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A major reason for the rapid jump in EV sales is the rapid drop in the cost of their key component -– batteries. In a major 2013 analysis, “Global EV Outlook: Understanding the Electric Vehicle Landscape to 2020,” the International Energy Agency estimated that electric vehicles would achieve cost parity with internal combustion engine vehicles when battery costs hit $300 per kWh of storage capacity.
So the best manufacturers have already reached the battery price needed for cost parity with conventional cars. It may well be that $150 per kWh can be hit around 2020 without a major battery breakthrough but simply with continuing improvements in manufacturing, economies of scale, and general learning by industry. Since the 1960s, Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cad) batteries have been the most widely used battery chemistry for portable applications.
However, in the last 10 – 15 years Ni-Cads have become passe as environmental issues and more energy-dense chemistries like Lithium Ion have taken over.
25 Years of experience and ISO 9001 certification ensure that your battery packs are made right every time. Excell is committed to supporting and promoting responsible and ethical recycling of all products. Valentin Muenzel receives research funding from the Australian Research Council and IBM Research - Australia.
The cost of batteries is one of the major hurdles standing in the way of widespread use of electric cars and household solar batteries. But research published recently in Nature Climate Change Letters shows battery pack costs may in some cases be as low as US$300 per kilowatt-hour today, and could reach US$200 by 2020. Falling prices will pave the way for what could be a rapid transition to a cleaner energy system.
Last year, my colleagues and I analysed the cost-benefits of household battery storage alongside rooftop solar systems. Our analysis of ten studies published by research institutes and consultancies suggested a dramatic fall in battery cost over the next two decades, making solar power and electric vehicles more affordable.
The new research by two Swedish researchers published in Nature Climate Change Letters this month used a similar approach but found an even sharper plunge. Bjorn Nykvist and Mans Nilsson of the Stockholm Environment Institute analysed 85 sources of data including journal articles, consultancy reports, and statements by industry analysts and experts. The core conclusion of the new paper is that the cost of full automotive Lithium ion battery packs has already reduced to around US$410 per kWh industry-wide.
The analysis also estimated that the industry as a whole is currently seeing annual battery cost reductions of 14%, while for leading players with already lower costs this is closer to 8%.
Assuming continued electric vehicle sales growth, the authors suggest costs as low as US$200 per kWh are possible without further improvements in the cell chemistry. As battery costs decrease, technologies such as electric vehicles and household energy storage are likely to undergo a transition, from niche products in the hands of early adopters to standard acquisitions by pragmatic consumers.
Increased opportunities naturally attract commercial competition, which has the potential to further accelerate the technological improvements. The findings published this month suggest that the transition from niche to mainstream product may well occur far sooner than people believe. The Greens are the party of climate action - but do they embrace enough technologies to get there? Tesla Motors uses a total of 6,831 lithium-ion 18650 cells in the 53-kWh, 450-kg battery pack of its all-electric Roadster, along with sophisticated control circuitry to ensure safe operation. Power train electrification encompasses hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and pure electric vehicles (EVs). Consensus in the automotive industry is that lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are the most likely candidate for overcoming this challenge in the next decade (see Figure 1). Unlike the term nickel metal hydride, which specifies one particular battery chemistry, the term lithium-ion refers to a family of battery chemistries of which there are many varieties (see Figure 2). Each of these Li-ion battery chemistries has strengths and weaknesses with respect to the five categories of goals that must be met in order for large-scale commercialization of electric power trains to be successful: energy, power, lifetime, safety, and cost.
Given the variety of materials used and various sizes and formats of Li-ion battery cells, it is not straightforward to characterize Li-ion production with a single manufacturing process.
Li-ion cell production begins with the manufacture of the cathode and anode, with the process being very similar for each (see Lithium-Ion Battery Basics sidebar).
For the cathode, the active material is combined with a binder and other additives in a solvent to make a cathode paste which is then deposited onto the current collector, usually aluminum foil, in a coating process. For the anode, typically a graphite paste is made and deposited onto copper foil in an identical process. Individual cells are then packaged together into modules, which are further integrated with other systems into a complete battery pack (see Figure 5). Though the manufacturing process is virtually the same for Li-ion cells for the consumer electronics industry as it is for automotive applications, quality control typically is much higher in the automotive industry. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) has outlined goals in terms of dollars per kilowatt-hour that battery technology must reach to make various electrified vehicles commercially viable. Cost advantages arise due to the fact that Li-ion batteries scale more readily to high-volume production and can be made with a variety of materials, allowing for cost reductions through material substitution.
