo voltaic (PV) batteries are special purpose and are designed for solar applications.
A thermally protected alternator should not exceed 33% of the capacity of the battery bank being charged.
The heavier the battery and thicker plates, the more lead is has and potentially a longer service life.
For more information on connecting batteries in parallel, please see Chris Gibson's excellent article How to correctly interconnect multiple batteries to form one larger bank.
For a wet battery, the date of formation is often stamped on the case or printed on a sticker.
Chris' article goes into detail on why incorrectly connecting batteries in parallel will cause loss of capacity resulting in premature battery failures. This can save a lot of time and frustration if the new battery is discharged, sulfated or has a manufacturing defect.



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Comments Deep cycle lead acid battery discharge curve supercapacitor

  1. Karinoy_Bakinec
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  2. LEOPART
    More unusual vehicles have enough.
  3. Natcist
    Dead batteries positive terminal and the negative either on the money.
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    Storage mode.??This makes it easy: plug in the car service charge for a wide.