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24.12.2013
At Drive Electric we are committed to developing an efficient, two passenger, electric car.
Not only is this a top of the line, maintenance free battery that can be mounted anywhere, in any position; but we believe that this battery will provide the best overall performance. While many people credit Alessandro Volta with the creation of the modern battery; there is substantial evidence to suggest that batteries were actually created more than 2000 years ago! The term Deep Cycle has been overused by the battery industry, as well as EV enthusiasts, to imply a heavy duty product. True Deep Cycle batteries will perform well as cranking batteries; however, cranking batteries will not survive deep cycle use. Battery components All batteries used in modern automotive applications are of the lead-acid storage type.
Figure 12 Compound battery element or cell showing positive plates, negative plates, and separators.
Separators No positive plate may touch a negative plate, or all the plates in the cell will lose their stored energy. Battery rating system Under the battery rating system, there are two standards used to determine battery power. A battery is a device for storing chemical energy and converting that chemical energy into electricity. The electrons are generated by chemical reactions, and there are many different chemical reactions that are used in commercially available batteries. Automobile manufacturers have identified three types of rechargeable battery as suitable for electric car use. Lead-acid batteries were invented in 1859 and are the oldest form of rechargeable battery still in use. Lithium-ion batteries, which came into commercial use in the early 1990s, have a very high energy density and are less likely than most batteries to lose their charge when not being used -- a property called self discharge. Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. Lithium makes a good anode material because it is lightweight, capable of high voltage, contains high electrochemical equivalence, and is a good conductor.
There are several different categories of lithium batteries based on the type of electrolyte employed.
The advantages of lithium batteries include high voltage (up to 4 volts), high energy density, operation over a wide temperature range, good shelf life, and excellent power density.
For these reasons, lithium batteries remain the standard form of battery production for high performance primary and secondary batteries over the last ten years.
Essentially, a lead-acid storage battery is an electro-chemical device for storing energy in chemical form so that this energy can be released as electricity when connected to an outside circuit. Ordinarily, the electrolyte used in a fully charged battery contains about 25% sulfuric acid and 75% water. When purchasing a battery for a cold climate, Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) is the most important factor. A battery is made up of one or more electrochemical cells, each of which consists of two half-cells or electrodes. For example, the familiar alkaline batteries commonly used in flashlights and television remote controls generate electricity through a chemical reaction involving zinc and manganese oxide. Those types are lead-acid batteries, nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. They've been used in all types of cars -- including electric cars -- since the 19th century.


They have a high energy density -- that is, a great deal of energy can be packed into a relatively small battery -- and don't contain any toxic metals, so they're easy to recycle. Because of their light weight and low maintenance requirements, lithium-ion batteries are widely used in electronic devices such as laptop computers. Any lead-acid battery may be termed "deep cycle" as all batteries may be fully discharged and charged. With a battery pack composed of 20, six volt batteries; the weight would be over 1300 pounds. To prevent the plates from touching, thin sheets of non-conductive porous material called separators are used.
The strength or percentage of the sulfuric acid in the solution is measured by its specific gravity, that is, the density of the electrolyte versus the density of pure water. One half-cell, called the negative electrode, has an overabundance of the tiny, negatively charged subatomic particles called electrons. Lead-acid batteries are a kind of wet cell battery and usually contain a mild solution of sulfuric acid in an open container. Some experts believe that lithium-ion batteries are about as close as science has yet come to developing a perfect rechargeable battery, and this type of battery is the best candidate for powering the electric cars of the near future. However, a true Deep Cycle battery is capable of thousands of these hard cycles during its life without losing its capacity. Plate grids See Figure 12 The plate grids are the vital elements of the battery, for they support the active material, and although they are not an active part in the production of electricity, they must be a good conductor to support the flow of electricity. The CCA rating is used for measuring battery - starting performance, and provides an approximate relationship between battery size and engine size. The name comes from the combination of lead electrodes and acid used to generate electricity in these batteries. A variation on lithium-ion batteries, called lithium-ion polymer batteries, may also prove valuable to the future of EVs.
Also, objects with traces of precious metal electroplating have been discovered at different locations.
Many advertised deep cycle batteries composed of thin plates, excessively porous separators.
Battery elementsSee Figure 13, 14 and 15 An element is the desired number of positive and negative plates placed together with a separator between each plate.
The most important factor is sizing the battery's CCA rating to meet or exceed, depending on the climate, the vehicle's OEM cranking requirement.
When the two halves are connected by a wire or an electrical cable, electrons will flow from the negative electrode to the positive electrode. Automobile batteries, on the other hand, need to be rechargeable, so they don't require constant replacement. The major advantage of lead-acid batteries is that, after having been used for so many years, they are well understood and cheap to produce. These batteries may eventually cost less to build than lithium-ion batteries; however, at the present time, lithium-ion polymer batteries are prohibitively expensive. Low density plate oxides will suffer permanent capacity loss after a few dozen cycles and will shortly sulfate or shed plate material and fail. The simplest unit you could construct would be a single positive plate and a single negative plate, kept apart by a porous separator.
In a rechargeable battery, electrical energy is used to reverse the negative and positive halves of the electrochemical cells, restarting the electron flow. However, they do produce dangerous gases while being used and if the battery is overcharged there's a risk of explosion.


Batteries without substantial materials designed for true deep cycling will lose more than half of their capacity after only a few cycles.
This dark brown crystalline material has a high degree of porosity in order to allow the electrolyte to penetrate the plate freely.
Above or below that temperature, the reading must be corrected to allow for the temperature. When replacing a battery, you should always choose a battery with AT LEAST as high a CCA rating. The energy of these moving electrons can be harnessed to do work -- running a motor, for instance.
As the battery discharges, both plates build up PbSO4 (lead sulfate), and water builds up in the acid. Negative plates are grids pasted with a type of lead referred to as sponge lead, which is simply finely ground lead.
If this element is put in a solution of sulfuric acid and water (electrolyte), a simple two-volt cell is formed. It is usually a good idea to purchase a battery with a higher rating to assure proper vehicle starting. As electrons pass to the positive side, the flow gradually slows down and the voltage of the electricity produced by the battery drops. This allows you to use a hydrometer to measure the specific gravity of the battery to determine the battery's state of charge. Eventually, when there are as many electrons on the positive side as on the negative side, the battery is considered 'dead' and is no longer capable of producing an electric flow. There may be any number of plates used in a battery; it all depends on how much energy you want to store.
They are connected inside the battery to the positive plates (+ terminal) and the negative plates (- terminal). It shows how long (in minutes) the battery will operate the vehicle's electrical system in case of a charging system failure. The more plates (or the larger the plates), the more energy the battery can store and release. This battery of cells will produce six times as much electrical pressure as a simple two-volt cell, or 12 volts. For years, the terminals were located on the top of the battery, and in many cases, still are.
The negative plates will always outnumber the positive plates by one for reasons of improved performance. However, side terminal batteries have been developed to minimize or eliminate the problem of dirt, acid spray, or moisture corroding the terminals or cables.
For this reason, most of these batteries are sealed (meaning they do not have removable covers or vent caps). How the battery works See Figures 16, 17 and 18 Every storage battery used in an automobile has three essential functions: To provide current for the starter and ignition system when cranking.



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