Ways by which battery costs may be reduced include the use of lower-cost materials, increased packaging efficiencies, process improvements, economies of scale, and increased manufacturing yields. Research results indicate that the primary cost drivers for Li-ion batteries are cell-level materials and manufacturing yields. Though most research is aimed at improving Li-ion battery technology at the cell level, it should be noted that, for automotive applications, individual cells typically are connected together in various configurations and packaged with associated control and safety circuitry to form a battery module. Multiple modules are then combined with additional control circuitry, a thermal management system, and power electronics to create the complete battery pack. Costs associated with each level of integration must be considered when doing cost modeling, because it is the cost of the complete battery pack that is relevant to the consumer. Materials dominate the costs for Li-ion batteries at the cell, module, and pack level, accounting for approximately 75 percent of pack-level costs.
Additionally, cell-level materials costs account for approximately 85 percent of the pack-level materials cost (see Figure 6).
Unfortunately, manufacturing yield is one of the parameters that is closely guarded by Li-ion battery manufacturers. At the pack level, nearly all of the per-energy cost of materials for a Li-ion battery is attributed to module (and cell) costs, with the remainder attributed to pack enclosure, connections, and the control system (see Figure 7). Similar to the materials breakdown, the dominant cell-level cost component for manufacturing is the yield adjustment. The cathode active material may be subject to both effects as well: Per-unit cost for cathode materials is highly sensitive to quantity purchased, and traditionally expensive cathode materials such as cobalt- and nickel-based oxides could be replaced with less expensive materials such as iron. In addition to the manufacturing yield and the cathode active material, other drivers of total battery cost are the lithium salt used in the electrolyte, cell-level R&D, warranty costs, and graphite for the anode.
Battery cost reductions may arise through two other mechanisms: economies of scale associated with increased production volume and technological breakthroughs. As automotive-scale Li-ion battery manufacturing ramps up, unit costs for batteries will likely decrease while manufacturing yields increase.
Optimistically, the cathode is assumed to have a 20 percent per year cost decrease, driven largely by breakthroughs in low-cost materials.
The automotive Li-ion battery industry is rapidly gaining momentum, with numerous companies entering the sector, each with its own notion of how to achieve cost reductions and cost competitiveness. Recently passed federal legislation (American Recovery and Reinvestment Act) allocated $2 billion for advanced battery manufacturing, while other provisions such as tax credits could accelerate market adoption of electrified vehicles. Both the cathode and the anode comprise intercalation compounds, which allow lithium ions to be inserted and removed during charge and discharge. The electrolyte is typically a lithium salt such as lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in an organic solvent, while the separator may be made of polyethylene or polypropylene. Cylindrical cells are constructed by spirally winding the cathode and anode, kept apart by the separator, into a cylindrical shape and housing the winding in a steel or aluminum can as shown in Figure 3.
At the Electric Drive Transportation Association Conference in December 2008, spokespersons for Electrovaya, A123 Systems, EnerDel, and Electro Energy all referred to development of automotive prismatic Li-ion cells. NCA has good energy and power density as well as adequate lifetime, but suffers from cost and safety concerns similar to traditional cobalt oxide. LFP appears to be a much more stable chemistry and has low cost due to its use of iron; however, it suffers from poor energy density, though this is mitigated to some degree by its ability to operate in a large state-of-charge window.
Still, all of these chemistries are currently being developed by leading battery manufacturers and may have applications in the electrified automobile industry.
Li-ion batteries are typically charged no greater than 80 to 90 percent of their maximum state-of-charge (SoC), and are not allowed to discharge below some minimum SoC, perhaps 30 percent, because operation at extremely high or low states of charge can dramatically reduce battery life. Li-ion batteries must be considered in the broader context of the problem that they are meant to solve: energy storage. Two leading technologies that could compete with Li-ion batteries are fuel cells and ultracapacitors. A fuel-cell vehicle (FCV) is an EV in which the energy storage is in the form of hydrogen (typically) rather than a battery.
Ultracapacitors are another energy storage mechanism that could be used in electrified vehicles. In a PHEV or EV, Li-ion batteries could be used for energy storage to provide adequate range, while ultracapacitors could be used to absorb energy from regenerative braking and provide power during acceleration. The mission of Sustainable Manufacturer Network is to be the principal resource for advancement of cost-effective environmentally and socially responsible manufacturing.
A big unknown when it comes to resale value of electric vehicles is battery degradation and the cost of replacing the battery pack. The crucial piece of information: any Nissan LEAF owner may now purchase a brand new 24-kWh battery pack for a suggested retail price of just $5,499 plus installation fees and tax. In addition the owner will be required to trade in the old battery, which Nissan is valuing at $1,000 but does not count toward the cost of the new battery. Owners of the 2011 and 2012 model year LEAF will also have to purchase a $225 kit that includes brackets and related hardware to install the new battery. Nissan also revised its heavily critiqued monthly payment plan for a new battery so that owners may finance the replacement for around $100 per month over five years if they so desire and would own the battery at the end of the finance terms.
Sign-up to our email newsletter for daily perspectives on car design, trends, events and news, not found elsewhere. Nissan really put their reputation at risk with the previous policy of renting you a substitute battery. We, twice a week, have to make a journey of 120 kilometers which is costing us a small fortune in petrol bills. The BMW i3 comes with a capacity loss warranty that goes to something like 8 years and 100,000 miles.

Disingenuous of that salesperson, but at my average economy I get ~110 miles per full charge. I have a 2011 leaf im lucky to get 40 miles round trip providing I don't use the ac and heater. Watch Formula One Champions Lewis Hamilton and Nico Rosberg design special Edition Mercedes-AMG SL 63 and having a blast with their cars. While Tesla is slowing lowering the price of their electric vehicles (EVs), Nissan has already dropped the sticker price of the Leaf by 18% for a new price of $28,000. But this leaves the lower end of the market wide-open for exploitation, and an EV price war of sorts has set in.
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The good thing about falling prices of electric batteries is that for the current Volt price $40,000 automakers could add more batteries to extend the range of the EV’s to 150 to 200 miles per charge. You’d think with all the energy efficiency along with the increases in battery technology battery life would have increased from 2 hours to 20 hours.
I don’t expect technology is doing anything for us with the lowering of prices on the low end EVs. If Tesla is forcing other car manufacturers to put more game in their game it’s a great thing. As for battery technology Tesla, Ford, GM, BMW and all the other car companies are not battery manufacturers.
Battery manufacturers and startups are charging very hard to bring better batteries to the market. Way late to the thread, but Damascus Steel was used in the best swords prior to the technique dieing out in the the 1700’s.
From the very first Model T’s, the efficiency of the internal combustion engine has improved a lot. Are those in-hub motors or are the motor mounted close to the wheel and connected with short axles? Is your iPhone 4 battery not lasting nearly as long as when it was new or is your phone becoming excessively hot? Our Do It Yourself kit includes a brand new iPhone battery, all required screwdrivers and tools, and it ships free. For the mail in option, we guarantee to replace your battery the day we receive it, and most times we ship it out that same day too. Go ahead and bring your iPhone 4 in any time between 11 and 7pm Monday to Friday or 12-5pm on Saturday and we'll replace the battery in less than an hour. The battery study from last month found that prices would need to drop under $250 per kWh for EVs to become competitive.
The study projects that costs will fall to some $230 per kilowatt hour in the 2017 to 2018 timeframe. Ni-Cads continue to be used in some applications where their ability to deliver high currents and survive overcharging makes them still viable.
We use a Creative Commons Attribution NoDerivatives licence, so you can republish our articles for free, online or in print. By storing surplus energy, batteries allow households to reduce power bought from the electricity grid. This cost development is notably cheaper and faster decreasing than I and many others expected. The analysis therefore suggests that the cost of electric car batteries may be as low as $7,500 today and reducing to $5,000 by 2020. Encountering difficulty in finding reliable sources of present and future lithium-ion battery costs, we published our own study on The Conversation. They report that since 2011 the number of electric vehicles worldwide has doubled each year.
Market-leading manufacturers such as Nissan and Tesla are already seeing prices around US$300 per kWh. It is therefore predicted that battery cost for all involved should converge to around US$230 per kWh in 2017-2018.
This explains why, for example, Tesla Motors is making a US$5 billion dollar bet in the shape of a massive battery factory. And given that the perceived unlikelihood of governmental clean technology commitments in Australia has apparently reached April-Fools'-joke-worthy levels, it seems about time. Lithium-ion battery technology is viewed as the most likely battery type to overcome this challenge. While this may not be considered cost-effective for the long term, the availability of the 18650 cells allowed Tesla to be the first to introduce a production all-electric car—which, by the way, goes from 0 to 60 in four seconds—without having to wait for further advancements in battery technology.
Such vehicles have received attention recently as a potential solution for reducing the carbon intensity of the transportation sector. However, because the cylindrical type currently is the most common, that is the process described here (see Figure 3)with differences for prismatic cell (see Figure 4) construction noted. The coated electrode foils are then dried, and the thickness of the deposited material on the foil is made uniform through a process called calendaring.
The wound electrodes and separator are inserted into the canister, electrolyte is added (called “wetting”), ancillary components such as vents and safety devices are attached, and the cell canister is closed by crimping or welding a cover to the container. Thus, additional process controls and the resulting lower yields contribute to the higher cost of automotive Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, this metric allows for the calculation of the total cost of a complete battery pack, because the energy required for various levels of power train electrification is reasonably well-known. The cost for NiMH batteries, on the other hand, is inherently tied to the relatively expensive commodity price of nickel. Improvements in these areas will be key drivers for reductions in overall battery costs, and may make electrified vehicles cost-competitive with conventional automobiles. The obvious result at the cell level is that the yield adjustment dominates all other contributors to cell-level materials cost. Conversations with individuals close to the industry suggest that yields may be less than 50 percent as of 2008, given the high quality constraints mandated by the automobile industry and the small scale of manufacturing for automotive-type Li-ion cells.
Its impact arises from the multiplicative effect that it has on other materials and manufacturing costs. The second-most significant cost component at the cell level is the cathode active material. Other manufacturing costs at the cell level are fairly well-distributed among each step of the cell production process. Electrolytes and anode materials could also experience cost reductions from both effects, though economies of scale will likely be the overriding factor for both. Research and development costs are currently high, and may remain so until the result of such R&D manifests itself in the production of batteries that are acceptable for automotive applications across the spectrum of goal categories.
Finally, warranty costs will decrease once the technology, both from a materials standpoint and manufacturing standpoint, becomes mature, driven primarily by increased production volume.
Manufacturing yields will likely improve through the learning-by-doing process associated with economies of scale, though technological breakthroughs in the manufacturing process may also play a role. The anode, electrolyte, and separator are each assumed to have a 10 percent per year cost decrease.
The primary focus of current development efforts by battery manufacturers and automakers is cost reduction. Various policy and market mechanisms can significantly impact the economic viability of electrified vehicles and influence the rate at which they are adopted. Anderson’s white paper, “An evaluation of current and future costs for lithium-ion batteries for use in electrified vehicle powertrains.”Anderson holds a master of environmental management degree from Duke University. The cathode in traditional Li-ion cells is a transition metal oxide such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2), while the anode is typically composed of carbon in the form of graphite. The electrolyte provides an ionically conductive path through which the lithium ions migrate during charge and discharge, while the separator prevents short-circuiting between the cathode and anode while allowing ions to pass. Li-ion battery cells come in a variety of forms, but the most common for automotive applications are cylindrical cells and prismatic cells. However, prismatic cells are typically more expensive to manufacture than their cylindrical counterparts.
The pouch cell is essentially a prismatic cell without a rigid case, but instead housed in a flexible pouch enclosure. The traditional active materials used in Li-ion batteries for the consumer electronics market are a cathode of LiCoO2 paired with a graphite anode; however, due to safety concerns, this chemistry is not considered suitable for automotive applications because of its unstable oxidation state, which can lead to violent thermal runaway events. Each of these materials improves on certain characteristics of traditional Li-ion batteries while compromising on others.
Although most effort applied to the problem of vehicle energy storage is currently targeted to Li-ion batteries, other technologies are under development, and breakthroughs in these technologies could have an impact on the success or failure of Li-ion batteries.
Unlike a Li-ion battery, an FCV uses up its hydrogen fuel as it produces electricity and must be refueled. Thus, FCVs often employ a smaller battery pack to recapture energy lost while braking and coasting to further improve FCV efficiency. Unlike fuel cells and Li-ion batteries, ultracapacitors store energy as electrons by accumulating them electrostatically. In this arrangement, the ultracapacitors would act as a buffer to the battery pack, isolating it from high-current events and increasing battery life. Nissan has addressed this concern with aggressive pricing of Nissan LEAF replacement batteries.Nissan has released encouraging news concerning replacement battery packs for the best-selling LEAF electric vehicle. Installation time is estimated to be three hours, although no projected installation cost was given.
With the rapidly falling value of a used LEAF the economics of spending say $6500 to replace a bad pack might not be as good an option as Leasing a new LEAF. We would love to get a late model Leaf but have serious doubts that such a trip would be at the outer limit if not over the per charge range. I took it to Nissan dealership and they wont replace the battery unit it charges to 8 bars only , it is currently charging to 10 bars so I believe that the latest firmware is giving a bogus charge indication. And without a doubt, that price slide is going to continue as the price of batteries comes down. The Tesla Roadster and Model S are the elite of the electric car world – and you pay for them with the Roadster fetching over $100 grand and the Model S sitting at about $62,500 grand after tax credits. Meanwhile General Motors has announced that the next generation Volts will be $7,000 to $10,000 cheaper.

Well, with technological advancement comes price reeducation, which we have been waiting years for. The consumer gets a playing field of the gas powered cars competing with the EVs and hybrids. Andrew earned a Bachelor’s Degree in Government and International Relations from Clark University and a Master’s Degree in Political Science from Northeastern University.
With a bit of overlap in coverage, we sometimes repost some of the great content published by our sister sites. So let say that the Nissan Leaf keep the price at $30,000 for the next five years, but at the same time double the range of the vehicle to 200 miles, more people will be interested in EV’s. I spent a few minutes googling for it and wasn’t really convinced I found the right reference. It was made from wootz steel from India, which plays a role in the Baroque Cycle by Stephenson. The Model T was reported to have a fuel economy of about 15 mpg, not far off today’s average SUV.
People apparently were content with 2 hours of battery life and chose to buy the biggest screen and baddest cpu.
However the SLS AMG electric does have 4 hub motors a 750hp total and goes around the Nurburgring under 8 min and is described by various car shows that were allowed a test drive to handle even better then the standard V8 in the front drive to the back variant.
When you get your kit, just come back to this page and follow the video below to replace your own iPhone battery.
By the end of 2014, more than 700,000 total plug-in vehicles had been sold worldwide (plug-in hybrids and pure battery electrics), up from about 400,000 at the end of 2013.
The more kWh stored, the further the car can go on one charge, so a key metric for battery economics is the cost per kWh. Tesla Motors and Panasonic have started building a massive $5 billion plant capable of producing half a million battery packs (plus extra batteries for stationary applications) a year.
In our previous work we estimated these levels to be reached only in 2018 and 2022, respectively. This seems to be the case in a recently filed lawsuit regarding rival battery chemistry patents involving BASF, Umicore, 3M, and Argonne National Labs.
By collaborating with customers, utilities can develop more intelligent and versatile grids. Issues with energy, power, durability, safety, and cost—the most critical—must be met for large-scale commercialization of EVs. The company is working on reducing the cost of electric vehicle technology, CEO Elon Musk says. The fundamental challenge to the commercial success of electrified vehicles is energy storage. The foils are trimmed and cut to the proper size and wound up with the separator material between them. It is generally believed that Li-ion batteries have significant potential to achieve such cost reductions—more so than NiMH batteries. This yield adjustment represents the extra cost from manufactured battery cells that do not meet the quality control requirements mandated by the automotive industry, and is essentially the result of dividing the other cell-level materials cost by the manufacturing yield. Thus, if any substantial cost reduction is to be achieved, it must be accomplished by an increase in manufacturing yields coupled with decreases in the costs of multiple components among the materials, processes, and other costs associated with Li-ion batteries. Other cell-level cost contributors include the lithium salt used in the electrolyte and graphite used for the anode.
Per-energy manufacturing costs at the module and pack level comprise assembly at each level of integration, though these costs are less significant than the costs attributed to the cell level. All manufacturing costs are assumed to be reduced by 10 percent per year, because of manufacturing economies of scale and better processes through learning-by-doing. Cuenca, Costs of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Vehicles, Center for Transportation Research, Energy Systems Div., Argonne National Laboratory, 2000.
Electricity is produced in the Li-ion battery via an electrochemical reaction that is enabled by the four major components of the battery cell: the positive electrode (the cathode), the negative electrode (the anode), the electrolyte, and the separator. Historically, the most ubiquitous cell type has been the 18650 cylindrical cell, slightly larger than the AA type battery with which most consumers are familiar. It has the advantage of higher packaging efficiencies and lighter packaging weight than standard prismatic cells, with the potential disadvantage of less structural integrity. Thus, numerous other active materials are being developed for Li-ion batteries, with most of the research focused on the cathode material.
LFP batteries have been shown to achieve cycle life characteristics similar to typical Li-ion batteries while operating at wide SoC windows. Therefore, infrastructure must be developed to generate hydrogen, transport it, and deliver it to consumers.
Li-ion batteries and fuel cells may therefore be considered complementary, rather than competing, technologies.
Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors are complementary technologies because of this synergistic relationship.
Brian Brockman, a senior manager of corporate communications at Nissan, posted in the MyNissanLeaf forum detailing the newly unveiled battery replacement program based on a year of customer feedback.
We are now also seriously concerned at the degradation speed of the battery pack which could necessitate complete battery replacement at about year 5 to 6.
As We live at the bottom of the world (New Zealand) I will try to contact Nissan NZ to see if they are prepared to comment. I am optimistic about battery technology improvement, but would not buy another LEAF without a more ironclad, long term battery capacity guarantee. There already is a class action law suit against Nissan regarding the batteries they put in the 2011 and 2012 Leafs. Laptops once cost as much as a compact car; now you can get one for a week’s worth of minimum wage work.
Now, visionary CEO Elon Musk is aiming to bring a new Tesla to the masses in three to five years priced near $35,000. Now that prices for EVs are coming down, and it looks like state and federal breaks are here to stay, at least for now, EVs could soon start selling in numbers that rival many gas-powered models. In other words they know Tesla will wipe them out if they don’t get it together in the next two years. First you can click the Buy Now above for the mail in option, where you mail in your iPhone and we fix it. As of 2015, dozens of models of electric cars and vans are available for purchase, mostly in Europe, the United States, Japan, and China. And jointly, the penetration of intermittent renewables in our electricity mix can be increased significantly.
The most dominant contributor to materials cost at the module level is the cost of the cells themselves, followed by the cost of the module enclosure and terminals. MacArthur, Advanced Batteries for Electric Vehicles: An Assessment of Performance, Cost, and Availability. This format typically is considered too small to be of practical use in automotive applications (see lead image). Hydrogen storage onboard the vehicle is another technical barrier that must be overcome to allow market success of FCVs. My only hope is that future batteries have compatibility with the new batteries in future year models. Although the sales people are well intentioned, they by nature of their job, spout regurgitated brochure material.
The half baked settlement was designed by Nissan to limit the number of packs Nissan has to pay for thus sticking us with the battery replacement bill. After 1 year we lost our first bar and filed a complaint with Nissan and the BBB and got nowhere with them. And do not forget the federal and state breaks which will knock that price down a little bit more.
If the chart above provided by Deutsche Bank proves true, battery prices could plummet in the next decade.
The EV and hybrid market has hit the mainstream, but consumers are wary of spending luxury-car-money on compact EVs. In his free time Andrew enjoys writing, exploring the great outdoors, a good film, and a creative cocktail.
Probably consumers were content with 15 mpg and chose to use that gain in efficiency to buy larger, more luxurious, safer, faster cars. Louis, Nashville, Memphis, Kansas City, Indianapolis, Peoria, Columbia, both Springfields, and most of Illinois and Missouri. It is apparent that increased manufacturing yield is a critical factor in reducing battery costs at the cell level. These characteristics make them well-suited for use in conjunction with high-energy Li-ion batteries.
We were also advised not to get the DCFC option because there were no fast charge stations here in Virginia and we were also told not to get the battery heater because it was only used to protect the battery from damage if the temperature dropped below -22F. My lease expires next year and would like to buy but seems like I should wait until the new battery details are released. The Tesla Model S and Chevy Volt are expecting significant price cuts in the near future, and cars like the Nissan Leaf and Smart ForTwo Electric Drive have already shaved thousands from their MSRP. This is why the Tesla Model S has done so well; sure, it costs a lot of money, but it is a genuine luxury car as well. That means that gas powered cars will have to step up their miles per gallon range (and they have) and maintain a reasonable price. Was pissed at the time but it looks like Nissan threw up a wall of lies, denial and lawyers because $200 Million was riding on it. Their short sightedness cost them me as a returning customer and believe me I do not hesitate to tell anybody about my experiences with the Leaf and Nissan. BTW our 2011 has no battery heater and we get 30 miles in winter if we keep the heat turned OFF.
I live in Virginia don't know where you live but if your are serious about suing Nissan for harassment contact the site moderator and have them contact me directly.

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Comments Cost of used battery prices

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    Blocked the exact same way the oxidized premium audio system.
  2. AnGeL_BoY
    Set, or relinquish the remaining battery that it is properly charged and not the vehicle ground (non-moving.
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    The batteries, so you don't which gives.